Climate Action

Kyoto 1st commitment period (2008–12)

Policy

The 1997 Kyoto Protocol – an agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) – is the world's only legally binding treaty to reduce greenhouse emissions.

However, because many major emitters are not part of Kyoto, it only covers about 18% of global emissions. In the first period of the Protocol (2008-12), participating countries committed to reduce their emissions by an average of 5% below 1990 levels.

The EU and its member countries – 15 at the time the legislation was adopted (the 'EU-15') – went beyond this and committed to an 8% cut for the bloc as a whole.

National targets under Kyoto 1

As the Protocol allowed groups of countries to meet their targets jointly, the EU's overall 8% reduction was broken down into legally binding national targets (QELRCs) (22 kB).

These targets were tailored to the relative wealth of each country at the time, under the "burden sharing" agreement, included in the decision approving the Kyoto Protocol (Decision 2002/358/EC).

They were expressed as percentages of emissions in a chosen base yearand translated into an exact national cap on greenhouse emissions (expressed in tonnes of CO2-equivalent) for the whole 2008-12 period.

Similar individual targets have been set for countries that joined the EU after the Protocol was adopted – except for Cyprus and Malta, which have no targets.

Reductions achieved under Kyoto 1

The EU and its Member States have met their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period (2008-2012).

For the whole period, the EU's total emissions, without Cyprus and Malta which have no targets, were 23.5 gigatonnes of CO2 equivalent. This is equivalent to a reduction of around 19% below the base year in the period 2008-2012 domestically, without counting the additional reductions coming from carbon sinks (LULUCF) and international credits.

The EU-15 has achieved an overall cut of 11.7% domestically, without counting the additional reductions coming from carbon sinks (LULUCF) and international credits.

The specific targets are shown below.

Targets for the EU-15 countries under "burden-sharing"
(2008-2012)
Targets for the remaining EU Member States
(2008-2012)
EU-15-8%Bulgaria-8%
Austria-13%Croatia-5%
Belgium-7.5%Czech Republic-8%
Denmark-21%Estonia-8%
Finland0%Hungary-6%
France0%Latvia-8%
Germany-21%Lithuania-8%
Greece+25%Poland-6%
Ireland+13%Romania-8%
Italy-6.5%Slovakia-8%
Luxembourg-28%Slovenia-8%
Netherlands-6%  
Portugal+27%CyprusN/A
Spain+15%MaltaN/A
Sweden+4%  
United Kingdom-12.5%  

 

Base years for each greenhouse gas
GasBase year
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • Methane (CH4)
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O)
1990 – except:
  • Bulgaria – 1988
  • Hungary – average of 1985-7
  • Slovenia – 1986
  • Poland –1988
  • Romania – 1989
Fluorinated gases
  • hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
  • perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
  • sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
1995 – except:
  • Austria, Croatia, France, Italy, Slovakia – 1990

 

Total GHG emissions from sources included in Annex A to the Kyoto Protocol
Total GHG emissions [t CO2] (2008-2012)Total GHG emissions [t CO2] (2008-2012)
EU-15

18,822,263,095

Bulgaria132,618,658
Austria79,049,657Croatia31,321,790
Belgium145,728,763Czech Republic194,248,218
Denmark69,978,070Estonia42,622,312
Finland710,03,509Hungary115,397,149
France563,925,328Latvia25,909,159
Germany1,232,429,543Lithuania49,414,386
Greece106,987,169Poland563,442,774
Ireland55,607,836Romania278,225,022
Italy516,850,887Slovakia72,050,764
Luxembourg13,167,499Slovenia20,354,042
Netherlands213,034,498  
Portugal60,147,642  
Spain289,773,205  
Sweden72,151,646  
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland779,904,144  

EU legislation implementing Kyoto 1

Documentation

First commitment period of Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012)

Second commitment period of Kyoto Protocol (starting 2013)

Other useful documents

Additional information on CP1 units retired and carried over
Retirement UnitsCarry Over Units
AustriaAustria
BelgiumBelgium
Bulgaria 
Croatia 
Czech RepublicCzech Republic
Denmark 
EstoniaEstonia
FinlandFinland
FranceFrance
Germany 
GreeceGreece
HungaryHungary
Iceland 
IrelandIreland
ItalyItaly
LatviaLatvia
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein
LithuaniaLithuania
LuxembourgLuxembourg
NetherlandsNetherlands
NorwayNorway
PolandPoland
PortugalPortugal
RomaniaRomania
SlovakiaSlovakia
SloveniaSlovenia
SpainSpain
Sweden 
United Kingdom 
EUEU