Digital Single Market
Digital Economy & Society

Poland

Article
Main image: 
Spider chart showing Poland's score in connectivity, human capital, digital public services, use of internet and integration of digital technology compared to the EU average score
Find here the most recent analysis and data by country. A selection of key documents and graphs are shown about topics such as broadband, internet activity and skills, egovernment, ICT in schools, research and innovation, as well as other main indicators.

Charts and indicators

Clicking the links below you can visualize various indicators for this country

performance charts | table of indicators  | indicators' evolution over time

Download

 Download the Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) country profile as a pdf (EN); summary pdf (PL)

Download country's main indicators as a power point presentation (EN)

 Download the European Digital Progress Report (EDPR*) country report as a pdf (EN) (PL)

 Download the EDPR telecom factsheets as a pdf (EN)

*The EDPR report combines the quantitative evidence from DESI (Digital Economy and Society Index) with country-specific policy insights, allowing us to keep track of the progress made in terms of digitalisation by each Member State and providing an important feedback loop for policy-making at EU level.

 

 

In DESI 2016, Poland has an overall score[1] of 0.43 and ranks 22nd out of the 28 EU Member States. Poland progressed moderately in four out of five DESI dimensions. Although many Poles opt for mobile broadband (94 out of 100) placing Poland on the 5th place in the EU, only 57% of households have fixed broadband internet connection (26th in the EU) and Poland ranks last in the fixed broadband coverage. Compared to other EU citizens Poles are hesitant in going online; with only 65% of regular internet users Poland ranks 24th in the EU. This might be caused by lack of digital skills. With only 40% of individuals having basic digital skills Poland ranks 24th in the EU. Active eGoverment use remains relatively low with only 22% of Internet users returning filled-in forms (21st in the EU).

In DESI 2016 Poland falls into the cluster of falling‑behind[2] as it shows slower pace of catching—up compared to its DESI performance between 2014 and 2015.

 

[1] DESI scores range from 0 to 1, the higher the score the better the country performance.

[2] In the DESI 2016, the falling-behind cluster of countries comprises Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Greece, France, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia.

 

DESI Poland Cluster EU
rank score score score
DESI 2016 22 0.43 0.44 0.52
DESI 2015 22 0.42 0.44 0.5

1. Connectivity

1 Connectivity Poland Cluster EU
rank score score score
DESI 2016 24 0.48 0.51 0.59
DESI 2015 24 0.44 0.5 0.57

 

In the area of Connectivity Poland's performance moderately improved compared to 2015. With its Connectivity Score of 0.48 Poland remains at 24th place in the EU.

 

  Poland EU
DESI 2016 DESI 2015 DESI 2016
value rank value rank value
1a1 Fixed BB Coverage
% households
86%
(June 2015)
  28 85%
(December 2014)
28 97%
(June 2015)
1a2 Fixed BB Take-up
% households
57%
(2015)
  26 60%
(2014)
23 72%
(2015)
1b1 Mobile BB Take-up
Subscribers per 100 people
94
(June 2015)
  5 87
(December 2014)
5 75
(June 2015)
1b2 Spectrum
% of the target for spectrum to be harmonised at EU level
82%
(December 2015)
  7 81%
(December 2014)
6 69%
(December 2015)
1c1 NGA Coverage
% households, out of all households
61%
(June 2015)
  24 53%
(December 2014)
24 71%
(June 2015)
1c2 Subscriptions to Fast BB
% of subscriptions >= 30Mbps, out of fixed BB subscriptions
30%
(June 2015)
  18 23%
(December 2014)
20 30%
(June 2015)
1d1 Fixed BB Price
% individual gross income spent for the cheapest standalone Fixed Broadband subscription (lower values are better)
1.1%
(Access cost: 2015; Income: 2014)
  9 1.1%
(Access cost: 2014; Income: 2014)
8 1.3%
(Access cost: 2015; Income: 2014)

 

While Poland performs poorly in the field of fixed broadband coverage and take-up, it ranks high among the EU countries in the use of mobile broadband. The discrepancy between both take-up indicators increased between 2015 and 2016. Although fixed broadband prices significantly declined between 2014 and 2015, Polish citizens demonstrate strong preference for mobile solutions.

Fixed broadband coverage is at a very low level. With 86% of households, compared to EU average of 97%, Poland remains in last place among the EU countries. The high level of take-up of mobile broadband shows that there is a demand for fast Internet and that the supply side has to be improved (4th generation (LTE) mobile networks were available to 76% of households in June 2015; which despite an increase, compared to last year, is still below the EU average). Better availability of broadband is likely to have a positive effect on the overall economy.

2. Human Capital

2 Human Capital Poland Cluster EU
rank score score score
DESI 2016 22 0.47 0.5 0.59
DESI 2015 20 0.46 0.48 0.58

 

With a Human Capital score of 0.47 Poland ranks 22nd among the EU countries.

 

  Poland EU
DESI 2016 DESI 2015 DESI 2016
value rank value rank value
2a1 Internet Users
% individuals (aged 16-74)
65%
(2015)
  24 63%
(2014)
23 76%
(2015)
2a2 Basic Digital Skills
% individuals (aged 16-74)
40%
(2015)
  26 n.a. - 55%
(2015)
2b1 ICT Specialists
% employed individuals
3.1%
(2014)
  19 3.1%
(2013)
18 3.7%
(2014)
2b2 STEM Graduates
Graduates in STEM per 1000 individuals (aged 20 to 29)
n.a.   - 18
(2012)
10 18
(2013)

 

The share of citizens using the Internet regularly increased since last year but, (with only 65% of internet users) Poland ranks 24th among the EU countries. This is probably due to low level of digital skills, as the percentage of individuals with at least basic digital skills (40%) remains way below the EU average of 55%.[1]

Also in the fields of ICT specialists’ education and employment there is still a room for improvement. Although Poland’s STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) graduates level is higher than the EU average, Poland with its only 3% share of ICT specialists (among employed individuals) ranks at the 19th place in the EU.

3. Use of Internet

3 Use of Internet Poland Cluster EU
rank score score score
DESI 2016 22 0.41 0.43 0.45
DESI 2015 23 0.4 0.42 0.43

 

With almost unchanged Use of Internet Score of 0.41 Poland ranks 22nd among the EU countries.

 

  Poland EU
DESI 2016 DESI 2015 DESI 2016
value rank value rank value
3a1 News
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
69%
(2015)
  20 71%
(2014)
18 68%
(2015)
3a2 Music, Videos and Games
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
41%
(2014)
  25 41%
(2014)
25 49%
(2014)
3a3 Video on Demand
% households that have a TV
44%
(2014)
  10 44%
(2014)
10 41%
(2014)
3b1 Video Calls
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
41%
(2015)
  17 41%
(2014)
15 37%
(2015)
3b2 Social Networks
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
61%
(2015)
  23 55%
(2014)
24 63%
(2015)
3c1 Banking
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
46%
(2015)
  22 49%
(2014)
19 57%
(2015)
3c2 Shopping
% individuals who used Internet in the last year (aged 16-74)
53%
(2015)
  17 49%
(2014)
17 65%
(2015)

 

Comparison of DESI 2015 and DESI 2016 readings shows very little change in number of individuals who were active online in Poland. While interaction with social networks (61% of internet users) and online shopping (53% of internet users) increased, online news consumption (69% of internet users) and banking (46% of internet users) decreased. Video calls level remained flat at 41% of internet users.

Consumption of audio-visual content using broadband connections (through video on demand – 44%) is above the EU average (rank 10). Poland performs poorly in music, videos and games consumption (rank 25) and in social networks usage (rank 23).

4. Integration of Digital Technology

4 Integration of Digital Technology Poland Cluster EU
rank score score score
DESI 2016 25 0.23 0.29 0.36
DESI 2015 26 0.21 0.31 0.33

 

In Integration of Digital Technology by businesses Poland scores 0.23 (up from 0.21 last year) and ranks 25th. Despite of small increase, Integration of Digital Technology remains the weakest DESI indicator for Poland.

 

  Poland EU
DESI 2016 DESI 2015 DESI 2016
value rank value rank value
4a1 Electronic Information Sharing
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
21%
(2015)
  25 22%
(2014)
23 36%
(2015)
4a2 RFID
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
2.8%
(2014)
  22 2.8%
(2014)
22 3.8%
(2014)
4a3 Social Media
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
8.4%
(2015)
  27 8.1%
(2014)
23 18%
(2015)
4a4 eInvoices
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
14%
(2015)
  10 n.a. - n.a.
4a5 Cloud
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
4.4%
(2015)
  27 3.5%
(2014)
27 n.a.
4b1 SMEs Selling Online
% SMEs (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
9.6%
(2015)
  22 9.3%
(2014)
22 16%
(2015)
4b2 eCommerce Turnover
% turnover of SMEs (no financial sector, 10-249 employees)
n.a.   - n.a. - 9.4%
(2015)
4b3 Selling Online Cross-border
% SMEs (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
3.8%
(2015)
  25 3.3%
(2013)
27 7.5%
(2015)

 

The digitalisation of Polish businesses is lagging behind. With the exception of the eInvoices indicator, for all the other Integration of Digital Technology indicators Poland score is below the EU average.

In cloud (4.4%) and in social media (8.4%) use by enterprises Poland was ranked as second to the last in the EU. Furthermore social media use and electronic information shearing contracted compared to last year. Polish businesses will have to catch up in the field of digital technology integration to be able to profit from its efficiency-enhancing potential.

5. Digital Public Services

5 Digital Public Services Poland Cluster EU
rank score score score
DESI 2016 15 0.56 0.45 0.55
DESI 2015 12 0.61 0.47 0.54

 

Although in Digital Public Services Poland’s EU rank remained higher than for other DESI dimensions, with a Digital Public Services score of 0.56 Poland slid down from 12th to 15th rank compared to last year.

 

  Poland EU
DESI 2016 DESI 2015 DESI 2016
value rank value rank value
5a1 eGovernment Users
% individuals returning filled forms, out of Internet users in the last year (aged 16-74)
22%
(2015)
  21 21%
(2014)
21 32%
(2015)
5a2 Pre-filled Forms
Score (0 to 100)
63
(2015)
  11 68
(2014)
9 49
(2015)
5a3 Online Service Completion
Score (0 to 100)
80
(2015)
  18 78
(2014)
15 81
(2015)
5a4 Open Data
Score (0 to 700)
370
(2015)
  15 490
(2014)
7 351
(2015)

 

Modern online public services may have a positive impact on reduction of public spending as well as on efficiency and transparency in an interaction between enterprises, individuals and public administration. Poland’s performance in Digital Public Services is lagging behind the EU average and worsened compared to last year. Unsettling is a decrease in Pre-filled Forms availability (from 68% in 2014 to 63% in 2015) as well as in the publication of the Open Data (from 490 in 2014 to 370 in 2015).

 

6. R&D

 Download information on R&D in the ICT sector and participation in Horizon 2020 (EN)


[1] DESI scores range from 0 to 1, the higher the score the better the country performance.

[2] In the DESI 2016, the falling-behind cluster of countries comprises Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Greece, France, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia.

[3] 27% of Polish citizens have never used the Internet

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