The purpose of the study is to: a) develop an understanding of the ‘collective use of spectrum’ approach in terms of scope, usage conditions, sharing mechanisms, technical implications, possible variants and options, and analyse the present state of usage in Europe and in other regions of the world; b) perform a systematic analysis of the advantages and drawbacks of the various types and variants of the ‘collective use of spectrum’ approach in terms of spectrum efficiency, suitability, assess the associated costs and economic aspects, and ‘place’ the approach in the context of other spectrum distribution methods; c) assess what technological development will enable a wider use of shared spectrum and whether such wider use would lead to efficiency gains and lower access barriers to spectrum; d) recommend concrete measures to exploit the benefits of the ‘collective use’ approach, identifying which measures require action at Community level, assess the amount of spectrum to be made available for ‘collective use’ in the future, focusing on the most promising variants of the model, and anticipate the possible needs for specific research and development initiatives.