An adaptable skilled workforce, with access to training, career development, job mobility, flexible work organisation, and with a sense of job security is key to increasing productivity within Europe and encouraging job creation and higher employment rates. So says the Commission's report Employment in Europe 2003. Changes in the European labour market since the late 1990s rising female and youth participation, increasing education levels and greater range and use of flexible working methods have allowed it to be more resilient in the face of economic slowdown than in the last recession in the early 1990s. Active labour market policies, such an unemployment insurance systems and investment in human capital can help compensate for increasing employment instability and encourage further labour market flexibility