Digital Agenda for Europe
A Europe 2020 Initiative

Croatia

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Spider chart showing Croatia's perfomance in the DESI Index compared to the EU Average
Find here the most recent analysis and data by country. A selection of key documents and graphs are shown about topics such as broadband, internet activity and skills, egovernment, ICT in schools, research and innovation, as well as other main indicators.
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In DESI 2015, Croatia has an overall score[1] of 0.37 and ranks 24th out of the 28 EU Member States.. 25% of SMEs in Croatia sell online - well above the EU average of 15% - and 8.4% sell online across borders (against 6.5% at EU level). However, the country still lags behind on internet use (65% of Croats go online regularly, compared to an EU average of 75%). Despite the fact that fixed broadband is available to 97% of homes, only 61% of households subscribe to it. Although Croatia has a low level of development of online public services, 99% of all general practitioners use ePrescriptions  (3rd highest in the EU)

 

Croatia falls into the cluster of low‑performance[2] countries, where it performs slightly below average.

 

DESICroatiaClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015240.370.380.47
DESI 2014210.370.340.44

1. Connectivity

1 ConnectivityCroatiaClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015280.330.450.55
DESI 2014260.360.390.51

 

In terms of connectivity Croatia performs worse than the other EU countries, with an overall Connectivity score of 0.33. Despite the fact that fixed broadband is available to 97% of households, 39% of them do not yet subscribe to it. Moreover, Next Generation Access is available to only one third of homes, far below the EU average.

 

 CroatiaEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
1a1 Fixed BB Coverage
% households
97%
(2013)
 1697%
(2013)
1697%
(2013)
1a2 Fixed BB Take-up
% households
61%
(2014)
 2261%
(2013)
1870%
(2014)
1b1 Mobile BB Take-up
Subscribers per 100 people
68
(2014)
 1064
(2013)
1067
(2014)
1b2 Spectrum
% of the target for spectrum to be harmonised at EU level
38%
(2014)
 2738%
(2013)
2670%
(2014)
1c1 NGA Coverage
% households, out of all households
33%
(2013)
 2633%
(2013)
2662%
(2013)
1c2 Subscriptions to Fast BB
% of subscriptions >= 30Mbps, out of fixed BB subscriptions
0.58%
(2014)
 28n.a.-22%
(2014)
1d1 Fixed BB Price
% individual gross income spent for the cheapest standalone Fixed Broadband subscription (lower values are better)
3%
(2014)
 273%
(2013)
281.3%
(2014)

 

Croatia faces a number of challenges concerning Connectivity. Although fixed broadband is available to 97% of homes (in line with the EU), Next Generation Access capable of providing high speed internet (at least 30 Mbps) is available to only one third of homes (compared to 62% in the EU).

Only 61% of the households have a broadband subscription, lower than the EU average (70%), and only 0.58% of the fixed Internet subscriptions are to high-speed connections (22% in the EU), the lowest in Europe. One of the possible reasons for the low take-up (subscriptions) might be affordability, since the standalone fixed broadband subscription in Croatia costs as much as 3% of the average gross income, more than the overall EU average of 1.35%. Another reason for low fixed broadband take-up might be the users' preference for mobile solutions, where Croatia scores slightly above the European average and ranks 10th in Europe.

2. Human Capital

2 Human CapitalCroatiaClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015210.430.420.54
DESI 2014200.450.380.52

 

With a Human Capital score of 0.43, Croatia ranks 21st among EU countries. The country needs to improve its citizens’ digital skills and engage them to use the Internet in order to develop its digital economy.

 

 CroatiaEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
2a1 Internet Users
% individuals (aged 16-74)
65%
(2014)
 2163%
(2013)
2175%
(2014)
2a2 Basic Digital Skills
% individuals (aged 16-74)
39%
(2014)
 2645%
(2012)
2259%
(2014)
2b1 ICT Specialists
% employed individuals
n.a. -n.a.-2.8%
(2013)
2b2 STEM Graduates
Graduates in STEM per 1000 individuals (aged 20 to 29)
17
(2012)
 1217
(2012)
1217
(2012)

 

Croatia’s percentage of regular Internet users is 65% and, despite a slight increase from the previous year, the figure is still below the European average of 75%. Croatia is also far behind the EU average in digital skills, since only 39% of Croatians have basic digital skills. Together, these two figures show that Croatia needs to work on bringing its citizens up to speed in digital skills and use of the internet in order to fully take advantage of the digital economy.

With a rate of 17 per 1000 individuals (between 20 and 29 years old) with a STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) graduate degree, Croatia is in line with the EU average and ranks 12th among the EU Member States in terms of high-level training in these scientific disciplines.

3. Use of Internet

3 Use of InternetCroatiaClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015250.340.380.41
DESI 2014220.350.330.39

 

In terms of the propensity of individuals to use Internet services, Croatia scores 0.34 and ranks 25th among EU countries. Croatians appear to refrain most from using the Internet when they need to make transactions, as lower shares of Internet users engage in online banking and online shopping.

 

 CroatiaEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
3a1 News
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
79%
(2014)
 1184%
(2013)
867%
(2014)
3a2 Music, Videos and Games
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
34%
(2014)
 2857%
(2012)
749%
(2014)
3a3 Video on Demand
% households that have a TV
n.a. -n.a.-39%
(2013)
3a4 IPTV
% households that have a TV
24%
(2013)
 624%
(2013)
613%
(2013)
3b1 Video Calls
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
38%
(2014)
 1934%
(2013)
1937%
(2014)
3b2 Social Networks
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
59%
(2014)
 2157%
(2013)
2058%
(2014)
3c1 Banking
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
28%
(2014)
 2535%
(2013)
2557%
(2014)
3c2 Shopping
% individuals who used Internet in the last year (aged 16-74)
40%
(2014)
 2239%
(2013)
2063%
(2014)

 

Croatian Internet users engage in a broad range of online activities. They read news online (79%), use the Internet to communicate via voice or video calls (38%) or through social networks (59%). While for most of these activities engagement among Internet users in Croatia is in line and higher than overall in the EU, they appear less eager than in other countries to use Internet for transactions. The share of Croatian Internet users that use online banking (28%) is among the lowest in Europe (ranking 25th), whereas only 40% of Internet users shop online, against an EU average of 63%. This is the key challenge for Croatia in terms of Internet use by its citizens, because a digital economy is partly fuelled by its citizens’ consumption in the online channel.

4. Integration of Digital Technology

4 Integration of Digital TechnologyCroatiaClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015100.380.270.33
DESI 2014170.310.230.3

 

Integration of Digital Technology is the 2015 DESI dimension in which Croatia ranks the best. It scores 0.38 and ranks 10th among the EU countries. Croatian SMEs show a high propensity of doing business online, and the country ranks 3rd in this dimension.

 

 CroatiaEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
4a1 Electronic Information Sharing
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
18%
(2014)
 2428%
(2013)
1731%
(2014)
4a2 RFID
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
4.7%
(2014)
 112.5%
(2011)
83.8%
(2014)
4a3 Social Media
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
15%
(2014)
 1516%
(2013)
1314%
(2014)
4a4 eInvoices
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
10%
(2014)
 1512%
(2013)
1111%
(2014)
4a5 Cloud
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
16%
(2014)
 6n.a.-11%
(2014)
4b1 SMEs Selling Online
% SMEs (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
25%
(2014)
 3n.a.-15%
(2014)
4b2 eCommerce Turnover
% turnover of SMEs (no financial sector, 10-249 employees)
11%
(2014)
 88.3%
(2013)
108.8%
(2014)
4b3 Selling Online Cross-border
% SMEs (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
8.4%
(2013)
 118.4%
(2013)
116.5%
(2013)

 

The percentage of businesses using technologies such as electronic information sharing (ERP – 18%), cloud services (16%) and social media (15%) in Croatia is in line or higher than in the other European countries. The percentage of enterprises using eInvoices is slightly below the average in 2015, and flat since one year ago. 

Croatian businesses appear to be more eager to take advantage of the possibilities offered by on-line commerce. One fourth of SMEs in Croatia sell online - well above the EU average of 15% - and 8.4% sell online to other EU member states (against 6.5% at European level), making as much as 11% of their turnover from these sales.

5. Digital Public Services

5 Digital Public ServicesCroatiaClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015190.380.340.47
DESI 2014190.360.330.45

 

With a score of 0.38, Croatia ranks 19th among EU countries in the Digital Public Services dimension, keeping the same rank position as in the previous year. The use of eGovernment is however still low, partly due to the low level of development of online public services. It is notable the widespread use of ePrescription, used by almost all the General Practitioners.

 

 CroatiaEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
5a1 eGovernment Users
% individuals returning filled forms, out of Internet users in the last year (aged 16-74)
18%
(2014)
 2415%
(2013)
2533%
(2014)
5a2 Pre-filled Forms
Score (0 to 100)
2
(2014)
 283.8
(2013)
2845
(2014)
5a3 Online Service Completion
Score (0 to 100)
54
(2014)
 2453
(2013)
2475
(2014)
5a4 Open Data
Score (0 to 700)
230
(2014)
 27n.a.-380
(2014)
5b1 Medical Data Exchange
% General Practitioners
11%
(2013)
 2511%
(2013)
2536%
(2013)
5b2 ePrescription
% General Practitioners
99%
(2013)
 399%
(2013)
327%
(2013)

 

Modern public services offered online in an efficient manner are a vehicle for reducing public spending as well as for driving efficiency gains for enterprises, citizens, and the public administration. Croatia faces a key challenge in the provision of online public services. Its indicators scores place it among the last in the EU and show that the level of sophistication of its services needs to improve significantly. Provision of pre-filled forms[3] is the lowest in Europe, and Online Service Completion[4] well below the EU average; the same applies for Open Data. Better online public services will also likely improve Croatia’s percentage of eGovernment users: only 18% of Internet users (against 33% in the EU average) interact online and send filled-in forms to public authorities, this figure being among the lowest in Europe (Croatia ranks 24th).

In the area of eHealth Croatia presents a laudable performance in the use ePrescription, with 99% of its general practitioners transferring prescriptions to pharmacists electronically; the country ranks 3rd among EU countries in this sub-dimension. Croatia’s performance in eHealth can however be improved by encouraging a greater adoption of medical data exchange (only 11% of Croatian general practitioners exchange medical data electronically, versus 36% in the EU).

 

[1] DESI scores range from 0 to 1, the higher the score the better the country performance.

[2] In the DESI 2015, the low-performance cluster of countries comprises Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia.

[3] It measures the extent to which data that is already known to the public administration is pre-filled in the forms that are presented to the user.

[4]It measures the extent to which the various steps in an interaction with the public administration – life event – can be performed completely online.

 

Figures from 2013

 Download the country profile for 2013 as a pdf

  Download country information for 2013 as a power point presentation

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Last updated on 27/04/2015