The studies are subject to a disclaimer and copyright. The studies have been carried out for the European Commission and express the opinions of the organisations having undertaken them. The views have not been adopted or in any way approved by the European Commission and should not be relied upon as a statement of the European Commission's views. The European Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the information given in the studies, nor does it accept responsibility for any use made thereof.

Copyright in these studies is held by the European Union. Persons wishing to use the contents of these studies (in whole or in part) for purposes other than their personal use are invited to submit a written request by electronic form.

Mapping and analyses of the current and future (2020 - 2030) heating/cooling fuel deployment (fossil/renewables)

Technology and innovation

These are the final results of a study of fuel consumption (WP1) and technologies (WP2) used in the heating/cooling sector in EU28+3 (Tender ENER/C2/2014-641). Analysis of scenarios up to 2020 and 2030 (WP3) and a related economic analysis (WP4) were also carried out together with the identification of obstacles, best practices and policy recommendations (WP5). The data set for WP1, WP2 and WP3 is also provided.

Summary | Report 1 | Report 2 | Report 3 & 4 | Report 5 | Data set


Analysing the potential for wide scale roll out of integrated Smart Cities and Communities solutions

Technology and innovation

This report outlines the results of the analysis performed on evidence from the cases of smart cities and solutions, assessing the main features impacting opportunities for rolling out integrated smart city solutions. It ultimately aims to use the analysis of SCC (Smart Cities and Communities) solutions to promote a better understanding of success factors for their deployment and roll-out.

Executive summary | Report

Policy-induced energy technological innovation and finance for low-carbon economic growth

Technology and innovation

This report provides a review and synthesis of current knowledge regarding policyinduced energy innovation and technological change and its likely implications for the macro-economy and future low-carbon societies in the European Union.


Energy solutions for smart cities and communities – the CONCERTO initiative

Technology and innovation