Myanmar is the country with the highest risk of humanitarian crises in Southeast Asia and ranks 12th worldwide (InfoRM). More than 237 000 people currently live in camps for internally displaced people with limited access to basic services. Restricted humanitarian access to several areas hampers the ability of international aid organisations to provide crucial assistance to people in need. Recurrent natural hazards also increase the vulnerability of residents in disaster-prone areas.
The United Nations estimates that more than 860 000 people in the country are currently in need of humanitarian assistance, including those displaced in the conflict-torn states of Rakhine, Kachin and Shan. Violence in northern Rakhine, which started on 25 August 2017, has so far forced more than 700 000 people from the minority Rohingya Muslim community to flee across the border into Bangladesh. Between 200 000 and 240 000 stateless Rohingya are left in northern Rakhine. They remain deprived of basic rights, including freedom of movement.
Restricted access to large parts of the state, in particular the northern region, remains a significant challenge and has severely hampered the delivery of much-needed humanitarian aid in the area. The latest clashes come less than one year after an assault by insurgents on three border guard posts on 9 October 2016 sparked a series of violent incidents and military operations that saw more than 87 000 Rohingya fleeing to Bangladesh in search of refuge. According to the United Nations, close to 130 000 people remained displaced in central Rakhine as of December 2017.
In Kachin and Shan States, prolonged armed conflicts have also taken a heavy toll on the local population. To date, more than 106 000 people remain displaced following clashes between armed groups and security forces. Limited humanitarian access poses a serious challenge to humanitarian operations.
In 2018, the European Union has allocated €6 million in humanitarian aid to address the immediate needs of families affected by both natural disasters and conflict in Myanmar. In Rakhine State, the EU has worked with its humanitarian partners for many years to address the protection, food, nutrition and health needs of the most vulnerable people, particularly in the northern townships. Following the outbreaks of violence in June 2012 and October 2016, which resulted in large-scale displacement of populations, the EU extended its humanitarian aid to all displaced people in need. The EU remains committed to doing the same for the victims of the August 2017 violence, for which humanitarian access is urgently required. Assistance is provided in the form of shelter, food and non-food items, nutritional care, health care, water and sanitation, livelihoods support, coordination, education, and protection.
The EU also provides humanitarian aid to those affected or displaced by conflict in Kachin and northern Shan States. In addition to providing food, health and shelter support to populations living in IDP camps, the EU has also contributed to mine-awareness projects and to the rehabilitation needs of victims of anti-personnel mines, as well as supporting the Myanmar Indigenous Network for Education.
The EU has also responded to a number of natural disasters in Myanmar over the past two decades. In late May 2017, when cyclone Mora wreaked havoc across several areas along the country’s western coast, with Rakhine State being the hardest hit, the EU immediately allocated €500 000 to provide emergency relief assistance to the affected communities.
Another priority of EU humanitarian assistance in Myanmar is disaster risk reduction, which increases the resilience of the most vulnerable communities facing recurrent natural hazards. In line with the EU's international commitments, the European Commission humanitarian aid department ensures that all its relevant actions lead to the reduction of disaster risks and to the improvement of communities' resources for better preparedness to natural hazards. In this context, €11.65 million has been allocated since 2010 for coastal flood-prone areas and urban earthquake risks measures, particularly in the financial capital of Yangon.
The European Commission, through its European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations, has been operational in Myanmar since 1994. It has funded emergency relief programmes to assist victims of both conflict and natural disasters, with the total funding amount reaching nearly €236 million. Since 2013, a total of €2.65 million has also been provided for emergency education to conflict-affected children.