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PUSH & PULL – Parking management and incentives as successful and proven strategies for energy-efficient urban transport (PUSH & PULL)

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The project builds on a combination of rewards and disincentives to induce a change in mobility behavior, using parking space management in combination with mobility management measures. By introducing paid parking, increasing parking fees, reducing or restraining parking supply or implementing comparable measures, car drivers will be pushed to use more sustainable transport. At the same time, the income generated from parking space management can be used to promote alternatives, thus pulling or attracting users towards public transport, walking, cycling and other sustainable modes, thus generating a funding stream for mobility management measures. Pull & Push seeks to:
  • Save energy through a modal shift from car to other more sustainable modes
  • Help local economies by encouraging a more rational and managed approach to the provision of parking and helping cities to save money by avoiding the costs of construction of additional parking;
  • Build the capacity for followers who want to implement a similar system with the knowledge required to help to alleviate parking problems, and build political arguments to support them.
The project works with 8 cities to set up a funding mechanism that uses money gained from parking management to finance mobility management measures.


The following results are expected to be achieved in the course of the project:
  • Energy savings in the implementation cities by reducing car travel (modal shift from car to other more sustainable modes): Predicted energy saved (toe) during the project of between 28,115 and 68,916 (i.e. CO2 reduction of between 95,123 and 233,166 tonnes toe) and after the project to 2020 of between 93,356 and 228,892 toe (i.e. between 323,780 and 794,000 tonnes).
  • Identify new financing sources and raise additional money from parking for mobility management measures, and institutionalize this;
  • Create new green jobs, in average 3 per city, in parking and mobility management;
  • Increase spending in partner cities on mobility management, funded from parking management, by 20% or 20,000 Euros per year (whichever is the larger) and ensure that by the end of the project 7 partners have committed to long term funding of mobility management from parking management revenues.
  • Building capacity of project partners and followers to implement measures to manage parking and increase the political acceptability of parking management.

Lessons learned

  • The implementation of a funding mechanism that reserves a share of parking revenues to finance sustainable mobility measures is very complex and difficult due to very different legal planning and organisational conditions in different European countries. A one-fits-all procedure does not exist.
  • Parking management is a very current topic among European cities. However, there are difference in awareness and also in knowledge regarding parking management across Europe. In some cities parking management is is already well accepted, while in other parts the idea to pay for using a public space as parking area is unfamiliar. Similarly, the need to view enforcement as integrated part of parking management is not equally recognised. However, there is a high demand for information, know how transfer and capacity building.

Partners and coordinator

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Austrian Mobility Research / Forschungsgesellschaft Mobilitaet Gemeinnützige GmbH
Schönaugasse 8a
8010 Graz
Contact point: 
Robert Pressl
+43 316 81 04 51 13
Claus Koellinger
+43 316 810451-66
Jörg Kastelic
+43 316 810451-36


Key documents

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In brief

01/03/2014 to 28/02/2017
Contract number: 

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