The objective of the study on Cross-Border Interoperability of eSignatures (CROBIES) is to propose solutions to remove barriers to cross-border interoperability of qualified electronic signatures and advanced electronic signatures based on qualified certificates. The study kicked off in August 2008 and ended in June 2010. CROBIES is based on and takes into account the relevant provisions of Directive 1999/93/EC and their national implementations as well as the standardisation work based on the Directive. The Commission launched the CROBIES study (Cross-border interoperability of electronic signatures) in support of the Action Plan on e-signature and e-identification. The objective of the study was to analyse the requirements for e-signatures in terms of cross border use and to establish a general strategy for cross border interoperability of qualified electronic signatures and advanced electronic signature based on qualified certificates within the existing legal framework set by Directive 1999/93/EC. Nonetheless, CROBIES also suggested improvements at legal, technical and trust levels. CROBIES also focused on quick wins that could substantially improve the interoperability of electronic signatures (ex. the trusted list) and contributed to define the terms of mandate M460 issued by the European Commission to the European Standardisation Organisations electronic signatures.

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