Gas and electricity market reports
The European Commission publishes regular market analysis reports on European gas and electricity markets and energy prices and costs in Europe. The quarterly reports analyse the main factors behind price and volume evolutions on the market and they analyse gas and electricity market interactions between countries.
Gas market reports
Electricity market reports *
Gas market reports
Electricity market reports
The Commission also publishes a report on developments in energy prices over the last 12 months covering petroleum, crude oil, coal, carbon, electricity and gas. A separate report is available on the history of dated brent crude oil prices since 2007 .
Retail electricity and gas prices
The Commission also publishes average electricity and gas retail prices for both households and industry by EU country.
Energy prices and costs
In 2016 the European Commission published the second report on energy prices and costs in Europe. The report finds that wholesale energy prices and retail petroleum products prices have fallen in recent years although most retail electricity and gas prices have not dropped.
The fall in prices of internationally traded energy commodities (most notably crude oil, which fell by 60% since 2014) has reduced the EU’s energy import bill by 35% since 2013.
Wholesale gas prices have fallen by 50% since 2013 – driven by weaker global demand for energy, an increase in supply of US shale gas and better access to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in Europe, as well as lower oil-indexed gas prices. Wholesale electricity prices reached their lowest levels for 12 years in 2016. These falls were accompanied by an increasing convergence in prices across Europe, which shows that the EU’s internal energy market is working, although improvements can be made.
Electricity and gas retail prices have not fallen due to rises in network charges, taxes and levies needed to finance investments and policies for enabling the transition to a low carbon economy as well as to gather public revenues. Electricity retail prices have risen by about 3% per year since 2008 and gas prices by 2%.
This meant households expenditure on energy (excluding transport fuels) increased to 5.8% of total household expenditure, up from 5.3% in 2008. The poorer households were the most affected, their energy expenditure rose faster and reached 8.6% in 2014.
Energy costs for businesses constitute less than 2% of production costs on average although for energy intensive industries they can reach up to 40%. The energy costs can be even higher for specific industrial segments shaping their competitiveness. Between 2008 and 2014, energy cost shares decreased in most EU energy intensive industry sectors analysed and total energy costs decreased in all sectors.
Finally, energy taxes - in particular excise duties on petroleum products - continue to be an important and stable source of revenue for the EU countries (on average nearly 5% of their total tax revenue). In 2014 national governments collected €263 billion (1.88 % of EU GDP) through energy taxation.
- 2016 report – Energy prices and costs in Europe (COM (2016) 769 final)
- 2016 report – Full report: staff working document (SWD(2016) 420 final)
- 2014 report - Energy prices and costs in Europe (COM/2014/021 final)
- 2014 report - Full report: staff working document (SWD/2014/020 final)
- 2014 report - Questions and answers on the price report
- Prices and costs of EU energy – Ecofys BV study
- Prices and costs of EU energy – Ecofys BV study: Annex 1 | Annex 2 | Annex 3 | Annex 4 | Annex 5
- Composition and drivers of energy prices and costs – CEPS et al study
- Study on the quality of electricity market data of transmission system operators, electricity supply disruptions, and their impact on the European electricity markets | Annex 1 | Annex 2
Policy documents archive
- EU energy markets in 2014
- Energy markets in the European Union in 2011
- Europe's energy position 2010
- Europe's energy position 2009
Market Observatory for energy and EMOS
For data and analysis DG Energy relies on the Market Observatory for Energy which maintains and operates the Energy market observation system (EMOS).
- Energy Market Observation System (EMOS)
- Commission Staff Working Document on the implementation of the energy markets observation system (EMOS)