Digital Agenda for Europe
A Europe 2020 Initiative

Poland

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Spider chart showing Poland's score in connectivity, human capital, digital public services, use of internet and integration of digital technology compared to the EU average score
Find here the most recent analysis and data by country. A selection of key documents and graphs are shown about topics such as broadband, internet activity and skills, egovernment, ICT in schools, research and innovation, as well as other main indicators.
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/digital-agenda/en/file/desi-2015-radial-plpng-2desi-2015-radial-pl.png

 

In DESI 2015, Poland has an overall score[1] of 0.39 and ranks 23rd out of the 28 EU Member States. Poland has improved its overall performance, across the main DESI dimensions and performed better in the majority of individual indicators. 86 out of 100 people opt for mobile broadband (6th in the EU). Fixed broadband availability is low (28th in EU) and only 60% of homes subscribe to a fixed internet connection (23rd in the EU). More Poles are going online (63%), and more people have basic digital skills (46%) but still below the EU average. Poland performed best in Digital Public services. However, active eGovernment use remains relatively low with 21% of Internet users returning filled in forms to the public administration (21st in the EU). Poland ranks 7th in making open datasets available.

Still, Poland falls into the cluster of low‑performance[2] countries, where it performs at the average level.

DESIPolandClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015230.390.390.48
DESI 2014240.360.330.45

1. Connectivity

1 ConnectivityPolandClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015240.450.480.56
DESI 2014230.410.390.51

 

In terms of Connectivity Poland's performance has improved compared to the previous year. With an overall Connectivity score of 0.45, the country ranks now 24st among EU countries.

 

 PolandEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
1a1 Fixed BB Coverage
% households
85%
(2014)
 2888%
(2013)
2697%
(2014)
1a2 Fixed BB Take-up
% households
60%
(2014)
 2361%
(2013)
1970%
(2014)
1b1 Mobile BB Take-up
Subscribers per 100 people
86
(2014)
 679
(2013)
672
(2014)
1b2 Spectrum
% of the target for spectrum to be harmonised at EU level
81%
(2014)
 680%
(2013)
670%
(2014)
1c1 NGA Coverage
% households, out of all households
53%
(2014)
 2552%
(2013)
2468%
(2014)
1c2 Subscriptions to Fast BB
% of subscriptions >= 30Mbps, out of fixed BB subscriptions
28%
(2014)
 1620%
(2013)
1726%
(2014)
1d1 Fixed BB Price
% individual gross income spent for the cheapest standalone Fixed Broadband subscription (lower values are better)
1.1%
(2014)
 72.1%
(2013)
221.4%
(2014)

 

While Poland performs poorly in terms of fixed broadband coverage and take-up, it belongs to the top countries in Europe regarding the use of mobile broadband. The discrepancy between both take-up indicators further increased since last year and Polish citizens show a marked preference for mobile solutions. Prices of fixed broadband (in relation to individual gross income) are below European average but coverage is low compared to the rest of EU.

With regard to fixed broadband coverage, in December 2013 Poland had a relatively low level (88% of households as opposed to the EU average of 97% of households). Although the European Commission encouraged Poland to accelerate its efforts to increase fixed broadband coverage in its 2014 country specific recommendations, Poland did not manage to improve its coverage and is now the last country in Europe. The high take-up of mobile broadband suggests that there is demand for fast internet amongst Polish citizens and that the supply side has to be improved (4th generation (LTE) mobile networks in 2014 were available to only 67% of the population). An improvement in the availability of broadband is likely to have positive effects on the overall economy.

While the share of harmonised spectrum is relatively high compared to the EU average (rank 6 out of 28 Member States) and has even slightly increased since last year, the indicators for NGA coverage and fixed broadband prices remain on a constantly low level. Coverage of fast broadband connections (providing at least 30 Mbps) needs to be improved as low coverage currently is a bottleneck for the Polish economy.

 

 Download the Report on the Implementation of the Telecommunications Regulatory Package (EN)

2. Human Capital

2 Human CapitalPolandClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015210.430.420.54
DESI 2014220.410.350.52

 

With a Human Capital score of 0.43, Poland is in the 21st position in the ranking of EU countries, although it performs slightly better than in the previous year (0.41).

 

 PolandEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
2a1 Internet Users
% individuals (aged 16-74)
63%
(2014)
 2360%
(2013)
2375%
(2014)
2a2 Basic Digital Skills
% individuals (aged 16-74)
46%
(2014)
 2443%
(2012)
2559%
(2014)
2b1 ICT Specialists
% employed individuals
2%
(2012)
 212%
(2012)
212.8%
(2012)
2b2 STEM Graduates
Graduates in STEM per 1000 individuals (aged 20 to 29)
18
(2012)
 1018
(2012)
1017
(2012)

 

Developing a high level of digital skills amongst the population helps exploiting the benefits for investments in ICT as well as citizens' opportunities to engage in online activities. Although its share of internet users has increased since last year, Poland still remains on the 23rd position in the EU rank. The percentage of the population with at least basic digital skills has also increased, but it is still below the EU average. The low levels of internet usage and digital skills may also partly explain the relatively low fixed broadband take up in Poland.

There is also room for improvement in terms of educating and employing ICT specialists. With regard to the share of ICT specialists as a percentage of employed individuals Poland ranks only 21st of all EU Member States. Even though Poland has more STEM (science, technology and mathematics) graduates than most countries in Europe, it does not yet manage to use this advantage in order to increase its share of ICT specialists.

3. Use of Internet

3 Use of InternetPolandClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015230.40.40.43
DESI 2014240.350.340.41

 

In terms of the propensity of individuals to use internet services, Poland scores 0.4 (up from 0.35 last year) and ranks 23rd among EU countries.

 

 PolandEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
3a1 News
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
71%
(2014)
 1843%
(2013)
2767%
(2014)
3a2 Music, Videos and Games
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
41%
(2014)
 2545%
(2012)
2249%
(2014)
3a3 Video on Demand
% households that have a TV
44%
(2014)
 1040%
(2013)
941%
(2014)
3b1 Video Calls
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
41%
(2014)
 1538%
(2013)
1337%
(2014)
3b2 Social Networks
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
55%
(2014)
 2456%
(2013)
2158%
(2014)
3c1 Banking
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
49%
(2014)
 1951%
(2013)
1757%
(2014)
3c2 Shopping
% individuals who used Internet in the last year (aged 16-74)
49%
(2014)
 1749%
(2013)
1563%
(2014)

 

There are more and more people engaging in online activities in Poland. Online news consumption (at 71% of internet users) and video calls (at 41% of internet users) are more widespread than one year ago. On the other hand, the share of internet users engaging in music, videos and games (41%), social networks (55%) and online banking (49%) is slightly lower than the previous year.

Consumption of audio-visual content using broadband connections (namely through Video on Demand – 44%) is above the EU average (rank 10). Poland performs particularly low with regard to music, videos and games consumption (rank 25) and social network usage (rank 24). As the share of internet users shopping online did not change, still only 49% of Polish users buy goods or services on the internet and only a small share of those (11%) buys from other countries.

On its way to become a more competitive digital economy, Poland will have to stimulate further citizens' online activities, as consumers in the domestic market are an important factor for the success of digital enterprises. Better connectivity and fostering digital skills are key in order to increase broad internet usage.

4. Integration of Digital Technology

4 Integration of Digital TechnologyPolandClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015260.210.270.33
DESI 2014250.20.240.3

 

In Integration of Digital Technology by businesses, Poland scores 0.21 (up from 0.2 last year) and ranks 26th. Despite a small increase from last year, it is the weakest indicator for Poland, both in terms of score as well as in comparison to other Member States.

 

 PolandEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
4a1 Electronic Information Sharing
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
22%
(2014)
 2217%
(2013)
2331%
(2014)
4a2 RFID
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
2.8%
(2014)
 22n.a.-3.8%
(2014)
4a3 Social Media
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
8.1%
(2014)
 237%
(2013)
2614%
(2014)
4a4 eInvoices
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
n.a. -5.6%
(2013)
2511%
(2014)
4a5 Cloud
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
3.5%
(2014)
 27n.a.-11%
(2014)
4b1 SMEs Selling Online
% SMEs (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
9.3%
(2014)
 228.3%
(2013)
2315%
(2014)
4b2 eCommerce Turnover
% turnover of SMEs (no financial sector, 10-249 employees)
n.a. -n.a.-8.8%
(2014)
4b3 Selling Online Cross-border
% SMEs (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
3.3%
(2013)
 273.3%
(2013)
276.5%
(2013)

 

The digitalisation of Polish businesses has been progressing only slowly. With respect to all relevant indicators Poland scores below EU average, although small improvements have been made.

Cloud usage (rank 27) and cross-border sales (rank 27) are particularly low when compared to other Member States. On a slightly more positive note, since last year more enterprises share electronic information online (22%), use social media (8.1%) and sell online (9.3%). Nevertheless, Polish businesses will have to develop quicker in order to catch up with their European competitors and exploit the full efficiency-enhancing potential of digital technologies.

5. Digital Public Services

5 Digital Public ServicesPolandClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015140.430.340.47
DESI 2014150.40.330.45

 

With a score of 0.43, Poland ranks 14th among EU countries, an improvement in both score and rank from the previous year. Overall, it is also the DESI indicator in which Poland performs best in terms of score and rank.

 

 PolandEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
5a1 eGovernment Users
% individuals returning filled forms, out of Internet users in the last year (aged 16-74)
21%
(2014)
 2117%
(2013)
2033%
(2014)
5a2 Pre-filled Forms
Score (0 to 100)
68
(2014)
 966
(2013)
845
(2014)
5a3 Online Service Completion
Score (0 to 100)
78
(2014)
 1576
(2013)
1275
(2014)
5a4 Open Data
Score (0 to 700)
490
(2014)
 7n.a.-378
(2014)
5b1 Medical Data Exchange
% General Practitioners
11%
(2013)
 2411%
(2013)
2436%
(2013)
5b2 ePrescription
% General Practitioners
4.4%
(2013)
 224.4%
(2013)
2227%
(2013)

 

Modern public services offered online in an efficient manner are a vehicle for a reduction in public spending as well as for efficiency gains for enterprises, citizens and the public administration itself. Poland scores relatively well with regard to digital public services and it has managed to improve its performance in some areas. The share of eGovernment users interacting with the public administration by sending filled in forms went up to 21%; similarly, the score for making available pre-filled forms as well as the score for online service completion improved compared to last year.

Yet, the exchange of medical data and the share of ePrescriptions have been stagnating on a relatively low. Hence, especially with regard to eHealth there is still considerable room for improvement.

 

 Download the eGovernment benchmark factsheet (EN)

6. R&D

 Download information on R&D in the ICT sector and participation in Horizon 2020 (EN)


[1] DESI scores range from 0 to 1, the higher the score the better the country performance.

[2] In the DESI 2015, the low-performance cluster of countries comprises Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia.

 

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Last updated on 18/06/2015