The studies are subject to a disclaimer and copyright. The studies have been carried out for the European Commission and express the opinions of the organisations having undertaken them. The views have not been adopted or in any way approved by the European Commission and should not be relied upon as a statement of the European Commission's views. The European Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the information given in the studies, nor does it accept responsibility for any use made thereof.
Copyright in these studies is held by the European Union. Persons wishing to use the contents of these studies (in whole or in part) for purposes other than their personal use are invited to submit a written request by electronic form.
The study focuses on the electricity markets of Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, France and Italy and actions taken during the severe weather conditions of January 2017. The study seeks to show how the markets and countries most concerned responded to the tightening supply and demand balances in the electricity market. The study focuses mainly on measures that impacted cross-border electricity trading and day-ahead prices. The study also shows that decisions on export reductions or curtailments have implications on a regional scale. Well organised and dynamic cooperation among TSOs and authorities is therefore absolutely necessary. Lastly, the study highlights the necessity of identifying and correcting market distortive measures and implementing market measures in the context of changing temperatures and market conditions.
The follow up study to the EU's LNG and storage strategy carried out for the European Commission is focusing on the latest developments of the European and global gas markets and their impact on the projects and actions identified in the Strategy that was adopted in February 2016. A stakeholder workshop was held in September 2017 in order to present and discuss the outcome of the study. Presentations and stakeholder views form this workshop complement the report.
This report sums up the work done in the scope of the Building Stock Observatory project from February 1, 2015 to June 31, 2016.
The Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) requires, subject to certain conditions, the introduction of individual metering and consumption based billing - also known as "sub-metering" - of heating, cooling and hot water in multi-apartment buildings with collective supply systems. Where meters or heat cost allocators are in place, there are different ways of using the measurements to allocate the costs to individual occupants. This report – prepared by the Commission's Joint Research Center for DG ENER- provides an overview of the existing thermal cost allocation rules in Member States, characterising them in terms of key features.
This report was commissioned to gather comprehensive information on, and to provide systematic analysis of the latest available scientific research and the latest available scientific evidence on indirect land use change (ILUC) greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of biofuels and bioliquids.
The study concludes that ILUC factors identified in the literature vary significantly across biofuel pathways, studies, or even within studies. Studies that have investigated parametric uncertainty conclude that parametric uncertainty has a significant effect on the outcomes. As a consequence of all the uncertainties in the components of ILUC emissions, it is very difficult to narrow them down.
The overall objective of the study on ‘Building the investment community for innovative energy technology projects’ (Ref N°ENER/C2/2016-500) is to contribute to ‘increasing the volume of investment in innovative energy technologies and help achieving the EU's 2030 climate and energy targets’. This Task 1 report describes the current European investment community for clean energy innovation projects. It defines the investment community, identifies and analyses the main reasons for the lack of investment, and outlines best practices and potential complementary services to facilitate increased investments.
This study aims to measure the flexibility needs arising from a higher penetration of variable renewable electricity, and to identify and select options for increasing the flexibility of the electricity system. A first report by the Oeko-Institut presents a historical assessment of progress made in the integration of variable renewable electricity in Europe, and develops first-tier indicators for flexibility. A second report by Artelys proposes a methodology for designing and optimising flexibility portfolios at Member State-level, and presents the results of an optimisation based on Artelys' Crystal model. The study is the last task of a broader project ("Mainstreaming RES" (ENER/C1/2014-668) and is intended as an input in Member States' preparation of their National Energy and Climate Plans under the proposed Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union (COM(2016) 759 final).
This report covers work performed in the context of the Impact Assessment of the Market Design Initiative, consisting of two parts. The first part focuses on electricity market operation and evaluates a number of policy options. The second part examines the behaviour of investors and assesses the ability of markets to sustain adequate levels of investments in future years. The study used modelling techniques based on the PRIMES model and electricity markets sub-models developed for the scope of the impact assessment.
Following-up the IEA’s authoritative work ‘Capturing the multiple benefits of energy efficiency’, this study is a first attempt to apply this framework to make a comprehensive quantitative assessment of such multiple benefits and their trade-offs. It shows that enhanced energy efficiency in Europe beyond a 27% target for 2030 could led to substantial social, economic and environmental effects.