On 18th February 2011, the Commission launched a public consultation on electronic identification, authentication and signatures in the European digital single market. The consultation seeks feedback on citizens' and businesses' expectations of EU rules on electronic signatures, identification and authentication; the ICT sector's view on how eSignatures can be best tailored to face the forthcoming challenges triggered by technological progress. Interested parties are asked to express their views by 15 April 2011 on existing barriers, security requirements, potential grading of security levels, and expectations on standardisation; the common set of principles which should guide the mutual recognition of eIdentification and eAuthentication in Europe, as well as considerations for economies of scale by allowing national eID systems, benefiting users across EU borders, and cross-sector uses in the public and private sectors; the potential contribution of research and innovation to the development of new eIdentification and eSignatures authentication, such as alternatives to Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) currently in use for the easy management of electronic signatures, and eID-cards. The online questionnaire has been designed to be quick to complete, and it is not necessary to answer all questions.