Digital Single Market
Digital Economy & Society

Hungary

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Find here the most recent analysis and data by country. A selection of key documents and graphs are shown about topics such as broadband, internet activity and skills, egovernment, ICT in schools, research and innovation, as well as other main indicators.

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Clicking the links below you can visualize various indicators for this country

performance charts | table of indicators  | indicators' evolution over time

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 Download the Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) country profile as a pdf (EN); summary pdf (HU)

Download country's main indicators as a power point presentation (EN)

 Download the European Digital Progress Report (EDPR*) country report as a pdf (EN) (HU)

 Download the EDPR telecom factsheets as a pdf (EN)

*The EDPR report combines the quantitative evidence from DESI (Digital Economy and Society Index) with country-specific policy insights, allowing us to keep track of the progress made in terms of digitalisation by each Member State and providing an important feedback loop for policy-making at EU level.

 

 

Hungary has an overall score[1] of 0.47 and ranks 20th out of the 28 EU Member States. Hungary scores above the EU average in the Use of Internet and is slightly below the average on Connectivity and Human Capital. The greatest challenges remain the Integration of Digital Technology by businesses and the area of Digital Public Services. Hungary exceeds the European average in the availability and take-up of fast broadband as well as in the use of social networks.

Hungary’s score was lower than the EU average and over the last year the score grew at a slower pace than the EU. As such, Hungary is part of the falling behind cluster of countries[2].

 

DESI Hungary Cluster EU
rank score score score
DESI 2016 20 0.47 0.44 0.52
DESI 2015 21 0.45 0.44 0.5

1. Connectivity

1 Connectivity Hungary Cluster EU
rank score score score
DESI 2016 17 0.57 0.51 0.59
DESI 2015 17 0.54 0.5 0.57

 

Regarding Connectivity, Hungary is just below the EU average. There was an improvement compared to last year, which is caused mainly by the progress in the take-up and coverage of fast broadband technologies.

 

  Hungary EU
DESI 2016 DESI 2015 DESI 2016
value rank value rank value
1a1 Fixed BB Coverage
% households
95%
(June 2015)
  21 94%
(December 2014)
23 97%
(June 2015)
1a2 Fixed BB Take-up
% households
69%
(2015)
  16 66%
(2014)
15 72%
(2015)
1b1 Mobile BB Take-up
Subscribers per 100 people
34
(June 2015)
  28 34
(December 2014)
28 75
(June 2015)
1b2 Spectrum
% of the target for spectrum to be harmonised at EU level
68%
(December 2015)
  16 71%
(December 2014)
16 69%
(December 2015)
1c1 NGA Coverage
% households, out of all households
78%
(June 2015)
  16 76%
(December 2014)
16 71%
(June 2015)
1c2 Subscriptions to Fast BB
% of subscriptions >= 30Mbps, out of fixed BB subscriptions
49%
(June 2015)
  11 40%
(December 2014)
11 30%
(June 2015)
1d1 Fixed BB Price
% individual gross income spent for the cheapest standalone Fixed Broadband subscription (lower values are better)
1.6%
(Access cost: 2015; Income: 2014)
  17 1.6%
(Access cost: 2014; Income: 2014)
19 1.3%
(Access cost: 2015; Income: 2014)

 

Fixed broadband services are available to 95% of homes in Hungary, which leaves a gap of 5% to universal coverage compared to only 3% in the EU. Nevertheless, fast broadband technologies are already widespread, covering 78% of homes as opposed to 71% in the EU.

In Hungary, there is strong platform competition between xDSL and cable broadband. It is the cable technology that is currently mainly responsible for the high availability of fast broadband, but VDSL coverage is also increasing.

Hungary is catching up regarding the take-up of fixed broadband access: in 2015, 69% of households had a fixed broadband subscription, still below the EU average of 72%. At the same time, Hungary has the lowest score in the EU in mobile broadband take-up. 4G coverage increased to 95% by June 2015, which may trigger growth in mobile broadband subscriptions in the coming years.

2. Human Capital

2 Human Capital Hungary Cluster EU
rank score score score
DESI 2016 17 0.57 0.5 0.59
DESI 2015 15 0.58 0.48 0.58

 

With a Human Capital score of 0.57, Hungary ranks 17th among EU countries, and above the average of its cluster countries.

 

  Hungary EU
DESI 2016 DESI 2015 DESI 2016
value rank value rank value
2a1 Internet Users
% individuals (aged 16-74)
72%
(2015)
  18 74%
(2014)
15 76%
(2015)
2a2 Basic Digital Skills
% individuals (aged 16-74)
50%
(2015)
  19 n.a. - 55%
(2015)
2b1 ICT Specialists
% employed individuals
4.9%
(2014)
  7 4.7%
(2013)
6 3.7%
(2014)
2b2 STEM Graduates
Graduates in STEM per 1000 individuals (aged 20 to 29)
10
(2013)
  25 9.5
(2012)
26 18
(2013)

 

72% of Hungarians use the internet, which is slightly below the EU average (76%).

Hungary shows a mixed picture in digital skills: only 50% individuals have at least basic digital skills (EU average 55%), while ICT specialists represent a relatively high share of the workforce (4.9% compared to 3.7% in the EU).

Hungary is lagging far behind on graduates holding a STEM (Science, Technology and Mathematics) degree. STEM graduates play an important role in exploiting the opportunities offered by digital technologies in businesses.

3. Use of Internet

3 Use of Internet Hungary Cluster EU
rank score score score
DESI 2016 12 0.5 0.43 0.45
DESI 2015 11 0.47 0.42 0.43

 

In general, Hungarian Internet users engage in a broad range of internet activities and outperform the EU average on the Use of the Internet.

 

  Hungary EU
DESI 2016 DESI 2015 DESI 2016
value rank value rank value
3a1 News
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
86%
(2015)
  7 86%
(2014)
6 68%
(2015)
3a2 Music, Videos and Games
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
47%
(2014)
  18 47%
(2014)
18 49%
(2014)
3a3 Video on Demand
% households that have a TV
23%
(2014)
  16 23%
(2014)
16 41%
(2014)
3b1 Video Calls
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
55%
(2015)
  5 53%
(2014)
6 37%
(2015)
3b2 Social Networks
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
83%
(2015)
  1 79%
(2014)
1 63%
(2015)
3c1 Banking
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
46%
(2015)
  20 40%
(2014)
22 57%
(2015)
3c2 Shopping
% individuals who used Internet in the last year (aged 16-74)
47%
(2015)
  20 42%
(2014)
20 65%
(2015)

 

As for the most popular activities on-line, 86% of Hungarian internet users read news, and 83% use social networks. The use of social networks is the highest in the EU.

47% of the internet users listen to music, watch films or play games online, and 55% make video calls.

Despite the progress last year, Hungary still falls well below the average on internet banking and online shopping. On eCommerce, this is also linked to the supply side, as the percentage of SMEs selling online is also below the average.

4. Integration of Digital Technology

4 Integration of Digital Technology Hungary Cluster EU
rank score score score
DESI 2016 26 0.23 0.29 0.36
DESI 2015 25 0.21 0.31 0.33

 

On the Integration of Digital Technology by businesses, Hungary's scores 0.23, its worst performance among the five DESI 2016 dimensions. Hungary’s businesses need to better exploit the possibilities offered by on-line commerce, social media and cloud-based applications.

 

  Hungary EU
DESI 2016 DESI 2015 DESI 2016
value rank value rank value
4a1 Electronic Information Sharing
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
16%
(2015)
  27 16%
(2014)
26 36%
(2015)
4a2 RFID
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
3.9%
(2014)
  16 3.9%
(2014)
16 3.8%
(2014)
4a3 Social Media
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
11%
(2015)
  22 8.9%
(2014)
21 18%
(2015)
4a4 eInvoices
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
6.1%
(2015)
  25 n.a. - n.a.
4a5 Cloud
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
6.1%
(2015)
  23 5%
(2014)
23 n.a.
4b1 SMEs Selling Online
% SMEs (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
10%
(2015)
  20 9.8%
(2014)
21 16%
(2015)
4b2 eCommerce Turnover
% turnover of SMEs (no financial sector, 10-249 employees)
7.2%
(2015)
  21 6.9%
(2014)
18 9.4%
(2015)
4b3 Selling Online Cross-border
% SMEs (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
4.5%
(2015)
  23 3.9%
(2013)
25 7.5%
(2015)

 

A true digital economy is one where businesses take full advantage of the possibilities and benefits offered by digital technologies, both to improve their efficiency and productivity, as well as to reach costumers and realise sales. To that end, Hungary has a long way to go.

The percentage of businesses using technologies such as electronic information sharing (ERP – 16%), cloud services (6%) or social media (11%) in Hungary is among the lowest in the EU. Without digitisation and the efficiency and productivity gains obtained thereof, Hungarian businesses will struggle to make it in the global digital economy.

Hungarian businesses need also to take advantage of the possibilities offered by on-line commerce. Very few SMEs in Hungary sell online (10%), even less sell online to other EU member states (4.5%), and those who do sell online make a very small share of their turnover from those sales (7.2%).

5. Digital Public Services

5 Digital Public Services Hungary Cluster EU
rank score score score
DESI 2016 25 0.4 0.45 0.55
DESI 2015 24 0.37 0.47 0.54

 

Digital Public Services is the dimension where Hungary performs fourth worst in the EU with a score also substantially lower than its cluster average.

 

  Hungary EU
DESI 2016 DESI 2015 DESI 2016
value rank value rank value
5a1 eGovernment Users
% individuals returning filled forms, out of Internet users in the last year (aged 16-74)
32%
(2015)
  17 31%
(2014)
16 32%
(2015)
5a2 Pre-filled Forms
Score (0 to 100)
19
(2015)
  25 19
(2014)
22 49
(2015)
5a3 Online Service Completion
Score (0 to 100)
55
(2015)
  26 45
(2014)
28 81
(2015)
5a4 Open Data
Score (0 to 700)
300
(2015)
  20 300
(2014)
19 351
(2015)

 

Modern public services offered online in an efficient vehicle for the reduction of public spending as well as efficiency gains for enterprises, citizens and the public administration. Hungary faces a key challenge in online public services. Its indicator scores place it among the last in the EU.

It is, however, remarkable that Hungary improved in online service completion measuring the extent to which the various steps in an interaction with the public administration can be performed completely online.

 

6. R&D

 Download information on R&D in the ICT sector and participation in Horizon 2020 (EN)

 

[1] DESI scores range from 0 to 1, the higher the score the better the country performance.

[2] In the DESI 2016, Hungary is part of the falling behind cluster of countries: countries who score below the EU average and whose score grew more slowly than that of the EU as a whole (in comparison to the DESI 2015). Other falling behind countries are Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Greece, France, Poland and Slovakia.

 

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