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Reports, studies and handbooks

Published in the last three years

The contents of external reports do not necessarily reflect the position or opinion of the European Commission.

  • Citizens’ perceptions about competition policy
  • Study on the practical impact of RDI State aid rules
  • Study on the enforcement of State aid rules and decisions by national courts (July 2019)
    In July 2018, DG COMP contracted, through a public tender, a study on the state of play of the enforcement of State aid rules by national courts. The study provides the state of play of State aid enforcement by national courts of the 28 Member States, identifying emerging trends and challenges, and presenting best practices. It also reflects the opinion of national courts regarding the cooperation tools (Article 29 of the Procedural Regulation (Council Regulation (EU) 2015/1589), i.e. request for opinion, request for information and the Commission’s intervention as amicus curiae). The study includes a database with national rulings. The correct application of State aid rules is a shared responsibility between the national authorities, national courts and the Commission. The role of national courts is essential to protect the direct effect of Article 108(3) TFEU (standstill obligation). In light of the results of the study, the Commission decides about possible modification of the State aid enforcement Notice of 2009 (Commission notice on the enforcement of State aid law by national courts). The objective of the whole exercise is to provide further guidance to national judges and improve the cooperation on State aid matters between the Commission and national judges. See also the study homepage with case database.
  • EU loan syndication on competition and its impact in credit markets en
  • Report: Competition Policy for the digital era en
  •  Competition Enforcement in the Pharmaceutical Sector (28 January 2019) EN DE FR 
  • Study on Producer Organisations and their activities in the olive oil, beef and veal and arable crops sectors (June 2018)
    This study aims to deliver an analysis of producer organisations from these three sectors, its analysis is mainly based on a survey conducted on a representative sample of 203 POs and 23 APOs.
  • Assessment of the technicalities of VULA products in the context of a State aid investigation (March 2018)
    This report provides an expert opinion as regards whether the submitted German VULA products meet best practice standards as regards offering equivalent functionality to physical unbundling.
  • An Overview of Subsidy Disclosure Practices in EU Member States (December 2017)
    In a context in which transparency in providing relevant information to citizens is gaining relevance, this study provides a comprehensive overview of subsidy disclosure practices in EU Member States between 2010-2014.
  • Ex post assessment of the impact of state aid on competition (December 2017)
    This study assessed, on an ex post basis, the impact of state aid on competition and in particular any distortion of competition that might have occurred.
  • Feasibility study on the microeconomic impact of enforcement of competition policies on innovation (published October 2017).
    This study aims to determine the feasibility of conducting a quantitative, ex-post evaluation of the impact of individual merger decisions on innovation in the markets concerned. Additional reading: Short summary, appraisals by Carmine Ornaghi and Tomaso Duso.
  • Economic impact of competition policy enforcement on the functioning of telecoms markets in the EU
    (published June 2017)
    This study describes the main changes in market performance and competition policy enforcement by European competition authorities over the period 2002-2015. It also provides an in-depth quantitative analysis of three decisions spanning the whole range of competition policy instruments: the Telekomunikacja Polska (TP) antitrust case, the T-Mobile/Orange UK merger case and the German aid schemes to bring broadband to rural areas. The study shows that the three decisions had an overall positive effect on the functioning of telecoms markets. A short backgrounder is available, as well as appraisals by Christine Zulehner (Goethe University Frankfurt, Telecom ParisTech, WIFO Vienna and CEPR) and Matthew Weinberg (Drexel University).
  • Improving Monitoring Indicators System to Support DG Competition's Future Policy Assessments,
    (published June 2017)
  • Report on Zero-rating practices in broadband markets,
    (published June 2017)
  • Study on the Passing-On of Overcharges
    (published October 2016)
    EU Directive 2014/104 on antitrust damages actions establishes that anyone who has suffered harm caused by an infringement of EU antitrust rules can claim full compensation. This includes claims by indirect purchasers (e.g. consumers who bought a product from a retailer who is a cartelist's direct customer) if the direct customer fully or partially "passed on" the cartel overcharge to them. Drawing on relevant economic theory and quantitative methods, as well as relevant legal practice and rules, the Study provides judges, legal practitioners and parties to antitrust damages actions with a practical framework for assessing and quantifying such passing-on effects. A French Executive summary is available.
  • Support study for impact assessment concerning the review of Merger Regulation regarding minority shareholdings
    (published October 2016)
    The purpose of the study is to provide DG Competition with additional information on the topic of acquisitions of non-controlling minority shareholdings from the point of view of both competition and corporate law and practice in different jurisdictions. In particular, the study provides factual information in order to form a well-informed and comprehensive view on the current practice in jurisdictions where acquisitions of non-controlling minority shareholdings are subject to merger review, as well as on the different levels of rights usually attached to non-controlling minority shareholdings in several countries.
  • Study on the financing models for public services in the EU and their impact on competition (published October 2016)
    In order to ensure that certain ‘public services’ are guaranteed and available for the public, Member States can impose specific obligations on public or private service providers. The objective of this study is to assess how public services are financed and when those arrangements may create competition problems. There is an Executive summary available.
  • Study on judges’ training needs in the field of European competition law (June 2016)
    This study maps the jurisdictions at national level for the application of European Union competition law. It analyses the needs and demand for training among judges and proposes specific training profiles. It highlights the important role of the specialisation of courts in concentrating cases, developing expertise and enabling training to be targeted efficiently. The study also evaluates DG Competition’s “Training of National Judges” programme, proposes performance indicators and makes concrete recommendations for ensuring that the programme meets the needs of judges dealing with EU competition law in the future. Executive summaries are available in EN, DE and FR.
  • Geographic Market Definition in European Commission Merger Control (February 2016)
    On the Commission’s request, Professors Bruce Lyons and Amelia Fletcher from the University of East Anglia have prepared an independent economic report on the topic of "Geographic Market Definition in European Commission Merger Control". Professors Lyons and Fletcher have evaluated the Commission approach to geographic market definition on the basis of a sample of recent merger cases where this topic played an important role in the assessment. This study also examines how the Commission incorporates constraints from outside the geographic market in its competitive assessment of mergers. This study also examines how the Commission incorporates constraints from outside the geographic market in its competitive assessment of mergers. The Commission's practice regarding market definition was already the focus of the Competition Policy Brief Market definition in a globalised world published in March 2015 and Commissioner Vestager's speech at the Studienvereinigung Kartellrecht on 12 March 2015.