Fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and coal are non-renewable resources that account for around three quarters of the energy consumption in the EU. They are used for the generation of electricity and heat, the powering of transport, and as materials in certain industrial processes. While fossil fuels are an important component in the European energy mix, the European Commission is committed to making the transition twoards a more sustainable and carbon-neutral economy.
The EU is the world's second largest producer of petroleum products. It has an oil refining capacity of 16% of the world total. To discuss regulatory proposals affecting oil refining, the European Commission organises the biannual EU Refining Forum.
Coal regions in transition
While the Commission is committed to a long-term vision of a climate neutral economy, coal and gas remain key components in the energy mix of several regions in the EU countries, and conventioanl thermal generation from fossil fuels such as coal and gas accounts for over half of the EU's electricity needs. To ensure that no region is left behind in the clean energy transition, the Commission has established the EU platform on coal regions in transition to advance the economic and technological transformation of coal mining regions.
Moreover, because a significant amount of power plants and industrial processes will continue to use fossil fuels in the medium term, this platform will also look at ways of improving air quality and reducing emissions. For example, the use of carbon capture and storage (CCS) can help in removing CO2 from the atmosphere by capturing it from emissions and storing it in suitable underground geological formations.
Shale gas and other unconventional hydrocarbons
Unconventional hydrocarbons such as shale gas could contribute to the EU's security of supply and competitiveness. However, there are public concerns over their extraction. The EU is working to ensure that the extraction of shale gas by hydraulic fracturing is done with proper environmental and climate safeguards.