The study should identify: which are the communities that develop application codes for supercomputers and grids; which are these codes, what are the machines they run on, who are their users, what are the results they produce and which of them could eventually scale up for exploiting the High Performance Computing and GRIDS infrastructures; what have been the funding mechanisms for such development up to now (national grants, international agreements, EU); and who actually owns the property rights for such codes, as well as the different code-licensing schemes and to identify what should be the governance model for such an infrastructure.