Digital Agenda for Europe
A Europe 2020 Initiative

Hungary

Article
Find here the most recent analysis and data by country. A selection of key documents and graphs are shown about topics such as broadband, internet activity and skills, egovernment, ICT in schools, research and innovation, as well as other main indicators.
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/digital-agenda/en/file/desi-2015-radial-hupng-1desi-2015-radial-hu.png

 

Hungary has an overall score[1] of 0.41 and ranks 21th out of the 28 EU Member States. In the past year, Hungary has progressed mainly on Connectivity (Fixed broadband services are available to 94% of homes, while 80% of homes have access to fast broadband) and Use of the Internet (Hungarians are keen to engage in many internet activities and outperform the EU average on use of the Internet - 80% use social networks, the highest in the EU). At the same time, Hungary scores below the average in Digital Public Services (just 31% of internet users actively use eGovernment, while only 2.2% of general practitioners transfer prescriptions to pharmacists electronically) and the Integration of Digital Technology in business processes (only 16% of businesses use electronic information sharing technologies, only 5% use cloud services, while 8.9% use social media, among the lowest in the EU).

Hungary falls into the cluster of low‑performance[2] countries, where it performs above average.

 

DESIHungaryClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015210.410.390.48
DESI 2014210.380.330.45

1. Connectivity

1 ConnectivityHungaryClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015170.550.480.56
DESI 2014190.460.390.51

 

Regarding Connectivity, Hungary is at the EU average. There was an improvement compared to last year, which is caused mainly by the progress in radio spectrum allocations.

 

 HungaryEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
1a1 Fixed BB Coverage
% households
94%
(2014)
 2394%
(2013)
2297%
(2014)
1a2 Fixed BB Take-up
% households
68%
(2014)
 1366%
(2013)
1370%
(2014)
1b1 Mobile BB Take-up
Subscribers per 100 people
34
(2014)
 2827
(2013)
2872
(2014)
1b2 Spectrum
% of the target for spectrum to be harmonised at EU level
71%
(2014)
 1648%
(2013)
2270%
(2014)
1c1 NGA Coverage
% households, out of all households
80%
(2014)
 1476%
(2013)
1268%
(2014)
1c2 Subscriptions to Fast BB
% of subscriptions >= 30Mbps, out of fixed BB subscriptions
40%
(2014)
 1134%
(2013)
1026%
(2014)
1d1 Fixed BB Price
% individual gross income spent for the cheapest standalone Fixed Broadband subscription (lower values are better)
1.6%
(2014)
 181.7%
(2013)
171.4%
(2014)

 

Fixed broadband services are available to 94% of homes in Hungary, which leaves a gap of 6% compared to only 3% in the EU. Nevertheless, fast broadband technologies are already widespread, covering 80% of homes as opposed to 68% in the EU.

In Hungary there is strong platform competition between xDSL and cable broadband. It is the cable technology that is currently mainly responsible for the high availability of fast broadband, but VDSL coverage is also increasing.

Hungary is catching up regarding the take-up of fixed broadband access: in DESI 2015, 68% of households had a fixed broadband subscription, just below the EU average of 70%. At the same time, Hungary has the lowest score in mobile broadband take-up. The recent spectrum allocations may trigger a growth in mobile broadband in the coming years.

 Download the Report on the Implementation of the Telecommunications Regulatory Package (EN)

2. Human Capital

2 Human CapitalHungaryClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015190.480.420.54
DESI 2014180.470.350.52

 

With a Human Capital score of 0.48, Hungary ranks 19th among EU countries, and above the average of the low cluster countries.

 

 HungaryEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
2a1 Internet Users
% individuals (aged 16-74)
75%
(2014)
 1571%
(2013)
1575%
(2014)
2a2 Basic Digital Skills
% individuals (aged 16-74)
54%
(2014)
 1956%
(2012)
1459%
(2014)
2b1 ICT Specialists
% employed individuals
2.7%
(2012)
 142.7%
(2012)
142.8%
(2012)
2b2 STEM Graduates
Graduates in STEM per 1000 individuals (aged 20 to 29)
9.5
(2012)
 269.5
(2012)
2617
(2012)

 

75% of Hungarians use the internet, which is the same as the EU average, and increased by 4 percentage points compared to a year ago.

Hungary is slightly below the EU average in digital skills, as far as individuals with basic digital skills and ICT specialists are concerned. Increasing the level of digital skills should be a priority to further improve the performance of the digital economy.

Hungary is also lagging behind on graduates holding a STEM (Science, Technology and Mathematics) degree. STEM graduates play an important role in exploiting the opportunities offered by digital technologies in businesses.

3. Use of Internet

3 Use of InternetHungaryClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015120.470.40.43
DESI 2014130.420.340.41

 

In general, Hungarian Internet users engage in a broad range of internet activities and outperform the EU average on the Use of the Internet.

 

 HungaryEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
3a1 News
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
85%
(2014)
 683%
(2013)
867%
(2014)
3a2 Music, Videos and Games
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
47%
(2014)
 1851%
(2012)
1349%
(2014)
3a3 Video on Demand
% households that have a TV
23%
(2014)
 1623%
(2013)
1541%
(2014)
3b1 Video Calls
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
52%
(2014)
 737%
(2013)
1437%
(2014)
3b2 Social Networks
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
80%
(2014)
 178%
(2013)
158%
(2014)
3c1 Banking
% individuals who used Internet in the last 3 months (aged 16-74)
40%
(2014)
 2236%
(2013)
2357%
(2014)
3c2 Shopping
% individuals who used Internet in the last year (aged 16-74)
42%
(2014)
 2038%
(2013)
2163%
(2014)

 

As for the most popular activities on-line, 85% of Hungarian internet users read news, and 80% use social networks. The use of social networks is the highest in the EU.

47% of the internet users listen to music, watch films or play games online, and 52% make video calls.

Despite the progress last year, Hungary still falls well below the average on internet banking and online shopping. On eCommerce, this is also linked to the supply side, as the percentage of SMEs selling online is also below the average.

4. Integration of Digital Technology

4 Integration of Digital TechnologyHungaryClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015250.210.270.33
DESI 2014260.180.240.3

 

On the Integration of Digital Technology by businesses, Hungary's scores 0.21, its worst score among the five DESI 2015 dimensions. Hungary’s businesses need to better exploit the possibilities offered by on-line commerce, social media and cloud-based applications.

 

 HungaryEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
4a1 Electronic Information Sharing
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
16%
(2014)
 2613%
(2013)
2631%
(2014)
4a2 RFID
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
3.9%
(2014)
 161.1%
(2011)
223.8%
(2014)
4a3 Social Media
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
8.9%
(2014)
 219.4%
(2013)
2214%
(2014)
4a4 eInvoices
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
n.a. -5.2%
(2013)
2711%
(2014)
4a5 Cloud
% enterprises (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
5%
(2014)
 23n.a.-11%
(2014)
4b1 SMEs Selling Online
% SMEs (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
9.8%
(2014)
 219.6%
(2013)
2115%
(2014)
4b2 eCommerce Turnover
% turnover of SMEs (no financial sector, 10-249 employees)
6.9%
(2014)
 185.1%
(2013)
228.8%
(2014)
4b3 Selling Online Cross-border
% SMEs (no financial sector, 10+ employees)
3.9%
(2013)
 253.9%
(2013)
256.5%
(2013)

 

A true digital economy is one where businesses take full advantage of the possibilities and benefits offered by digital technologies, both to improve their efficiency and productivity, as well as to reach costumers and realise sales. To that end, Hungary has a long way to go.

The adoption of digital technologies is an important driver of labour productivity growth and needs to be strengthened. The percentage of businesses using technologies such as electronic information sharing (ERP – 16%), Cloud services (5%) or social media (8.9%) in Hungary is among the lowest in the EU. Without digitisation and the efficiency and productivity gains obtained thereof, Hungarian businesses will struggle to make it in the global digital economy.

Hungarian businesses need also to take advantage of the possibilities offered by on-line commerce. Very few SMEs in Hungary sell online (9.8%), even less sell online to other EU member states (3.9%), and those who do sell online make a very small share of their turnover from those sales (6.9%).

5. Digital Public Services

5 Digital Public ServicesHungaryClusterEU
rankscorescorescore
DESI 2015260.270.340.47
DESI 2014220.310.330.45

 

Digital Public Services is the dimension where Hungary performs third worst in the EU with a score also substantially lower than its cluster average.

 

 HungaryEU
DESI 2015DESI 2014DESI 2015
valuerankvaluerankvalue
5a1 eGovernment Users
% individuals returning filled forms, out of Internet users in the last year (aged 16-74)
31%
(2014)
 1623%
(2013)
1733%
(2014)
5a2 Pre-filled Forms
Score (0 to 100)
19
(2014)
 22n.a.
(2013)
-45
(2014)
5a3 Online Service Completion
Score (0 to 100)
45
(2014)
 2845
(2013)
2775
(2014)
5a4 Open Data
Score (0 to 700)
300
(2014)
 19n.a.-378
(2014)
5b1 Medical Data Exchange
% General Practitioners
12%
(2013)
 2312%
(2013)
2336%
(2013)
5b2 ePrescription
% General Practitioners
2.2%
(2013)
 252.2%
(2013)
2527%
(2013)

 

Modern public services offered online in an efficient manner are a vehicle for the reduction of public spending as well as efficiency gains for enterprises, citizens and the public administration. Hungary faces a key challenge in online public services. Its indicator scores[3] place it among the last in the EU.

The efficiency and degree of service offered by health systems can be greatly improved through digitisation. Only 12% of Hungarian general practitioners exchange medical data electronically, versus 36% in the EU. The same applies to ePrescription, as only 2.2% of general practitioners transfer prescriptions to pharmacists electronically, which is one of the lowest among EU countries.

 

 Download the eGovernment benchmark factsheet (EN)

6. R&D

 Download information on R&D in the ICT sector and participation in Horizon 2020 (EN)

 

[1] DESI scores range from 0 to 1, the higher the score the better the country performance.

[2] In the DESI 2015, the low-performance cluster of countries comprises Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia and Slovakia.

[3] 19/100 in the Pre-filled Forms indicator (measuring the extent to which data that is already known to the public administration is pre-filled in the forms that are presented to the user), and of 45/100 in the Online Service Completion indicator (measuring the extent to which the various steps in an interaction with the public administration – life event – can be performed completely online).

 

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Last updated on 18/06/2015