112 became the single European emergency number  in 1991.
The EU telecoms rules  brought general obligations on 112:
The Universal Service Directive  introduced the detailed requirements for Member States on 112:
The Roaming Regulation obliges roaming service providers to send an SMS to people travelling to another EU country with information about the European emergency number 112.
The European Commission is working together with national authorities to ensure the correct implementation of 112:
The European Commission ensures that European rules on 112 are correctly applied in the European Union and has launched 17 infringement proceedings against Member States that have not complied with the relevant requirements of EU law. All cases are now closed following corrective measures in the countries concerned. Problems included the lack of 112 availability, non-availability of caller location information and the degree of effectiveness for handling and answering 112 calls. The European Commission continues to monitor the correct implementation of the EU law on 112 and takes legal action if necessary.