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Development and Energy in Africa (DEA)

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DEA is developing an Assessment Framework to identify and quantify the outcomes and impacts of energy projects in collaboration with centres in six Sub-Saharan Africa countries (Botswana, Ghana, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia). The Project is aimed at national energy- and development-policy makers, initially in the six participating African countries, but with a view to wider application in Sub-Saharan Africa. The DEA project is working closely with the International Monitoring and Evaluation for Energy and Development (M&EED) Group established by GVEP, EUEI, UNEP, DFID, GTZ,... The assessment framework employs a 4-level causal chain approach to structure the energy intervention in terms of inputs, outputs, outcomes and impacts. Indicators which are highly case specific are selected at each level and the assessment process identifies appropriate sources and methods to evaluate the indicators. Six case studies have been carried out in the participating countries, comprising: - rural electrification by grid connection (Botswana and Ghana) - rural electrification by solar ESCOs (Zambia) - solar water pumping and agriculture (Tanzania) - renewable energy for women (Mali)


  • A proven and demonstrated evaluation methodology with real case study examples
  • A catalogue of small and medium-sized energy interventions in the six countries; a survey of literature on impact assessment of energy projects
  • A participatory approach to identify outcome and impact indicators at the local level
  • Enhanced capacity in countries for assessing outcomes and impacts of energy projects; enhanced awareness among stakeholders of how energy access contributes to development

Lessons learned

  • Energy projects can have significant developmental impacts, but attribution is difficult because of other simultaneous factors.
  • Improved energy access is an essential input along with other infrastructure developments, such as water supply, roads, schools and health centres.
  • Awareness among stakeholders of the importance of energy access can be enhanced by working together across sectors to examine the outcomes and developmental impacts of energy projects. Last updated: 20.07.2010

Partners and coordinator

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Danmarks Tekniske Universitet / Technical University of Denmark
Contact point: 
Gordon Mackenzie
0045 4677 5171
Gordon Mackenzie
0045 4677 5171


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In brief

01/05/2005 to 31/10/2007
Contract number: 

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