Climate Action

Fuel Quality

Policy

Common fuel quality rules are an important element in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transport. They also ensure that air pollutant emissions from vehicles are optimally reduced, a single fuel market is established and vehicles operate correctly everywhere in the EU.

© European Commission

EU legislation requires a reduction of the greenhouse gas intensity of the fuels used in vehicles by 6 % by 2020. This legislation, the Fuel Quality Directive, also regulates the sustainability of biofuels. It has previously led to drastic reductions in the sulphur content of fuels, enabling the deployment of vehicle technologies to reduce greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions, and delivering substantial health and environmental benefits. The Fuel Quality Directive applies to all petrol, diesel and biofuels used in road transport, as well as to gasoil used in non-road-mobile machinery.

Emissions reporting covers full life-cycle

The greenhouse gas intensity of fuels is calculated on a life-cycle basis, meaning that the emissions from the extraction, processing and distribution of fuels are included. Direct life-cycle greenhouse gas emission reductions are calculated from a 2010 baseline of fossil fuel greenhouse gas intensity.

The 6% reduction target is likely to be achieved through the use of biofuels, electricity, the use of less carbon intense, often gaseous, fossil fuels and a reduction of flaring and venting at the extraction stage of fossil fuel feedstocks. This implementing measure proposes a methodology for calculating the greenhouse gas intensity of fossil fuels.

There are currently no plans to extend the target for the reduction of the greenhouse gas intensity under the Fuel Quality Directive beyond the year 2020. Instead, the Commission proposed to address the decarbonisation of transport fuels after 2020 in the framework of a revised Renewable Energy Directive.

Biofuel sustainability

For biofuels to count towards the greenhouse gas emission reduction targets they must meet certain sustainability criteria set out in the Directive to minimise the undesired impacts from their production. The calculation of greenhouse gas emissions for biofuels are set in the Fuel Quality Directive and include the following requirements:

  • Greenhouse gas emissions must be at least 35% lower than from the fossil fuel they replace. From 2017, this will increase to 50% and, from 2018, the saving must be at least 60% for new installations;
  • The raw materials for biofuels cannot be sourced from land with high biodiversity or high carbon stock.

Taking account of indirect land use change

As global demand for biofuels rises, their production can contribute to the conversion of land such as forests and wetlands into agricultural land, leading to increased greenhouse gas emissions. These emissions from indirect land use change (ILUC) can significantly reduce or even wipe out the greenhouse gas savings from biofuels.

To account for this, the amount of biofuels produced from cereal and other starch-rich crops, sugars and oil crops and from energy crops grown on agricultural land is limited to 7 % of the energy in transport in the Member States in 2020.

Reducing air pollution

Besides reducing the greenhouse gas intensity of fuels, the legislation also governs other elements of fuel quality primarily linked to air pollutant emissions. Thanks to the mandatory introduction of sulphur-free fuels under the directive, by 2009 the average sulphur content of petrol and diesel was below 10 ppm.

Fuel quality monitoring reports can be found under the documentation tab above.

Default values for novel transport fuels

Member State authorities and/or economic operators working with technologies for Renewable liquid and gaseous transport fuels of non-biological origin and/or Carbon capture and utilisation for transport purposes not covered in Council Directive (EU) 2015/652 and wishing to have default values calculated for their technological pathways, are invited to submit suggestions accompanied by the necessary data to the Commission not later than 31 March 2017 at ENV-98-70-Implementation@ec.europa.eu.

Documentation

Legislation

Proposed legislation

Documents relating to the legislation's development

Consultations and documents relating to specific aspects of the Directive

Implementing legislation

Upstream emission reductions

Metallic fuel additives

The present documents were developed for the assessment of the risk for the environmental and health risk assessment of metallic fuel additives. The instructions presented here explain different steps of risk assessment which could be applied to all metallic fuel additives which are available in market or expected to be on the market in the future.

Vapour pressure derogations

Derogations

Fuel Quality Monitoring

Reply to Greenpeace petition

Studies

Studies

High Intensity Fossil Fuels

Links

Useful links