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This report sums up the work done in the scope of the Building Stock Observatory project from February 1, 2015 to June 31, 2016.
The Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) requires, subject to certain conditions, the introduction of individual metering and consumption based billing - also known as "sub-metering" - of heating, cooling and hot water in multi-apartment buildings with collective supply systems. Where meters or heat cost allocators are in place, there are different ways of using the measurements to allocate the costs to individual occupants. This report – prepared by the Commission's Joint Research Center for DG ENER- provides an overview of the existing thermal cost allocation rules in Member States, characterising them in terms of key features.
Following-up the IEA’s authoritative work ‘Capturing the multiple benefits of energy efficiency’, this study is a first attempt to apply this framework to make a comprehensive quantitative assessment of such multiple benefits and their trade-offs. It shows that enhanced energy efficiency in Europe beyond a 27% target for 2030 could led to substantial social, economic and environmental effects.
The study analyses the initial results from Horizon 2020 projects in four areas: Energy Efficiency, Low Carbon Energy (grids and storage), Low Carbon Energy Renewable Energy System Market Uptake and Smart Cities and Communities.
It comes in support to the Interim Evaluation of H2020 and the midterm review of the Multiannual Financial Framework.
The main goal of this report is to map and explain the sources of finance and corresponding clean energy investment opportunities that are interacting in the EU's clean energy finance landscape. Suggestions on how to usefully incorporate such findings in existing macro-economic models are then provided.
This case study examines the resilience of the EU economy to energy supply shocks and provides comparisons with six other global regions. Trends in the EU and other global regions are reviewed for key indicators that measure aspects of resilience to energy supply shocks. The case study then proceeds to present the results of new econometric analysis of the degree of substitutability between energy and other production factors across EU sectors.
This report sets out the impacts of improvements in energy efficiency in buildings that could come about through the revision of the Energy Performance Buildings Directive (EPBD). It covers potential costs as well as benefits but shows that, for the EU as a whole and for most of its Member States, the benefits largely outweigh the costs. These benefits cover all three of the economic, social and environmental spheres.
Following the first publication in June 2016, the detailed guidance on good practice in cost-effective cost allocation and billing of individual consumption of heating, cooling and domestic hot water in multi-apartment and multi-purpose buildings has been revised to take account of further stakeholder comments and suggestions received at a number of workshops held in the second half of 2016.
The study analyses the outputs, results and outcomes of Project Development Activities co-funded under the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme (IEE II) that aim to mobilise investments in sustainable energy at a local level. The analysis was performed via a deep data collection carried out in collaboration with the Managing Entities and 54 project beneficiaries across the EU.
This study identifies good practices in the delivery of low-cost energy efficiency measures, to low-income households in particular, and investigates how it may be possible to replicate them on a larger scale. In addition, the study considers the role that EU funds can have in financing schemes providing low-cost measures to low-income households and it provides some recommendations for the replication, design and delivery of such schemes.