The adoption on 19 July 2002 of the Framework Decision on combating trafficking in human beings (which is currently being revised) defined human trafficking in terms of sexual exploitation and labour exploitation. The instrument introduced a framework of measures to be adopted at European level. These included aspects of the problem such as criminalisation, the severity and nature of punishments and prosecution as well as protection of and assistance to victims.
COM/2006/187, 9 pages
In this report the European Commission elaborates on to what extent the requirements set out in the Council Framework Decision on combating trafficking in human beings have been met by the Member States.
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR), 2002, 17 pages
Donna Hughes (Council of Europe), May 2001, 28 pages
New communications technologies and services enable users to communicate and transmit files. None of these new technologies are harmful, but they provide those who wish to harm or exploit women and children new, efficient and, often anonymous ways of doing that.
This report will not attempt to categorize all these types and uses, but describe the most common and a few of the newest uses of these technologies for the trafficking and sexual exploitation of women and children.
Council Directive 2002/90/EC of 28 November 2002 defining the facilitation of unauthorised entry, transit and residence
The Directive 2002/90/EC defines assisting irregular migration.
The Directive requires that Member States apply appropriate penalties against those who attempt, instigate or commit the infringement of assisting irregular migration procedures. The Directive 2002/90/EC punishes assisting irregular migration for financial gain no matter whether a criminal organization is involved or not.
Council Framework Decision of 28 November 2002 on the strengthening of the penal framework to prevent the facilitation of unauthorised entry, transit and residence
This framework decision establishes a common action for European Union countries to prevent violations relating to the facilitation of illegal immigration, illegal employment, trafficking in human beings and the sexual exploitation of children.
The framework decision provides minimum rules for penalties, liability of legal persons and jurisdiction.