Turkey currently hosts the largest refugee population in the world with 4 million people. Some 3.7 million of them are Syrians who fled the ongoing conflict that has been ravaging their country for over 10 years. The vast majority of refugees in Turkey live outside camps, with growing but still limited access to basic services.
The EU, in close cooperation with the Turkish authorities, has been assisting the most vulnerable people based on their humanitarian needs. Since 2015, the EU has supported more than 80 humanitarian projects contracted with 22 partner organisations.
What are the needs?
According to the UN Refugee Agency, over 98% of refugees in Turkey live outside camps under challenging and often precarious circumstances.
Turkey is making commendable efforts to provide registered refugees with access to basic rights and services, including education and healthcare. However, after years of displacement, many refugee families have depleted their resources.
The cost of living and lack of access to a regular income make it difficult for vulnerable families to meet their basic needs. Some feel they have no choice but to resort to negative coping mechanisms such as child labour, street begging or early marriage. Many families reduce their food consumption or live in substandard housing.
How are we helping?
The EU funds humanitarian projects in Turkey to help vulnerable refugees and their host communities receive the support they need, in close coordination with the Turkish authorities.
Furthermore, the EU created the EU Facility for Refugees in Turkeyin 2016 to assist Turkey in its efforts to support refugees. Under the Facility, the EU has invested €2.4 billion in humanitarian assistance in Turkey.
The EU’s humanitarian flagship programme in Turkey is the Emergency Social Safety Net (ESSN). The ESSN is a social assistance scheme that helps the refugee population meet their daily needs through cash assistance. Since 2016, humanitarian organisations – in collaboration with the Turkish Red Crescent and Turkish government institutions – have been helping refugee families to buy what they need most, via EU-funded debit cards.
The ESSN is the single largest humanitarian programme in the history of the EU and currently assists more than 1.5 million people. Another 331,000 particularly vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the development part of the EU Facility for Refugees in Turkey. In addition, EU-funded partner organisations have distributed over 700,000 e-vouchers, food parcels or kits with other urgently needed items.
To help vulnerable refugees during the coronavirus pandemic, the EU has further adapted its humanitarian response to meet newly emerging needs. For example, the EU provided an additional one-off cash payment to help refugees with the devastating economic impacts of coronavirus.
Since 2017, the EU has also been supporting vulnerable refugee families whose children attend school regularly through bi-monthly cash transfers under the Conditional Cash Transfers for Education (CCTE). This is the EU's largest-ever humanitarian programme for education in emergencies. It currently assists over 695,000 children and it is expected to help more than 700,000 children to continue their education until early 2022.
Thanks to EU funding, around 20,000 Syrian refugee children and young people also enrolled in accelerated learning programmes to help them make up for lost years of schooling. They attend basic literacy, numeracy classes and Turkish language courses. The EU is also providing transport to over 1,000 children per month to facilitate their attendance in education activities.
These programmes are complemented by other humanitarian aid projects addressing protection issues, including legal counselling, psychosocial support, access to civil documentation, and specialised healthcare services. For example, EU funding has enabled partner organisations to provide over 1 million primary healthcare consultations to refugees in Turkey.
In addition to projects funded via the Facility, the EU allocated €32.5 million in humanitarian funding between 2012 and 2014 as well as €531.7 million in 2020. In December 2021, the EU announced an additional €325 million to ensure the continuation of the ESSN until early 2023.
Turkey has also been a participating state to the EU Civil Protection Mechanism since 2005. Established in 2001, the Mechanism aims to strengthen the cooperation between the EU Member States and 6 participating states on civil protection to improve prevention, preparedness, and response to disasters. Turkey last activated the Mechanism in August 2021, when unprecedented forest fires ravaged the country.
Last updated: 30/11/2021
Picture: © EU/Eren Aygün
Facts & figures
Close to 4 million refugees in Turkey (Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Interior)
EU humanitarian funding through the EU Facility for Refugees in Turkey:
€2.4 billion between 2016-2019
Total aid under the EU Facility for Refugees in Turkey:
€6 billion from 2016 to 2019
Additional humanitarian funding outside of the Facility:
€32.5 million for 2012-2014
€531.7 million in 2020
€325 million in 2022