This report was commissioned to gather comprehensive information on, and to provide systematic analysis of the latest available scientific research and the latest available scientific evidence on indirect land use change (ILUC) greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of biofuels and bioliquids.
The study concludes that ILUC factors identified in the literature vary significantly across biofuel pathways, studies, or even within studies. Studies that have investigated parametric uncertainty conclude that parametric uncertainty has a significant effect on the outcomes. As a consequence of all the uncertainties in the components of ILUC emissions, it is very difficult to narrow them down.
This study aims to measure the flexibility needs arising from a higher penetration of variable renewable electricity, and to identify and select options for increasing the flexibility of the electricity system. A first report by the Oeko-Institut presents a historical assessment of progress made in the integration of variable renewable electricity in Europe, and develops first-tier indicators for flexibility. A second report by Artelys proposes a methodology for designing and optimising flexibility portfolios at Member State-level, and presents the results of an optimisation based on Artelys' Crystal model. The study is the last task of a broader project ("Mainstreaming RES" (ENER/C1/2014-668) and is intended as an input in Member States' preparation of their National Energy and Climate Plans under the proposed Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union (COM(2016) 759 final).
This report covers work performed in the context of the Impact Assessment of the Market Design Initiative, consisting of two parts. The first part focuses on electricity market operation and evaluates a number of policy options. The second part examines the behaviour of investors and assesses the ability of markets to sustain adequate levels of investments in future years. The study used modelling techniques based on the PRIMES model and electricity markets sub-models developed for the scope of the impact assessment.
Following-up the IEA’s authoritative work ‘Capturing the multiple benefits of energy efficiency’, this study is a first attempt to apply this framework to make a comprehensive quantitative assessment of such multiple benefits and their trade-offs. It shows that enhanced energy efficiency in Europe beyond a 27% target for 2030 could led to substantial social, economic and environmental effects.
This study examines the impact of diverging transmission tariff structures in EU member States. It explores some of the key issues in relation to transmission tariffs and outlines potential policy options for the Commission to consider. It also provide a summary of congestion income spending in EU Member States in recent years.
The present report describes and evaluates scenarios fostering the full integration of the Baltic electricity system within the EU power and market framework. Towards this goal, the de-synchronisation of the Baltic electricity grids from the Russia/Belarus system crucially represents a key-necessary requirement.
The study analyses the initial results from Horizon 2020 projects in four areas: Energy Efficiency, Low Carbon Energy (grids and storage), Low Carbon Energy Renewable Energy System Market Uptake and Smart Cities and Communities.
It comes in support to the Interim Evaluation of H2020 and the midterm review of the Multiannual Financial Framework.
The report first identifies and assesses options for collecting or calculating preliminary data (or ‘early estimates’) on annual energy consumption for EU Member States and the EU as a whole for the year t-1 (i.e. currently 2015) within eight to nine months of the end of the year.
The second part of the report focuses on producing the early estimates for the year 2015 both for the EU as a whole and for each EU Member State on the basis of the methodologies developed. This involves the calculation of early estimates of energy balances, of the renewable energy share in gross final energy consumption and in gross electricity generation.