Digital Agenda for Europe
A Europe 2020 Initiative

Romania

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Find here the most recent analysis and data by country. A selection of key documents and graphs are shown about topics such as broadband, internet activity and skills, egovernment, ICT in schools, research and innovation, as well as other main indicators.
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/digital-agenda/en/file/desi-2015-radial-ropng-0desi-2015-radial-ro.png

 

Romania has an overall score[1] of 0.32 and ranks 28th out of the 28 EU Member States. Relative to last year, Romania made some progressed as more people subscribe to fast broadband networks (60% of fixed subscriptions are to a fast connection today, in comparison to 55% in 2013 – Romania ranks 2nd in the EU). However, low levels of digital skills and trust seem to be holding back the development of its digital economy.

Romania falls into the cluster of low‑performance[2] countries, where it performs below average.

DESIRomaniaClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015280.320.390.48
DESI 2014280.290.330.45

1. Connectivity

1 ConnectivityRomaniaClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015230.470.480.56
DESI 2014200.460.390.51

 

Connectivity is the DESI 2015 dimension where Romania performs best. With an overall Connectivity score of 0.47, the country ranks 23rd among EU countries. However, 11% of Romanian households are still not covered by fixed broadband, and close to half of households do not subscribe to fixed broadband.

 

 RomaniaEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
1a1 Fixed BB Coverage
% households
89%
(2014)
 2590%
(2013)
2597%
(2014)
1a2 Fixed BB Take-up
% households
54%
(2014)
 2555%
(2013)
2470%
(2014)
1b1 Mobile BB Take-up
Subscribers per 100 people
54
(2014)
 2441
(2013)
2572
(2014)
1b2 Spectrum
% of the target for spectrum to be harmonised at EU level
69%
(2014)
 1869%
(2013)
1670%
(2014)
1c1 NGA Coverage
% households, out of all households
69%
(2014)
 2166%
(2013)
1968%
(2014)
1c2 Subscriptions to Fast BB
% of subscriptions >= 30Mbps, out of fixed BB subscriptions
60%
(2014)
 255%
(2013)
226%
(2014)
1d1 Fixed BB Price
% individual gross income spent for the cheapest standalone Fixed Broadband subscription (lower values are better)
3%
(2014)
 271.6%
(2013)
151.4%
(2014)

 

Romania has two main challenges in Connectivity. First, it needs to improve coverage of fixed broadband networks, which reaches only 89% of households, significantly below the EU average (97%). Second, it needs to increase the number of broadband subscribers: only 54% of households subscribe to fixed broadband and 54 subscribers per 100 people subscribe to mobile broadband, limiting Romania's ability to exploit the benefits of the digital economy.

One of the reasons for the low take-up of broadband in Romania might be the subscription price. An individual seeking to subscribe to a broadband connection[3] must spend on average 3% of her gross income, which is more than double the EU average of 1.4%.

The Connectivity silver lining in Romania’s case is high-speed Internet access, where it performs better than the EU at large. Networks capable of providing at least 30 Mbps (NGA) are available to more than two-thirds (69%) of Romanian households slightly more than the EU average (68%). In terms of take-up, 60% of fixed Internet subscriptions are to fast broadband (the 2nd best in the EU).

 Download the Report on the Implementation of the Telecommunications Regulatory Package (EN)

2. Human Capital

2 Human CapitalRomaniaClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015280.270.420.54
DESI 2014280.260.350.52

 

With a Human Capital score of 0.27 Romania ranks last among EU countries.

 

 RomaniaEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
2a1 Internet Users
% individuals (aged 16-74)
48%
(2014)
 2845%
(2013)
2875%
(2014)
2a2 Basic Digital Skills
% individuals (aged 16-74)
20%
(2014)
 2818%
(2012)
2859%
(2014)
2b1 ICT Specialists
% employed individuals
1.3%
(2012)
 281.3%
(2012)
282.8%
(2012)
2b2 STEM Graduates
Graduates in STEM per 1000 individuals (aged 20 to 29)
19
(2012)
 919
(2012)
917
(2012)

 

In order to fully develop its digital economy and society, Romania needs to develop the digital skills of its citizens. Romania has the lowest percentage of regular Internet users in the EU (48%), and still 39% of the Romanian population has never used the Internet (the EU average is 18%). This means that more than one-third of the population cannot partake on the possibilities offered by the Internet, nor can they contribute to the digital economy.

Romania needs to address its digital skills gap. Digital skills are nowadays needed in every corner of the workforce, and the fact that only 20% of Romanians possess basic levels of digital skills can be an important barrier to the country’s economic development. Romania also has the lowest share of ICT specialists[4] in the workforce of all EU countries (1.3%).

The only indicator where Romania performs better than the EU average is in STEM graduates, with 1.9% of Romanians aged 20-29 years old holding a STEM (Science, technology and mathematics) degree. While positive, this is not enough to compensate for Romania’s digital skills deficit.

3. Use of Internet

 

3 Use of InternetRomaniaClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015280.310.40.43
DESI 2014280.240.340.41

 

In terms of the propensity of individuals to use Internet services, Romania scores 0.31 (up from 0.24 last year) and ranks 28th among EU countries. Romanians appear to refrain most from using the Internet when they need to make transactions, as Romania lags behind both in online banking and online shopping.

 

 RomaniaEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
3a1 News
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
70%
(2014)
 1958%
(2013)
2267%
(2014)
3a2 Music, Videos and Games
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
46%
(2014)
 2248%
(2012)
1949%
(2014)
3a3 Video on Demand
% households that have a TV
36%
(2014)
 1131%
(2013)
1241%
(2014)
3b1 Video Calls
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
42%
(2014)
 1220%
(2013)
2837%
(2014)
3b2 Social Networks
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
67%
(2014)
 1067%
(2013)
858%
(2014)
3c1 Banking
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
7.7%
(2014)
 288.6%
(2013)
2757%
(2014)
3c2 Shopping
% individuals who used Internet in the last year (aged 16-74)
17%
(2014)
 2815%
(2013)
2863%
(2014)

 

Romanian Internet users engage in a broad range of online activities. They read news online (70%), listen to music, watch films and play games online (46%), use the Internet to communicate via voice or video calls (46%) or through social networks (67%), and obtain video content using their broadband connections (mostly though Video on Demand – 36%). For most of these activities, engagement among Romanians is higher than overall in the EU.

While Romanians are keen to engage in the above Internet activities, they are very reluctant to engage in any type of online transaction. The shares of Romanian Internet users that use online banking (7.7%) or shop online (17%) are the lowest of all EU countries. This is the key challenge for Romania in terms of Internet use by its citizens, because a digital economy is partly fuelled by its citizens’ consumption in the online channel.

4. Integration of Digital Technology

4 Integration of Digital TechnologyRomaniaClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015270.190.270.33
DESI 2014280.170.240.3

 

In Integration of Digital Technology by businesses, Romania scores 0.19, its lowest score among the five DESI 2015 dimensions. Romania’s businesses need to better exploit the possibilities offered by on-line commerce, social media and cloud-based applications.

 

 RomaniaEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
4a1 Electronic Information Sharing
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
21%
(2014)
 2315%
(2013)
2531%
(2014)
4a2 RFID
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
4%
(2014)
 140.54%
(2011)
273.8%
(2014)
4a3 Social Media
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
5.9%
(2014)
 285.6%
(2013)
2814%
(2014)
4a4 eInvoices
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
7.2%
(2014)
 217.9%
(2013)
2111%
(2014)
4a5 Cloud
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
2.8%
(2014)
 28n.a.-11%
(2014)
4b1 SMEs Selling Online
% SMEs (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
7.3%
(2014)
 249%
(2013)
2215%
(2014)
4b2 eCommerce Turnover
% turnover of SMEs (no financial sector, 10-249 employees)
4.3%
(2014)
 253.8%
(2013)
278.8%
(2014)
4b3 Selling Online Cross-border
% SMEs (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
3.4%
(2013)
 263.4%
(2013)
266.5%
(2013)

 

A true digital economy is one where businesses take full advantage of the possibilities and benefits offered by digital technologies, both to improve their efficiency and productivity, as well as to reach costumers and realise sales. To that end, Romania has a long way to go.

The adoption of digital technologies is an important driver of labour productivity growth and needs to be strengthened. The percentage of businesses using technologies such as electronic information sharing (ERP – 21%), eInvoices (7.2%), Cloud services (2.8%) or social media (5.9%) in Romania is among the lowest in the EU. Without digitisation and the efficiency and productivity gains obtained thereof, Romanian businesses will struggle to make it in the global digital economy.

Romanian businesses need also to take advantage of the possibilities offered by on-line commerce. Very few SMEs in Romania sell online (7.3%), even less sell online to other EU member states (3.4%), and those who do sell online make a very small share of their turnover from those sales (4.3%). Without the exploitation of on-line commerce Romanian businesses will have difficulties compete in the global digital economy.

5. Digital Public Services

5 Digital Public ServicesRomaniaClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015240.310.340.47
DESI 2014250.270.330.45

 

For Digital Public Services Romania scores 0.31 and ranks 24th among EU countries. This represents an improvement from the previous year. However, use of eGovernment is still the lowest in the EU, partly due to the low level of development of online public services.

 

 RomaniaEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
5a1 eGovernment Users
% individuals returning filled forms, out of Internet users in the last year (aged 16-74)
5.8%
(2014)
 283.4%
(2013)
2833%
(2014)
5a2 Pre-filled Forms
Score (0 to 100)
6.6
(2014)
 278.2
(2013)
2645
(2014)
5a3 Online Service Completion
Score (0 to 100)
51
(2014)
 2549
(2013)
2575
(2014)
5a4 Open Data
Score (0 to 700)
270
(2014)
 21n.a.-378
(2014)
5b1 Medical Data Exchange
% General Practitioners
16%
(2013)
 2016%
(2013)
2036%
(2013)
5b2 ePrescription
% General Practitioners
60%
(2013)
 760%
(2013)
727%
(2013)

 

Modern public services offered online in an efficient manner are a vehicle for reduction of public administration expenditure as well as for efficiency gains for both enterprises and citizens. Romania's offer for online public services is among the least sophisticated. Its indicator scores[5] place it among the last in the EU and show that the level of sophistication of its services needs to improve. Better online public services will also likely improve Romania’s percentage of eGovernment users (5.8% of Internet users, the lowest in the EU).

The efficiency and degree of service offered by health systems can be greatly improved through digitisation. Romania’s performance in eHealth can be improved, namely by encouraging a greater adoption of medical data exchange (only 16% of Romanian general practitioners exchange medical data electronically, versus 36% in the EU). Romania presents a laudable performance, however, in ePrescription, where the fact that 60% of its general practitioners transfer prescriptions to pharmacists electronically makes it rank 7th among EU countries.

 

 Download the eGovernment benchmark factsheet (EN)

6. R&D

 Download information on R&D in the ICT sector and participation in Horizon 2020 (EN)


[1] DESI scores range from 0 to 1, the higher the score the better the country performance.

[2] In the DESI 2015, the low-performance cluster of countries comprises Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia.

[3] Calculations performed taking into account the price of the least expensive standalone (Internet only) fixed broadband connection offering speeds between 12 Mbps and 30 Mbps.

[4] Broad definition taken from JRC (IPTS) "The evolution of EU ICT employment 2000-2012" Technical report (forthcoming): ISCO codes 25 and 35, plus ICT graduates in certain adjacent ISCO codes.

[5] 6.6/100 in the Pre-filled Forms indicator (measuring the extent to which data that is already known to the public administration is pre-filled in the forms that are presented to the user), and of 51/100 in the Online Service Completion indicator (measuring the extent to which the various steps in an interaction with the public administration – life event – can be performed completely online).

 

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Last updated on 18/06/2015