Passenger cars and vans ('light commercial vehicles') are responsible for around 12% and 2.5%, respectively, of total EU emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the main greenhouse gas.
Since 2009, EU legislation has set mandatory emission targets for new cars and, since 2011, for new vans.
On 17 April 2019, the European Parliament and the Council adopted Regulation (EU) 2019/631 setting CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars and for new vans in the EU. This Regulation started applying on 1 January 2020, replacing and repealing Regulations (EC) 443/2009 (cars) and (EU) 510/2011 (vans).
The new Regulation maintains the targets for 2020, which were set out in the former Regulations. It adds new targets that apply from 2025 and 2030.
The Regulation also includes a mechanism to incentivise the uptake of zero- and low-emission vehicles, in a technology-neutral way.
The new Regulation will:
Expected benefits include
Regulation (EU) 2019/631 sets new EU fleet-wide CO2 emission targets are set for the years 2025 and 2030, both for newly registered passenger cars and for newly registered vans.
These targets are defined as a percentage reduction from the 2021 starting points:
The specific emission targets for manufacturers to comply with, are based on the EU fleet-wide targets, taking into account the average test mass of a manufacturer's newly registered vehicles.
A ZLEV is defined in the Regulation as a passenger car or a van with CO2 emissions between 0 and 50 g/km.
To incentivise the uptake of ZLEV, a crediting system is introduced from 2025 on.
The specific CO2 emission target of a manufacturer will be relaxed if its share of ZLEV registered in a given year exceeds the following benchmarks:
A one percentage point exceedance of the ZLEV benchmark will increase the manufacturer’s CO2 target (in g CO2/km) by one percent. The target relaxation is capped at maximum 5% to safeguard the environmental integrity of the Regulation.
For calculating the ZLEV share in a manufacturer’s fleet, an accounting rule applies. This gives a greater weight to ZLEV with lower CO2 emissions.
In addition, for cars only, during the period 2025 to 2030, a greater weight is given to ZLEV registered in Member States with a low ZLEV uptake in 2017, and this as long as the ZLEV share in the Member State’s fleet of newly registered cars does not exceed 5%.
The provisions on pooling between manufacturers are the same as under the previous Regulations. Pooling between car and van manufacturers is not possible.
The exemption of manufacturers registering less than 1,000 cars or vans per year, as well as the derogation possibility for “small volume” car and van manufacturers, have also been maintained.
The derogation possibility for “niche” car manufacturers, i.e. those registering between 10,000 and 300,000 cars per year, will end after the year 2028. In the years 2025 to 2028, the derogation target for those manufacturers will be 15% below the 2021 derogation target.
The provisions regarding the “eco-innovation” credits for emission savings due to the application of innovative emission reduction technologies not covered by the standard test cycle CO2 measurement are largely unchanged compared to the previous Regulations.
New is that the efficiency improvements for air conditioning systems will become eligible as eco-innovation technologies as of 2025 and that the cap of 7 g/km may be adjusted by the Commission through a delegated act.
Two new elements have been introduced to reinforce the effectiveness of the Regulation.
Manufacturers are required to ensure correspondence between the CO2 emissions recorded in the certificates of conformity of their vehicles and the CO2 emissions of vehicles in-service measured according to the Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP).
This correspondence shall be verified by type-approval authorities in selected vehicles. The authorities shall also verify the presence of any strategies artificially improving the vehicle’s performance in the type-approval tests.On the basis of their findings, type-approval authorities shall, where needed, ensure the correction of the certificates of conformity and may take other necessary measures set out in the Type Approval Framework Regulation.
Deviations found in the CO2 emissions of vehicles in service shall be reported to the Commission, who shall take them into account for the purpose of calculating the average specific emissions of a manufacturer.
To prevent the gap between emissions tested in the laboratory and real-world emissions from increasing, the Commission shall, from 2021 on, regularly collect data on the real-world CO2 emissions and energy consumption of cars and vans using the on-board fuel consumption monitoring devices (OBFCM).
The Commission shall monitor how that gap evolves between 2021 and 2026 and, on that basis, assess the feasibility of a mechanism to adjust the manufacturer’s average specific CO2 emissions as of 2030.
The detailed procedures for collecting and processing the data shall be adopted by means of implementing acts.
By 2023, the Commission shall evaluate the possibility of developing a common methodology for the assessment and reporting of the full life-cycle CO2 emissions of cars and vans.
The Commission shall review the effectiveness of the Regulation and report on this to the European Parliament and the Council.
This review shall cover i.a. the following:
As part of the review, the Commission shall assess the feasibility of developing real-world emission test procedures, as well as the possibility to assign revenues from the fines to a specific fund or relevant programme with the objective to ensure a just transition towards a climate neutral economy.
Finally, the Commission shall review the Car Labelling Directive by end 2020, covering both CO2 and air pollutant emissions of cars and evaluating the options for introducing a fuel economy and CO2 emissions label for vans.