Cars are responsible for around 12% of total EU emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the main greenhouse gas.
Regulation (EC) 443/2009, which is summarised on this page, set mandatory emission reduction targets for new cars. The first target fully applied from 2015 onward and a new target will be phased in in 2020 and fully apply from 2021 onward.
On 17 April 2019, the European Parliament and the Council adopted Regulation (EU) 2019/631 which introduces CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars and new vans for 2025 and 2030.
The new Regulation started applying on 1 January 2020 and has replaced and repealed Regulation (EC) 443/2009.
Following a phase in from 2012 onward, a target of 130 grams of CO2 per kilometre applied for the EU fleet-wide average emission of new passenger cars between 2015 and 2019.
Emissions of 130 g CO2/km correspond to a fuel consumption of around 5.6 litres per 100 km (l/100 km) of petrol or 4.9 l/100 km of diesel.
This EU fleet-wide target was already reached in 2013, two years ahead of schedule.
The average emissions of new cars registered in 2019 in the EU28, Iceland and Norway were 122.4 g CO2/km (provisional EEA data).
From 2021, phased in from 2020, the EU fleet-wide average emission target for new cars will be 95 g CO2/km.
This emission level corresponds to a fuel consumption of around 4.1 l/100 km of petrol or 3.6 l/100 km of diesel.
The binding emission targets for manufacturers are set according to the average mass of their vehicles, using a limit value curve. This means that manufacturers of heavier cars are allowed higher emissions than manufacturers of lighter cars. The curve is set in such a way that the targets for the EU fleet-wide average emissions are achieved.
In 2020, the emission targets will apply for each manufacturer’s 95% least emitting new cars. From 2021 onward, the average emissions of all newly registered cars of a manufacturer will have to be below the target.
The target of 130 g/km was phased in between 2012 and 2015.
A phase-in period will also apply to the target of 95 g/km. In 2020, the emission targets will apply for each manufacturer’s 95% least emitting new cars. From 2021 on, the average emissions of all newly registered cars of a manufacturer will have to be below the target.
If the average CO2 emissions of a manufacturer's fleet exceed its target in a given year, the manufacturer has to pay an excess emissions premium for each car registered.
Until 2018, this premium amounted to
Since 2019, the penalty is €95 for each g/km of target exceedance.
To encourage eco-innovation, manufacturers can be granted emission credits for vehicles equipped with innovative technologies for which it is not possible to demonstrate the CO2-reducing effects during the test procedure used for vehicle type approval.
Such emission savings have to be demonstrated based on independently verified data. The maximum emission credits for these eco-innovations per manufacturer are 7 g/km per year.
Manufacturers are given additional incentives to put on the market zero- and low-emission cars emitting less than 50 g/km through a “super-credits” system. This already applied between 2012 and 2015 and will apply again for the period 2020-2022.
For the purpose of calculating a manufacturer’s average specific emissions, such cars will then be counted as:
A cap on the super-credits is set at 7.5 g/km per manufacturer over the three years.
Manufacturers can group together and act jointly to meet their emissions target. In forming such a pool, manufacturers must respect the rules of competition law.
Manufacturers responsible for fewer than 300 000 new passenger cars registered in the EU in a given year may benefit from exemptions or derogations.
The Commission has set out rules for monitoring the CO2 emissions of new cars. Information on the monitoring results can be found under the Documentation tab.