Radio spectrum is critical for any application that relies on wireless communication, from mobile telephony and broadcasting through guidance systems for planes, ships, and satellites to weather forecasting. This makes it a public resource – and an economic asset – that is in ever-increasing demand. However, radio spectrum usage is still tightly regulated in most EU Member States and confined to strictly-specified technologies and services. In addition, regulation often differs from one Member State to another. Spectrum management requires more efficiency to open up new pan-European opportunities to support developing European markets for innovative firms and deliver benefits to citizens EU-wide. The Review 2006 of the EU’s regulatory framework for electronic communications provides an opportunity to implement reform proposals agreed in 2005.