Energy

Studies

Studies

The studies are subject to a disclaimer and copyright. The studies have been carried out for the European Commission and express the opinions of the organisations having undertaken them. The views have not been adopted or in any way approved by the European Commission and should not be relied upon as a statement of the European Commission's views. The European Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the information given in the studies, nor does it accept responsibility for any use made thereof.

Copyright in these studies is held by the European Union. Persons wishing to use the contents of these studies (in whole or in part) for purposes other than their personal use are invited to submit a written request by electronic form.

Support for setting up an observatory of the building stock and related policies

Energy Efficiency
11/2017

This report sums up the work done in the scope of the Building Stock Observatory project from February 1, 2015 to June 31, 2016.

Report

Analysis of Member States' rules for allocating heating, cooling and hot water costs in multi-apartment/purpose buildings supplied from collective systems

Energy Efficiency
11/2017

The Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) requires, subject to certain conditions, the introduction of individual metering and consumption based billing - also known as "sub-metering" - of heating, cooling and hot water in multi-apartment buildings with collective supply systems. Where meters or heat cost allocators are in place, there are different ways of using the measurements to allocate the costs to individual occupants. This report – prepared by the Commission's Joint Research Center for DG ENER- provides an overview of the existing thermal cost allocation rules in Member States, characterising them in terms of key features.

Study

Analysis of the latest available scientific research and evidence on indirect land use change (ILUC) greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of biofuels and bioliquids

Renewable energy
10/2017

This report was commissioned to gather comprehensive information on, and to provide systematic analysis of the latest available scientific research and the latest available scientific evidence on indirect land use change (ILUC) greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of biofuels and bioliquids.

The study concludes that ILUC factors identified in the literature vary significantly across biofuel pathways, studies, or even within studies. Studies that have investigated parametric uncertainty conclude that parametric uncertainty has a significant effect on the outcomes. As a consequence of all the uncertainties in the components of ILUC emissions, it is very difficult to narrow them down.

Study | Report presentation

Environmental Baseline Study for the Development of Renewable Energy Sources, Energy storages and a Meshed Electricity Grid in the North and Irish Seas. WP3 Final Baseline Environmental report.

Renewable energy
08/2017
The development of an offshore renewable energy system in the Irish and North Seas represents a significant opportunity towards meeting the EU's energy, environmental, growth and employment objectives. The region has a vast renewable energy potential that could provide a significant share of Europe’s power supply by 2030 and beyond. Furthermore, such a regional energy system could also contribute to the further integration and flexibility of the electricity market in northwest Europe, which is an important step towards a single European electricity market and improved energy security within the EU. To ensure that environmental concerns and impacts are appropriately considered in the development of such an offshore energy system, the European Commission has appointed a multi-disciplinary team to prepare an environmental study.

Design of flexibility portfolios at Member State level to facilitate a cost-efficient integration of high shares of renewable electricity

Renewable energy
08/2017

This study aims to measure the flexibility needs arising from a higher penetration of variable renewable electricity, and to identify and select options for increasing the flexibility of the electricity system. A first report by the Oeko-Institut presents a historical assessment of progress made in the integration of variable renewable electricity in Europe, and develops first-tier indicators for flexibility. A second report by Artelys proposes a methodology for designing and optimising flexibility portfolios at Member State-level, and presents the results of an optimisation based on Artelys' Crystal model. The study is the last task of a broader project ("Mainstreaming RES" (ENER/C1/2014-668) and is intended as an input in Member States' preparation of their National Energy and Climate Plans under the proposed Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union (COM(2016) 759 final).

Oeko-Institut report | Artelys report | Mainstreaming RES – flexibility portfolios

Modelling study contributing to the Impact Assessment of the European Commission of the Electricity Market Design Initiative

Infrastructure
07/2017

This report covers work performed in the context of the Impact Assessment of the Market Design Initiative, consisting of two parts. The first part focuses on electricity market operation and evaluates a number of policy options. The second part examines the behaviour of investors and assesses the ability of markets to sustain adequate levels of investments in future years. The study used modelling techniques based on the PRIMES model and electricity markets sub-models developed for the scope of the impact assessment.

Report

The macro-level and sectoral impacts of energy efficiency policies

Energy Efficiency
07/2017

Following-up the IEA’s authoritative work ‘Capturing the multiple benefits of energy efficiency’, this study is a first attempt to apply this framework to make a comprehensive quantitative assessment of such multiple benefits and their trade-offs. It shows that enhanced energy efficiency in Europe beyond a 27% target for 2030 could led to substantial social, economic and environmental effects.

Study

Study supporting the impact assessment concerning transmission tariffs and congestion income policies

Imports and secure supplies
07/2017

This study examines the impact of diverging transmission tariff structures in EU member States. It explores some of the key issues in relation to transmission tariffs and outlines potential policy options for the Commission to consider. It also provide a summary of congestion income spending in EU Member States in recent years.

Study

Executive summary of the Final report "Integration of the Baltic States into the EU electricity system : technical and economic analysis

Infrastructure
06/2017

The present report describes and evaluates scenarios fostering the full integration of the Baltic electricity system within the EU power and market framework. Towards this goal, the de-synchronisation of the Baltic electricity grids from the Russia/Belarus system crucially represents a key-necessary requirement.

Study

Sustainable and optimal use of biomass for energy in the EU beyond 2020

Renewable energy
06/2017

This study provides an analysis of biomass supply potentials for energy use in the EU, projections of EU bioenergy demand post-2020, and an impact assessment of possible EU policy options for bioenergy sustainability post-2020, with a focus on biomass for heat and power.

Study | Annexes

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