In this period, the EU, some other European countries and Australia have agreed to make further emissions cuts.
For their part, the EU countries (together with Iceland) have agreed to meet – jointly – a 20% reduction target compared to 1990 (in line with the EU's own target of 20% by 2020). They are on track to do so.
How is the 20% target shared?
This joint 20% commitment is shared between these 29 countries and the EU, broadly along the lines of current commitments in each sector of the economy:
- The EU is responsible for emissions in sectors covered by the emission trading system (ETS).
- Each country is responsible for its national emissions in the sectors outside the ETS.
How will the target be reached?
The measures needed for the EU and its member countries to deliver on the reduction commitment have already been put in place through the 2020 climate & energy package.
Changes from Kyoto 1st period
- New rules on how developed countries are to account for emissions from land use & forestry
- One more greenhouse gas (making 7 in total) is now covered – nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).
Surplus emission rights (AAUs)
The huge surplus of emission rights (known as "assigned amount units" or AAUs) for certain countries from the 1st Kyoto period had threatened to undermine incentives to meet emissions targets in the new period.
To prevent this, there will be a limit on how much can be carried over from Kyoto period I
And there have been political declarations by the EU, its member countries and all other potential buyers — Australia, Japan, Liechtenstein, Monaco, New Zealand, Norway and Switzerland — that they will not purchase these AAUs.
EU implementation of Kyoto 2nd period
This requires the EU to ratify the Doha Amendment to Kyoto.
The process involves the following acts, all from 2013:
- Proposal for a Council Decision on the Doha Amendment (2013)
Annex I, Annex II, Appendix
- Proposal for a Regulation – technical implementation of Kyoto Protocol
First commitment period of Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012)
- 08/11/2013 - 2013/644/EU - Commission Implementing Decision amending Decision 2006/944/EC to include the emission level allocated to the Republic of Croatia under the Kyoto Protocol
- 15/12/2010 - 2010/778/EU - Commission Decision amending Decision 2006/944/EC determining the respective emission levels allocated to the Community and each of its Member States under the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to Council Decision 2002/358/EC
- 14/12/2006 - 2006/944/EC - Commission Decision determining the respective emission levels allocated to the Community and each of its Member States under the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to Council Decision 2002/358/EC
- 25/04/2002 - 2002/358/EC - Council Decision 2002/358/EC concerning the approval, on behalf of the European Community, of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the joint fulfilment of commitments thereunder
Second commitment period of Kyoto Protocol (starting 2013)
- 13 Feb 2012 - SWD/2012/0018 - Commission Staff Working Document "Preparing the EU's Quantified Emission Limitation or Reduction Objective (QELRO) based on the EU Climate and Energy Package"
- 19 Apr 2012 - EU submission to the UNFCCC - Information on the quantified emission limitation or reduction objectives (QELROs) for the second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol
Other useful documents
- Assigned Amount Report of the European Union (required under Article 7(1) of Decision 280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning a mechanism for monitoring Community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol)
- Report on Demonstrable Progress under the Kyoto Protocol (required under Article 5(3) of Decision 280/2004/EC concerning a mechanism for monitoring Community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol) and Annex