Blog

Estonian e-Census

The next 2020 Population and Housing Census will be different. Estonia is now conducting a register-based census. The census data will be compiled from the data of national registers. About 24 national registers will be included, and they involve data on many fields of life.

@Photo from Pixabay.

Summary 

Statistics Estonia conducts a census every ten years. So far, people have had to take an active part in the census: by answering the questions of an enumerator or by filling in an e-census questionnaire. The questionnaire has been pre-filled with data from official registers. The next, 2020 Population and Housing Census will be different. Estonia has set the e-census world record: 67% of the population submitted their data via the Internet In the previous census. Estonia is now taking a step forward and conducting a register-based census. The census data will be compiled from the data of national registers. About 24 national registers will be included, and they involve data on many fields of life.


URLStatistics Estonia
Focus

Citizens

Start date1 Dec 2015
Domain

Public matter

ScopeNational/Federal 
CountryEstonia
Nature and status of project

Planned Project


Enabling assets or components 

Relevant Enablers
Estonian data exchange layer for information systems (X-Road)
Estonian Public Key Infrastructure
Estonian Catalogue of Public Sector Information (RIHA)
Estonian three-level IT baseline security system ISKE


Political commitment
Interoperability of the State Information System. Endorsed with the Directive of the Minister of Economic Affairs and Communications 11-0377, 22.12.2011, https://www.mkm.ee/sites/default/files/interoperability-framework_2011.doc
---------
European Statistics Code of Practice. Adopted by the European Statistical System Committee. 28th September 2011, http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/quality/european-statistics-code-of-practice
----------
Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses,Revision 2.
Statistical Papers Series M, No. 67/Rev.2, ST/ESA/STAT/SER.M/67/Rev.2. United.
United Nations (2008).Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
(UNDESA), Statistics Division
----------
Rahandusministri käskkiri 6.03.2015.Statistikaameti strateegia 2015-2020

Decree of the Minister of Finance
Legal interoperability
REGULATION (EC) No 223/2009 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE
COUNCIL of 11 March 2009 on European statistics, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2009/223/oj
---------
REGULATION (EC) No 763/2008 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE
COUNCIL of 9 July 2008 on population and housing censuses, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2008/763/oj
---------
COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 1201/2009 of 30 November 2009 implementing Regulation (EC) No 763/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on population and housing censuses as regards the technical specifications of the topics and of their breakd, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2009/1201/oj
---------
Commission Regulation (EU) No 1151/2010 of 8 December 2010 implementing
Regulation (EC) No 763/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on
population and housing censuses, as regards the modalities and structure of the
quality reports and the te, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2010/1151/oj
---------
Official Statistics Act. Riigikogu, RT I 2010, 41, 241, https://www.riigiteataja.ee/en/eli/506012015002/consolide
---------
Personal Data Protection Act.Riigikogu, RT I 2007, 24, 127, https://www.riigiteataja.ee/en/eli/507032016001/consolide
---------
Public Information Act. Riigikogu, RT I 2000, 92, 597, https://www.riigiteataja.ee/en/eli/518012016001/consolide
---------
The classification system. Vabariigi Valitsus, RT I 2008, 4, 27, https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/12910889
---------
The data exchange layer of information system. Vabariigi Valitsus, RT I 27.09.2016,
4, https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/127092016004
---------
The administration system of state information system. Vabariigi Valitsus, RT I
29.03.2016, 6, https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/129032016006
---------
The system of address details. Vabariigi Valitsus, RT I 13.10.2015, 2, https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/113102015002
Socio-cultural influence factors
Census procedures supported by census act, by strategical documents of Statistics Estonia.

Legal and organizational interoperability: legislation approved by stakeholders

All registers must linked by use commonly accepted keys:
• personal code for citizens,
• code of institution,
• standardised address presentation.

Secure data exchange layer X-Road (https://www.ria.ee/en/x-road.html) is used for gathering data from different registers. X-Road is a technological and organizational environment enabling a secure Internet-based data exchange between information systems. All registers and Statistics Estonia must be a member of X-Road

Information regarding the X-Road members and the services they provide is available via the Administration System for the State Information System (RIHA). RIHA (https://www.ria.ee/en/administration-system-of-the-state-information-system.html ) serves as a catalogue for the state’s information system. At the same time RIHA is a procedural and administrative environment via which the comprehensive and balanced development of the state’s information system has ensured. RIHA guarantees the transparency of the administration of the state’s information system and helps to plan the state’s information management.

PKI or the public key infrastructure (https://www.ria.ee/en/public-key-infrastructure.html ) enables secure digital authentication and signing. The infrastructure also allows forwarding data by using an encrypting key pair: a public encryption key and a private decryption key. In Estonia, this technology is used in relation with electronic identity (ID card, mobile ID, digital ID). All members of X-Road are using Digital seal certificates for signing messages. Citizens and officials are using electronic identity tokens.

All participants must be implemented three-level IT baseline security system ISKE (https://www.ria.ee/en/iske-en.html). The goal of implementing ISKE is to ensure a security level sufficient for the data processed in IT systems. The necessary security level achieved by implementing the standard organisational, infrastructural/physical and technical security measures.

The address data system (ADS) (http://www.maaamet.ee/index.php?lang_id=1&page_id=471&no_cache=1485415080) must implemented in all parties. ADS is a framework of administrative, technical and legal measures which ensures unambiguous identification of address objects in their location and in different databases, and common organisation of the establishment of location addresses and processing of address data.

Data guidelines of Estonian Data Protection Inspectorate (http://www.aki.ee/et/juhised) must followed.

Benefits

Save manual work. Compared to conventional censuses, a register-based census saves the state an average of 25 x 1,300,000 minutes, or 541,667 hours, or 67,708 working days, or 280 full-time staff years.

Save time. A register-based census enables receiving results faster than a conventional census, as it reduces the number of human errors made by enumerated persons, which would have to be corrected during the data validation period in a conventional census. If the same national databases are regularly used for censuses, it is possible to use standardised software for the validation and analysis of census data.

Lower cost. A register-based census has lower costs, because it eliminates the need for census interviews which is the most labour- and cost-intensive stage of conventional
censuses.
Better quality. The quality of a register-based census depends on the quality of data. High data quality should be an important objective for each national database.

Data handling / data exchange

Type of data sharing

Actual data


Data handler

Register of Employment (TÖR). (Ministry of Finance)

Stakeholder nameStakeholder typeStakeholder roleKind of data

Population register (RR). (Ministry of the Interior)

GovernmentData providercitizen data
Register of Residence and Work Permits (ETR). (Ministry of the Interior)GovernmentData providercitizen data
Register of prisoners, post-sentence prisoners, detainees and arrested peoples (KIR). (Ministry of the Interior)GovernmentData consumercitizen data
Estonian Education Information System (EHIS). (Ministry of Education and Research) GovernmentData providercitizen data
Register of taxable persons (EMTA). (Ministry of Finance)GovernmentData providercitizen data
Register of Employment (TÖR). (Ministry of Finance)GovernmentData providercitizen data
Register of Mandatory Funded Pension (KPR). (Ministry of Finance)GovernmentData providercitizen data
The State Human Resources Database (SAP). (Ministry of Finance)GovernmentData providercitizen data
Estonian Register of Buildings (EHR). (Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications)GovernmentData providercitizen data
Land Register (KR). (Ministry of Finance)GovernmentData providercitizen data
Commercial register (ARIREG). (Ministry of Finance)GovernmentData providercitizen data
State Register of State and Local Government Institutions (RKOARR). (Ministry of Finance)GovernmentData providercitizen data
E-file system (E-Toimik). (Ministry of Finance)GovernmentData providercitizen data
Social Services and Benefits Registry (STAR). (Ministry of Social Affairs)GovernmentData providercitizen data
Social Security Information System (SKAIS). (Ministry of Social Affairs)GovernmentData providercitizen data
Health Insurance Information System (KIRST). (Estonian Health Insurance Fund)GovernmentData providercitizen data
National Defence Obligation Register (KVKR). (Ministry of Defence)GovernmentData providercitizen data
Estonian Unemployment Information System (EMPIS). (Estonian Unemployment Insurance Fund Data providercitizen data
Address Data System (ADS). (Land Board) GovernmentData providercitizen data
Estonian Traffic Register (liiklusregister). (Estonian Road Administration)Data providercitizen data
Population and Housing Census (REL) (previous data). (Statistics Estonia)GovernmentData consumercitizen data


Architecture

Data exchange principles

For a successful register-based census, Statistics Estonia requires information from 20 national databases. Data acquisition (loading register data into Statistics Estonia’s information system) is automatic. Data acquisition will take place in two ways:
• Primary acquisition: the transmission of the required part of a register;
• Acquisition of updates: the transmission of changes made in the register.

Methods:
• Registers and Statistics Estonia exchange data over the secure data exchange layer X-Road (legally binding data, confidential data).
• Data has transferred by using file transfer protocols (non-critical data).
• Data files has transferred by using e-mail (non-critical data).

Requirements:
• ALL registers and metadata of registers must described in catalogue RIHA.
• Data has transferred by using secure X-Road services according to the agreement between Statistics Estonia and registers. Both "pull" and "push" methods has allowed.
• Data are presented in XML-format and described by XMLSchema (.xsd format)
• Updates should include the time; updates must be able to get since the last updates.
• All addresses must have taken from ADS-system.
• All physical persons must have identified by PIN code, or with codes of business register
• Data of registers must aligned to the results of the quality assessment of Statistics Estonia.
• Registers must include all necessary characteristics, must be complete and accurate.
• Registers must ensure the integrity of data.

Lessons learned

Enablers:

Enabler 1. Legal and organizational interoperability: legislation approved by stakeholders; government solutions pass interoperability assessment process.
Enabler 2. Secure data exchange layer for confidential and legally binding data needed. In case of Estonia the X-Road is used
Enabler 3. The unique personal identification code provide opportunity to merge personal data from different registers.
Enabler 4. The unique company commercial registry code provide opportunity to merge business data from different registers.
Enabler 5. The unique address data provide opportunity to merge address data from different registers.
Enabler 6. Master data in registers must described in catalogue RIHA properly.

Barriers :

Barrier 1. Quality of data needs to be improved. It should establish clearer quality requirements.
Barrier 2. The systematic logic controls of data must applied.
Barrier 3. Registers legislation must contain provisions to allow their data reuse by Statistics Estonia.
Barrier 4. Data of registers can processed by Statistics Estonia exclusively for the purpose of Census. The data allowing a person to be identified shall be substituted by a code. Decoding and the possibility to decode is permitted only for the needs of additional scientific research or official statistics.

Source: https://scoop4c.eu/cases/estonian-e-census

Disclaimer: Please note that this article is a result of the SCOOP4C Pilot Project, not an application of a CEF Building Block.




Last updated on  Jul 29, 2019 10:15

Share this post




News
Event calendar
Sectors
Media library
Success stories


Subscribe to our newsletter

This page has no comments.