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Copyright in these studies is held by the European Union. Persons wishing to use the contents of these studies (in whole or in part) for purposes other than their personal use are invited to submit a written request by electronic form.
The main goal of this report is to map and explain the sources of finance and corresponding clean energy investment opportunities that are interacting in the EU's clean energy finance landscape. Suggestions on how to usefully incorporate such findings in existing macro-economic models are then provided.
This case study examines the resilience of the EU economy to energy supply shocks and provides comparisons with six other global regions. Trends in the EU and other global regions are reviewed for key indicators that measure aspects of resilience to energy supply shocks. The case study then proceeds to present the results of new econometric analysis of the degree of substitutability between energy and other production factors across EU sectors.
The study analyses the planning, reporting and monitoring obligations in the EU energy acquis in order to contribute to the Commission's related Fitness Check. The study collects and analyses evidence, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on the existing obligations and their costs and benefits, and uses the five Better Regulation criteria of effectiveness, efficiency, relevance, coherence and EU added value to assess the obligations. Furthermore, the study assesses policy options for streamlining and integrating these planning, reporting and monitoring obligations into integrated national energy and climate plans, integrated progress reports and integrated monitoring, as envisaged in the Energy Union Strategy, in order to contribute to the Commission's related Impact Assessment.
The study analyses the developments of retail energy prices in the EU and the factors driving prices. It also looks at the impact of energy prices on the budgets of European households and how energy costs affect European industry and its competitiveness, particularly for energy intensive industries. The report also provides international comparisons of energy prices and costs. This study provided input to the report on the "Energy prices and costs in Europe" which is part of the Commission's "Clean Energy for All Europeans" package.
The aim of the study is to provide substantiated analysis as to whether the current regulatory framework in the EU gas sector is the most effective in order to maximise overall EU welfare or whether amendments may be necessary, and if so provide recommendations. Read the related discussion papers and the related stakeholder responses. These discussion papers will serve as input to the study and as basis for discussion.
Please note that comments received from stakeholders in conjunction with the discussion papers can and will not influence the ongoing selection process of the submitted consultant proposals which is the sole prerogative of DG Energy.
This report highlights the main historical trends in the EU’s energy demand and supply, setting them in the context of wider global trends, summarises views on the key drivers of those trends, and discusses the macroeconomic importance of energy.
Energy poverty is a raising policy issue across the EU. To understand the extent and depth of the problem of affordability of energy services better indicators are needed. The report recommends four key indicators to measure the number of households in energy poverty. These indicators are tested and computed for the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain and Italy using currently available data.