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Programme of actions Factor 4 in existing social housing in Europe (FACTOR 4)

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This project aimed to produce a cost model for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from social housing by a factor of four by 2050. The projects draw inspiration from the sustainable development world strategy established in 2002. The focus was on managing social buildings and producing recommendations which target all actors. Renewable energy use was also incorporated into this long term vision.


  • a building typology in order to identify representative buildings
  • a building scale analysis with the Factor 4 model, a Life Cycle Energy Cost (LCEC) model which allows to optimise each building retrofitting programme as regarding together the 3 following optima: an environmental optimum (the reduction of energy consumption), an ecological optimum (the reduction of GEG emissions) and a socio-economic optimum both for the couple tenants-social owner (microeconomic optimum) and for society (macroeconomic optimum)
  • a building stock analysis with the LCEC model, at a territorial scale for local authorities or for a building stock for social owners
  • the sustainable energy retrofitting strategy

Lessons learned

  • LCEC and so the Factor 4 approach (and model) allows: to set up sustainable strategies both at territorial scales and for social owners building stocks (managing for example the energy price increase); to reduce energy precariousness, to improve the efficiency of investments as well as of public subsidies; to improve the know how of the building companies; and it should be used always at least with the EPBD, in urban/neighbourhood regeneration projects, in sustainable neighbourhood projects

Partners and coordinator

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Association européenne pour un développement urbain durable SUDEN
Contact point: 
Catherine Charlot-Valdieu
0033 4 93 40 29 30 and 0033 6 27 20 34


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In brief

01/01/2006 to 30/06/2008
Contract number: 

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