Significant financial resources are needed to implement the Paris Agreement and help developing countries deal with climate change.
The EU, its Member States and the European Investment Bank are together the biggest contributor of public climate finance to developing countries, giving EUR 20.4 billion in 2017 alone.
They are also the world’s top provider of official development assistance (a total EUR 75.7 billion in 2017), with climate action being increasingly integrated into the assistance.
Under the Paris Agreement, countries committed to make finance flows consistent with a low-emission, climate-resilient pathway, to help achieve the long-term climate goals. In this context, the EU has launched an ambitious Action Plan on Financing Sustainable Growth; the EU also supports developing countries in improving their conditions for mobilising low-carbon finance.
In 2017, the European Commission again increased its climate finance to developing countries, providing EUR 2.8 billion.
The Commission is on track to meet its pledge to provide at least EUR 14 billion (or an average of EUR 2 billion a year) to support climate activities in developing countries in 2014-2020.
Furthermore, 20% of the whole EU budget for 2014-2020 is spent on climate-related actions – and the Commission has proposed raising this share to at least 25% for 2021-2027.
In addition, the European Investment Bank provided EUR 2.6 billion in climate finance to developing countries in 2017. It finances, for example, energy efficiency and renewable energy projects in Africa and other regions, and often blends funds with Commission and EU Member State agencies.
The main channel for EU support to policy dialogue and specific, targeted climate action in developing countries is the Global Climate Change Alliance Plus (GCCA+).
Active since 2008, GCCA+ has invested so far close to €450 million in more than 60 country-based and regional actions.
The overall objective is to foster policy dialogue and cooperation on climate change between the EU and developing countries.
The GCCA+ has a strong focus on Least Developed Countries and Small Island Developing States (SIDS) as they are most vulnerable to climate change.
The EU will mobilise innovative financial instruments, with particular focus on the EU External Investment Plan, to support the preparation and financing of bankable climate relevant development projects.
The plan will encourage investment in the EU's partner countries in Africa and the EU Neighbourhood region through:
With a contribution of €4.1 billion from the European Commission, the plan is expected to leverage more than €44 billion of investments by 2020.
It will promote inclusive growth, job creation and sustainable development and so tackle some of the root causes of irregular migration.
The EU remains committed to contributing towards the developed countries’ goal of jointly mobilising from different sources USD 100 billion per year by 2020 to support developing countries.In 2015 parallel to the conclusion of the Paris Agreement, this goal was extended until 2025 before a new collective goal is set.
The funding will come from a wide variety of sources – public and private, bilateral and multilateral, and alternative sources of finance – in the context of meaningful mitigation action and transparent implementation by developing countries.
The EU is calling for emerging economies to also contribute in line with their respective capabilities and responsibilities.
In 2016, the EU and its Member States together with the other donors presented a Roadmap to US$100 Billion. According to the roadmap, the public finance together with private finance it directly mobilises will increase to close to USD 100 billion in 2020, compared to an average of USD 41 billion over 2013-14.
The Green Climate Fund (GCF) was set up in 2010 to support developing countries in reducing their greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to climate change.
Since 2014, it has gathered pledges worth USD 10.3 billion. EU Member States have pledged nearly half of these: USD 4.7 billion.
Some EU Member States and Regions also contribute about 95% of the annual voluntary pledges to ensure the functioning of the Adaptation Fund.
Countries need to attract additional public and private financing to transition to a climate-friendly economy and drive sustainable economic growth.
International climate finance should be used as a lever to incentivise climate-resilient and low-carbon investments, complementing domestic resources in developing countries.
The EU's approach is twofold:
For example, the EU and Member States have established a number of blending facilities that combine grant funding with loans, covering different regions.