Together Against Trafficking in Human Beings

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UNITED NATIONS

 

 

INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS

 

 

 

This section offers contact information to coordinating bodies in Member States, responsible for  anti-trafficking initiatives, as well as other government bodies and agencies working in the field of anti-trafficking. It also offers contacts to EU institutions and agencies, international and non-governmental organisations.

The contact information to the NGOs presented in this section has been selected through with substantive help from the Member States and through the OSCE Office of the Special Representative on Trafficking in Human Beings. They all work in the field anti-trafficking. They have a coordinating role among other national NGOs (umbrella organisations) in MS or have a coordinating role given by the government. Some of them provide services to victims or carrying out awareness-raising campaigns/work. Substantive input has been given from Member States in selecting the NGOs.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

Austria is affected both as a transit country and a target destination for male, female, and child victims of trafficking in human beings (THB.) Trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation remains the most frequent form. Labor exploitation occurs in agriculture, construction and the catering sector, as well as in domestic and care work. Cases of trafficking for begging and for committing property crimes have also been reported, often involving minors. Victims originate mainly from Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary), Africa (Nigeria), and Asia (Philippines). Around 75% of victims are EU-citizens.

Main and new trends
  • An increase in exploitation within (extended) family structures;
  • An increase in victims from China;
  • An increase in exploitation of mentally impaired/extremely unstable persons.
 
Trafficking of women
The victim support organization LEFÖ-IBF assisted 247 victims in 2013, of which 57% originated from EU member states. A majority of the victims with EU
citizenship was of Bulgarian, Romanian and Hungarian origin. The percentage of victims exploited in sex work amounted to 69%, 3% were cases of forced marriage and 14% were exploited as domestic workers.
 
Child Trafficking
The number of children assisted by Drehscheibe, the main institution providing support to child victims, has increased in 2013/2014. However, most of these minors seem to be linked to one major case which is, however, still under investigation. 
 
Trafficking of Men
In the beginning of 2014 the Vienna-based Men’s Health Centre launched the pilot project “MEN VIA”, a focal point for male victims of human trafficking financially supported by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection. The clients are provided with safe accommodation, psycho-social support, including during judicial proceedings, medical aid and other services. In the first few months MEN has already assisted several men.

A summary of this text is also available in the official language of the country.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

Since the mid-90’s Belgium has developed many tools in order to fight human trafficking and to protect the victims.

In 1995 Belgium adopted a first law namely the Law of 13 April 1995 concerning the fight against trafficking in human beings. This law has been changed in 2005 and in 2013.

Also a specific scheme for providing aid and assistance to victims of trafficking in human beings was in the nineties introduced in Belgium.

The following years trafficking in human beings stayed a priority for Belgium and different legislative instruments and new tools were developed.

Belgium is mainly a transit and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of economic and sexual exploitation. By comparison with the years 2011-2012, we can mention  there have been more cases of economic exploitation than sexual exploitation observed in 2013.

In addition, we don’t notice significant changes regarding the victim nationalities through these different years. Moroccan, Romanian, Chinese, Nigerian and Tunisian nationalities remain mainly recorded. Only the  last one differs from the year 2012 when Bulgarian nationality was the fifth registered. . For 4 of these nationalities, victims were mainly economically exploited. unless Nigerian nationality for which sexual exploitation appears more frequently.

Women and girls are trafficked to Belgium primarily from Nigeria, Russia, Eastern Europe and China and they are especially trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

Men are trafficked to Belgium especially for the purpose of labour exploitation, for example in restaurants, bars and building sites. The main source countries for labour trafficking in Belgium include China, India, Brazil, and Bulgaria.

 

Main trends on sexual exploitation:

  • Main trends: offender groups originate in principal from Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, Nigeria, Hungary,Thailand and Brazil. There is a decrease in visible prostitution (red light district, bars,…) and an increase in dissimulated forms such as private housing, escort services, massage salons.
  • Trends: Upon suspicion of the traffickers that a victims’ name occurred in an investigation, the victim will be transported for exploitation to neighboring countries, in which the network is also operating.
  • In Nigerian prostitution rings, operated by international and large scale criminal networks, we noted so called “exchange programmes” of victims among exploiters in Norway, Spain, Sweden Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium.
  • Criminal organisations from Thailand make use of Thais massage salons in Belgium to exploit sexually young Thai women. These salons are often run by Belgian managers. Within this Thais networks mainly women organises the trafficking activities. These networks are active in smuggling and trafficking in human beings with both a purpose of economic and sexual exploitation. They corrupt governmental staff, among others of embassies and are also involved in money laundering by money transfers. They organize marriage of convenience and use these marriages to raise the debts of the victims. The victims have to pay off their so called smuggling debts with prostitution work, which leads to debt bondage.
  • In recent years the number of drug addicted victims in the files of sexual exploitation has  increased. Because of their addiction the victims are particularly vulnerable. In some cases,  the victims aren’t addicted at the moment of their recruitment but are deliberately drugged and become totally dependent of their pimp. Sometimes the victims are recruited in the drugs environment and therefore they are already very vulnerable. The female victims are getting paid by their pimp by drugs, so they end up in a total dependent position. Analysis of  files reveals that certain victims also passed away. Among this victim profile belong also Belgian girls which are seduced by a loverboy and by who they get addicted to drugs.  In some districts prostitutes receive a significant part of the profits made (a so called win-win situation); therefore they are reluctant to make statements regarding the activities of their pimps.
  • Increasing use of Internet to recruit new sex-workers, to diverse sex-services, to make publicity and to dispatch victims over different countries.

Main trends on labour exploitation:

  • Main trends: Bulgarian, Romanian, Brazilian, Moroccan, Chinese, Indian, Pakistani, and Belgian offender groups.
  • Occurs in almost all economic sectors: agriculture and horticulture (India, Morocco, Romania, Poland, Turkey); construction and renovation (Brazilians, Bulgaria, Romania); restaurants and cafés (Brazil, Bulgaria, Nepal, Morocco, China); (building) cleaning industry (Brazil, Morocco); carwash (Indo-Pakistani); meat industry (Morocco, Bulgaria) textile & garment ateliers and markets (India, Pakistani); night- and phone shops and carwash with India & Pakistan, flower selling with India ;  horse riding schools with Brazilian, international and national transport (Bulgaria, Romania)…
  • Main trends: in the construction sector: presumed “self-employed” and posted workers especially with new EU-residents (East Europe); pseudo-legal immigration for example persons who enter Belgium legally as a student but then disappear. We also noted that networks use different types of pseudo-legal forms of immigration like marriages of compliance, falsified student or labour contracts, etc. In a next phase these persons become victims of economic exploitation.

Different cases

On 5 December 2012, Turnhout’s criminal court reached a verdict on a case of labour exploitation with secondment structures in the building sector. In 2007, a first group of Romanian workers were recruited in Romania and brought to Belgium, followed by a second group in 2008. The workers were employed in the construction sector in conditions contrary to human dignity. They were from the same region and adverts published in magazines had caught their eye; they were promised they would find a good job in Belgium with good conditions. They were employed by building firms with false E101 documents. The defendants had formed an organised group of people on whom they could call. A network for recruiting workers was set up in Romania: the network published adverts, designated contact people and a company on site provided false papers and organised the transport.

The court considered that there was sufficient proof that the working and living conditions were contrary to human dignity, because the workers did not benefit from any social welfare (as there was no employment contract); they worked long days (including Saturdays); they were present in alternation on building sites and were driven to and from the building sites; their salary was not paid properly, they could not spend it as they liked; they were forbidden access to medical care. The accommodation was appalling. The workers were packed into narrow studio apartments that did not meet fire safety recommendations and only had limited sanitary installations, with hot water a rarity (the main principal deducted part of their wages for this accommodation).

One- to two-year (suspended) prison sentences were given. The two companies that appeared in court were also convicted of acts of human trafficking and received a fine of 5,500 euros.

In another case from 2012, the principal contractor and the subcontracters were convicted for trafficking in human beings. A well-known catering-restaurant chain systematically exploited, as the principal contractor and through a system of subcontractors, victims working in the restroom facilities on the highway. As principal contractor and organiser, the chain developed a system of exploitation in stages, which could be adapted and refined after each police visit or inspection. They made use of posted workers and bogus self-employed workers. The principal contractor and the subcontractors were convicted.

In a Nigerian case of sexual exploitation in Tongeren, on the border with the Netherlands, one of the victims was intercepted in the Netherlands and risked being repatriated to Nigeria. The Belgian Prosecutor then contacted the Immigration Office (IO) to transfer the victim to Belgium and to place her under the official status of victim in Belgium. After telephonic conversations, the police found that one of the victims was in administrative detention with an inmate in the Netherlands. Via EPICC (the Euregional Police Information Cooperation Centre) the two persons were able to be identified and the closed detention centre in the Netherlands where the victim was being held could be located. On two occasions, Belgium sent an inquiry commission to the Netherlands to interview the victim. According to the police, during these meetings, the victim appeared overcome with ‘an incredible anxiety about the impact of the voodoo spells that had been cast on her future. With the help of the staff of a specialised support centre and discussions with them, the victim was eventually convinced to go to Belgium and claim the official status of victim.

Various authorities had to be engaged to arrange this in administrative terms. The IO acted as an intermediary to transfer the victim to Belgium. The Human Trafficking unit of the IO confirmed that the victim met all the conditions for access to the official status of victim of human trafficking. The Dublin office of the IO in turn contacted the Dutch authorities and it was confirmed that the victim would be granted legal residence in Belgium. Agreements were also made concerning the practical implementation of the recovery and further assistance to the victim. The ‘Repatriation and Departure Service’ of the Dutch Ministry of Justice finally notified the Belgian police that the victim would cooperate unconditionally as long as she could be placed in Belgium in a shelter run by a specialised support centre. Thereupon, the Dutch police brought the victim to the Belgian-Dutch border to hand her over to the Belgian police, who in turn transferred her to the shelter run by a specialised support centre in Antwerp.

A  final decision of 25 of January 2013 convicted a man who exploited in Belgium disabled persons of Slovakia. In this case the man was convicted for THB - exploitation of begging. The persons recruited were obliged to beg on shops car parks. They had to sleep in a car. At night the perpetrator counted the money and kept most of it. The court highlighted the fact that the situation was particularly degrading for the exploited persons.

In Belgium there was in 2014 a case where Roma couples were convicted. In this case also the qualification of THB was determined. 

The Roma couples forced their children of 13th years old into marriage and as consequence a sexual relationship. The parents of the boy paid 5000 euro to the parents of the girl for the organisation of a party and for presents. The party was organised to officialise the relationship of this children. Hereafter the couple had to have sex to prove that the girl was a virgin.  After the party the girl had to go to life with the family of the boy. There she  had to perform different household tasks.

The qualification of trafficking in human beings was proven. The judge decided that the parents of the girl transferred the control of the girl to the parents of the boy with the purpose of rape and the corruption of youth. The infraction was committed versus a minor by persons who had the authority of the girl. They used (in)directly, fraudulent manoeuvres or used violence, deceit, threats or any form of coercion. The transfer of the control was concretised by transfer of the money and the “removing” of the girl to the house of the boy.

Concerning the parents of the boy the qualification was mentioned in the same terms but with them it concerned the gaining of the control. This term was recently added to the definition of THB in Belgium namely by law of 29 April 2013 amending article 433quinquies of the Criminal Code with a view to clarifying and expanding the definition of human trafficking

For more information on trends and jurisprudence, see CEOOR (now Federal migration centre reports: www.diversitybelgium.be), www.diversite.be (French) and www.diversiteit.be (Dutch)

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

Cyprus is predominantly considered to be a destination country for trafficked persons. The majority of the victims in Cyprus are trafficked for the purpose of sexual and labour exploitation. 

Traffickers usually use force and abuse of the position of vulnerability of the victim or “debt bondage” as means of manipulation and control.  The victims are forced into prostitution, labour exploitation or other criminal activities through the use of threats and/or deception, and consequently, end up living under slave-like conditions as their fundamental rights and freedoms are violated.

Over the past few years, victims of trafficking in human beings have mainly been nationals from countries of the former Soviet Union, but recently the number of the identified victims from Eastern Europe, India, the Philippines, Morocco, and Vietnam has increased. 

  • In 2013 ,129 individuals were interviewed by the Police as potential victims of trafficking
  •  the total number of identified victims were 30 as follows )some victims fall under more than one category):
  • 14 victims trafficked for labour exploitation;
  • 14 victims trafficked for sexual exploitation
  • 5 victims were trafficked for forced marriages
  • 2 victims were trafficked  for both labour and sexual exploitation

A summary of this text is available in the official language of the country.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

The Czech Republic is considered mainly a target and a transit country, however to a certain extent it can be deemed as a source country as well. As regards countries of origin of victims identified in the Czech Republic, mainly countries with a lower standard of living have been identified (the Russian Federation, Slovakia, Ukraine, Vietnam, Mongolia, Nigeria, Romania and some others). The most frequent cases of Trafficking in human beings (THB) are for the sexual and work exploitation. 

Principal trends that have affected the situation in the area of trafficking in human beings in the Czech Republic continued through the 2013. The number of cases of trafficking in human beings in the area of sexual exploitation remains stable (in 2010 a decline was registered in the whole sector providing sexual services that was followed by increase in subsequent years) partially also due to the economic crisis. On the other hand, the crisis markedly contributed to the growth in cases where labour exploitation and forced labour may be suspected. Companies were seeking ways to operate the most cost-effectively and for example decreased numbers of legal employees or workers hired through agencies, mostly foreign ones; many workers, mainly from abroad, often took up work without an adequate guarantee of remuneration and working conditions.

Since 2008 the change of “modus operandi” used by offenders has persisted till now. Subtle forms of coercion have prevailed as means of manipulation of victims. Victims can leave their workplace as well as the place of accommodation and in some cases they even receive advance payments. Physical violence occurs very rarely and it tends to be the result of skirmishes and disputes between employees and their employer rather than a tool of coercion. Contrary to this, psychological pressure is quite frequent and the same applies to threats and similar practice on the edge of legality (payment of wages delayed but still within the legal time limit, demand for overtime work, non-payment under the guise of enforcing repayment schemes for nonexistent debts, unsuitable hygienic conditions, punishment for fabricated violations of rules and conditions and so on); poor knowledge of law and the language is also frequently abused.

In 2010 another trend recorded in recent years was confirmed. That is the focus of offenders on vulnerable groups of persons, primarily in the phase of their recruitment for different types of work to be done, both in the Czech Republic and abroad. Foreign nationals, mainly those who have lost their jobs in the Czech Republic and are facing administrative expulsion, followed by persons from socially excluded localities, mentally disabled people and homeless people are among the most common vulnerable groups. The access of these persons to the labour market is hindered and thus they are often lured by a vision of income that they would not be able to gain under normal circumstances. Their ability to ask for help in cases where they become victims of such treatment is also decreased either because of their handicap or due to societal prejudices or in the case of foreigners the absence of a residence permit. A typical sign, which persisted also in 2013, is latency of the offence of trafficking in human beings and problematic provision of evidence.

THB for the purpose of labour exploitation has been criminalized in the Czech Republic since 2004. Two final condemnatory judgments for THB for the purpose of labour exploitation have been delivered in 2012, two more in 2013, leading to 9 convictions in total. According to the statistics of the law enforcement agencies (LEA) 24 cases were investigated in 2010 as presumed cases of trafficking in human beings, 19 for sexual exploitation and 5 for labour exploitation. 35 persons were investigated and prosecuted, 9 offenders were sentenced unconditionally and 1 person was sentenced unconditionally. According to the same statistics 33 crimes of presumed procurement were detected in the last year, 28 person were investigated and prosecuted, 33 offenders were charged with a sentence. The modus operandi of the perpetrators and the source and destination countries are same as in last two years. The only slight change we registered is with regards to the organized crime groups organizing trafficking in human beings for labour exploitation from the former Eastern bloc (Ukraine, Russia, Kazachstan etc.). The offenders no more confiscate travel documents of their victims and they tend to present themselves as legally functioning entities such as recruitment agencies. THB perpetrators in 2012 were mostly from Ukraine and Slovakia. In 2012 JIT with UK continues, perpetrators sentenced in the UK.

In 2012 the Czech Republic presented fourth National strategy on the fight against trafficking for the period 2012 - 2015.

At the end of the year there were extensive police operations focusing on THB for the purpose of sexual exploitation, procurement: organized group (members from Croatia, Ukraine, Czech Republic); girls from socially disadvantaged families; THB cases connected with drug criminality.

Information provided by NGO Bliss without Risk about the prostitution scene suggest that mostly Czech women are involved in prostitution (then also women from Ghana, Bulgaria, USA, Slovakia, Ukraine, Russia, Nigeria).

In February 2013 there was 3rd final condemnatory judgment for THB FL/LE: where Czech citizens were trafficked into the UK. The perpetrators received high sentences (9,5 years of imprisonment). Overall, there are four condemnatory judgments for THB FL/LE so far. Apart from violent forms of coercion there has been observed means of abuse of error, distress, or use of a ruse. Overall, out of 19 perpetrators convicted for THB, 6 have been convicted for THB FL/LE.

Overview of condemnatory judgments concerning THB for the purpose of forced labour and labour exploitation in detail:

 

  • 1st case: several persons from social excluded areas exploited in construction under bad working conditions (2012).
  • 2nd case: 3 perpetrators from Ukraine convicted, 20 Romanian workers exploited in agriculture and meat factory (2012).

  • 3rd case: 3 perpetrators from Ukraine convicted, 10 Polish workers exploited in construction in bad working conditions (2013).

  • 4th case: 4 perpetrators from the Czech Republic, exploited a group of Czechs in a bakery in United Kingdom (2013)

  • Czech Republic Ministry of the Interior EU cooperation ENG

1. GENERAL INFORMATION


A summary of this text is available in the official language of the country.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

Estonia has been active in anti-trafficking efforts since 2005. An inter-agency coordination network for trafficking of human beings issues has been established in 2006 (meets twice per year). The national developmental plan for reducing violent crimes, including the fight against trafficking of human beings, has been approved by the government in April 2010. The plan covers the period from 2010-2014. At the moment the new strategy is in the process of implementation and should be ready by the end of 2014. The new strategy covers the years 2015-2020.

Trafficked women as victims and women involved in prostitution are assisted by social and psychological rehabilitation centres. There is a shelter for trafficking victims of sexual exploitation and also labour exploitation, but in case of need, female victims can be placed in other women’s shelters belonging to the Estonian Women’s Shelters Union. There is special helpline (+372 6 607 320) for trafficking in human beings issues, also for giving the tips regards working abroad, contracts. Through Helpline about 700 people in the last years were advised, see statistics here.

Several studies have established Estonia both as a source country and transit country for human trafficking to surrounding EU countries including, above all, Scandinavian countries but also to Germany, UK.

According to the 2013 Trafficking in Persons Report, Estonia is ranked as a Tier 2 country. Specific criminal statute “trafficking” has been added to the Penal Code in April 2012 and this incorporates a definition of trafficking in persons in conformity with the UN TIP Protocol. Before April 2012 a number of other articles are applied to prosecute related crimes, among which enslavement, deprivation of liberty, aiding prostitution, illegal organ donation, manufacture of works involving child pornography or making child pornography available etc.

Estonia has signed the COE trafficking convention in 2010 and at the moment preparing the ratification of the convention. Draft legislation should be sent to Government and Parliament for discussion and approval in 2014.

ADSTRINGO project got funds from European Commission Prevention of and Fight against Crime Programme. This project is addressing trafficking in human beings for labour exploitation through improved partnerships, enhanced diagnostics and intensified organizational approaches in 9 countries in the Baltic Sea region, incl. Estonia. See reports, incl. about Estonia and in Estonian, here, reports nr 75 and 78.

2013 crime statistics yearbook is available in Estonian online. Analysis of the related crimes to trafficking in 2013 in Estonian is in chapter 9. Social Insurance Board, who is coordinating the services to THB victims sent to the services in 2013 1 victim of sexual exploitation and 2 unaccompanied foreign minors. Around 700 people were given advice from THB special helpline on how to work and/or study safely abroad, and how to avoid trafficking.

Guidelines of the referral and aiding victims are in the process of reviewing and updating. As since 14.04.2012 THB is criminalized, then in 2013 new procedural guidelines were worked out for the different related organizations and the process of updating has started and will be finalized in 2014. Also, there are in preparation the information materials for the victims of THB.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

In France, the issue of human trafficking began to receive political attention in the first years of the twenty first century. In December 2001, a Parliamentary Mission Report on the fight against modern forms of slavery and trafficking was announced. This, in turn, led to a unanimous vote in the National Assembly for a new law to combat trafficking in human beings. In the following years, a comprehensive legal framework on human trafficking was developed in France.

France is a destination country for women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation from Eastern Europe, West Africa and several Asian countries. Men, women and children from African countries are trafficked for forced labour, including domestic servitude. The French government estimates that 18,000 to 20,000 women are victims of sex trafficking in the country.

138 French victims were identified in 2012 and 206 in 2013. 912 victims from all nationalities were counted in the same year (Africa: 190, Eastern Europe and the Balkans: 276, Western Europe: 214 South America: 83, Asia: 119 and Maghreb 27.

Trafficking in human beings for sexual exploitation is a major problem in France and mainly affects victims from Nigeria, China, Romania and Bulgaria. The most worrying phenomenon at present is the increasing number of child trafficking in France. Most of these child victims come from South-Eastern Europe, mainly from Romania and Bulgaria. They are mostly forced to begging, but also to committing crimes. Young victims come, in the vast majority, from Roma communities and they are recruited either by family criminal networks, or by their own parents for food purposes. Minors doing pickpocketing, theft at ATM and similar crimes come mostly from small towns of South-East Europe. They are often controlled by mafia organizations that extend their activities in several Western European countries. For instance, groups that are present in the Paris region come from southern Romania and conduct similar activities in Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom. In most cases, children act under the influence of their families and execute what they ask them to do. In case of "disobedience" or insufficient earnings, children are usually victim of physical violence.

A summary of this text is available in the official language of the country.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

Germany has a long tradition of coordinating anti-trafficking efforts, dating from the late 1990s, when a Working Group was established to consider issues around trafficking in women. The main focus of Germany’s anti-trafficking policies has traditionally been trafficking in women and girls for sexual exploitation. However, in 2005, when the legal framework was brought into line with international standards for trafficking in human beings, all forms of trafficking were acknowledged. The institutional and policy framework is gradually changing to include trafficking for labour purposes.

Germany is a source, transit and destination country for men and women trafficked for sexual exploitation and forced labour. Victims are trafficked to Germany from other parts of Europe, Africa and Asia. Approximately one quarter of sex trafficking victims are German nationals trafficked within the country.

Germany is a country of destination, and to some extent transit.The vast majority of victims (87%) are EU-citizens, mainly from Bulgaria and Romania. In 2013 ( the year with the latest data), within 425 concluded police investigations 542 victims  of trafficking for sexual exploitation were identified. Trafficking for sexual exploitation goes hand in hand with the crimes against sexual self-determination, smuggling of migrants , drug trafficking, deprivation of liberty, arms traffikcing and acts of forgery. The situation has not changed significantly in the past years. 53 investigations into trafficking for labour exploitation were reported. Due to the small number of cases no detailed analysis is possible.

An essential feature of counter-trafficking is raising awareness, including awareness of the changing methods of traffickers. Due to the hidden nature of trafficking and the stigma attached to victims by their communities, the real number of trafficking victims remains unknown. Knowledge of the extent of trafficking for labour exploitation is even more limited than that of trafficking for sexual exploitation.

 

In 2013 425 investigations for trafficking into sexual exploitation were completed (decrease of 13 %). They involved 542 suspects (decrease of 11 %). 26,4 % of the suspects were Bulgarian nationals, followed by Romanians (23,1%) and Germans (16,6%). 77% of the suspects were male. 96% of the victims were female, in 2013 542 victims were identified (a decrease  of 11%). 59% of the victims are of Eastern European origin, especially Romania and Bulgaria. Only 32 victims, amongst them 15 Nigerians and 17 were from other African countries..

Regarding trafficking for labor exploitation 53 investigations were completed in 2013 against 11 in 2012. 23 suspects were identified ( 2012:7). 61 victims were indentified against 14 in 2012..

 

A summary of this text is also available in the official language of the country.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

Greece is a transit and destination country for victims, trafficked for sexual exploitation and forced labor. As Greece is one of the main entry points for migration flows into Europe, potential victims of trafficking may be identified amongst the undocumented migrants entering the country. The global financial crisis has only compounded the already complex problem of THB: widespread unemployment and a drastic decline in opportunities result in desperate situations, both in countries of origin and of destination, where people are prone to take risks and have few viable alternatives.

            On a national level there have been intensive efforts to fight THB, following a comprehensive approach that includes legislative reforms, inter-agency coordination, protection of victims, public awareness campaigns and cooperation with stakeholders from major international institutions, as well as countries of origin, transit and destination.

             According to the most recent annual statistical data, 99 victims of THB have been identified (55 victims of forced labour, 30 victims of sexual exploitation, 8 of both sexual and labour exploitation and 6 of forced begging). The Hellenic Police – Anti-THB Unit, underscores a steady decline to the number of women victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation coming from Eastern Europe, mainly from Bulgaria and Romania. The Police points to an alarming rise in the number of male victims originating from Bangladesh (35) - victims of labour exploitation - who in 2013 were the majority of victims in general, whereas in 2012 the number of non-EU victims was significantly low (8 from Albania and 5 from Nigeria). In 2012, victims from EU-countries were the majority - Romania (44) and Bulgaria (21), whereas in 2013 the number of Romanian victims dropped to (20) and Bulgarian to (20).

In 2012, 94 THB victims were identified, 69 victims of sexual exploitation, 16 of forced labour and 9 of domestic servitude. The majority of the victims were women (72%). Residence permit was granted to 63 out of 74 applicants, the lowest number in the three years (2010-2012).

The Hellenic Police reported that the number of traffickers in 2013 were 142 perpetrators, involved in 37 different cases (24 for sexual exploitation, 5 for forced begging, 6 for forced labour and 2 for both sexual and labour exploitation). 10 of those cases were classified as serious organized crime cases.

 In 2012 the total number was 171 (246 in 2010, 175 in 2011), involved in 46 cases (39 for sexual exploitation, 5 for forced begging, 1 for forced labour and 1 for illegal adoption). 14 of those were cases of organized crime. The number of women is relatively large among the traffickers, many of which were originally recruited as victims and then became involved as members of criminal networks.

In 2012 the court verdicts regarding traffickers were 48 (39 for sexual exploitation and 9 for forced labour). 34 of the aforementioned verdicts were convictions ordered by a 1st Instance Court and 14 by Courts of Appeal. The sentences extend from 9 to 22 years imprisonment and fines from 20.000 to 75.000 Euros.

Whereas in 2012, the traffickers from EU countries originated primarily from Bulgaria (39), Greece (38) and Romania (32), in 2013 Greek traffickers have risen to 44, while 34 came from Bulgaria and 17 from Romania. In 2013, traffickers from non-EU countries were primarily Albanian nationals (19) and Dominican Republic nationals (7). In 2012, traffickers from non-EU countries originated primarily from Albania (33) and Pakistan (10).

Due to precarious social conditions and insecure standard of living, large groups of vulnerable people at risk, (especially ROMA), are usually targeted by small local criminal organizations operating in the sex industry or forced labour market or forced begging.

Most of victims enter legally Greece (tourist visa) and in few occasions illegally with stolen or forged travel documents, or with valid travel documents of third persons. In a few occasions, victims overstay the visa issued from Consulates of EU countries based in countries of origin. Their illegal entrance may be facilitated by vehicles (tracks, buses etc.) specifically adapted for this purpose (crypts).

From the aforementioned review of statistics, it is evident that there is a clear need to build capacity on early identification of victims in general and specifically identification of victims of labor and other forms of trafficking. Capacity building of front line professionals such as law enforcement, coast guards, health professionals, labor inspectors, educators and others will contribute to identifying and providing assistance to more victims.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

Arising from its geographical situation Hungary lies in the crossroad of east-western and south-eastern migration. Hungary is primarily a source and transit country for women and girls subjected to trafficking for sexual exploitation and for men and women for trafficking for labour exploitation. The main destination countries in terms of trafficking for sexual exploitation are the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria and Germany. Regarding trafficking for labour exploitation the relevant destination countries are the United Kingdom, Austria, Germany, Belgium, Canada. From Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Serbia, Kosovo, China, Vietnam, Mongolia victims are transported to Western European countries through Hungary. Besides the transnational form, human trafficking exists in Hungary internally in a lesser extent too. Within the country the exploitation of victims is concentrated in the capital and its surroundings, around Lake Balaton and along the Austrian border.

Human trafficking has several root causes, so called pull and push factors which play important role and contribute to the spread of human trafficking. The economic and social factors like high unemployment, poverty, inequality in the labour market, and demand for cheap labour are incentive and contribute to human trafficking. Regarding the groups at risk of trafficking it can be established that the low educated young adults – mostly women – in Eastern, North-Eastern Hungary are the most vulnerable. They are easily trapped by false promises of well-paid easy jobs which do not require any special skills. High-risk groups for trafficking include under-educated young adults, mainly women of Roma origin, who resided in poor conditions or child welfare facilities in eastern and north-eastern Hungary. Prostitution appears to be the easiest way to getting out of poverty, over-indebtedness, deprivation for the poorest sections of the population who expect high wages and better circumstances in the destination countries.

Regarding the perpetrators in Hungary and in the countries of origin we can mention that they have informal relationship and in many case a family relationship to the victim. They are often old offender or recidivist. Taking into consideration the modus operandi of recruitment the results suggest that the false promises and deception of well-paid jobs and better working conditions are common. Traffickers are recruiting through advertisements published online, in newspapers or through persuasion. The proposed jobs contain few and deceptive information about the working conditions. The victims appear usually in the agriculture, catering, construction industry, manufacturing which do not require professional skills.

A summary of this  text is also available in the official language of the country.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

Since 1998, Italy has been at the forefront of the fight against trafficking in human beings and the protection of victims, both children and adults. The Italian model, which is still considered as a best practice in this field, was built on the principle that an effective anti-trafficking strategy should be based on a victim rights-centered approach. The main legal provisions regulating the national response to trafficking in persons were drafted in accordance with this principle and are:

  1. Article 18 of the National Law on Migration (Legislative Decree No 286 of 1998);

  2. Article 13 of the National Law against Trafficking in Human Beings (Law No 228 of 2003).

A complex structure for the assistance to trafficked persons was then developed on the basis of the abovementioned laws and is now in place at the national level, working through three main tools:

  • Programmes for temporary assistance (implemented in compliance with art. 13 of Law No 228/2003);
  • Programmes for long-term assistance and social inclusion (implemented in compliance with art. 18 of Legislative Decree No 286/1998);
  • National Anti-Trafficking Toll-Free Helpline (a “system action” laid down in art. 2 of Ministerial Decree of 23 November 1999 regulating the implementation of art. 18 of Legislative Decree No 286/1998).

Pursuant to Legislative Decree No 24 of 4 March 2014 transposing Directive 2011/36/EU, the Department for Equal Opportunities is the national authority in charge of coordinating and promoting action for the protection of trafficked persons. The Department is currently considered as Italy’s Equivalent Mechanism on Trafficking in Human Beings and this indicates the national approach to the issue adopted by the Italian Government, which considers the protection of human rights and a gender-based approach as priorities for the national intervention system.

The main objective of the assistance action taken by the Italian Government is to allow trafficked or exploited persons to escape from the conditioning of criminal organizations or individual exploiters they are subjected to and give them the opportunity to start a new life in Italy or in their country of origin. To this end, victims of trafficking or exploitation can benefit from assisted voluntary return to their home country or a special residence permit for social protection, envisaged by article 18 of the National Law on Migration (Legislative Decree No 286 of 1998). The granting of this residence permit does not depend on reporting traffickers/exploiters to law enforcement agencies by the victim. The only necessary condition for the permit to be issued is to meet the requirements provided for by the law, participate in the “Article 18” assistance programme and complete it.

Every year the Department for Equal Opportunities launches a call for proposals to finance the assistance programmes. Both local authorities and certified NGOs can apply for funding. All programmes need to be co-funded by Regions or local authorities, with a view to ensuring the local government’s ownership of actions to be implemented in a specific region.

Data and results

Data and statistics can be provided by the DEO (Department for Equal Opportunities) with regard to the victims or presumed victims of trafficking who are beneficiaries of the first assistance and social protection projects promoted and co-funded by the DEO. These people, both adults and children, can be victims of both forced labour and forced prostitution, or other forms of exploitation (forced begging, illegal activities, etc.).

From 2000 to 2013, 665 projects were co-funded within the framework of art. 18 of Legislative Decree No 286/1998 and, from 2006 to 2012, 166 projects were co-funded under art. 13 of Law No 228/2003. From 2000 to 2013, 22,699 people (among whom 1,215 children) were assisted within the framework of the “art.18 programmes” and, from 2006 to 2012, 4,207 people (among whom 240 children) received assistance under the “art. 13 programmes” (2013 data is still being elaborated. Therefore, the abovementioned figures might not be final).

As for data collection, the Department for Equal Opportunities, in collaboration with the National Statistics Institute (ISTAT), is working to the set up a national electronic database on trafficking in human beings focusing not only on victims, but also on traffickers, investigations and convictions. This will enable the Department to monitor on a real-time basis the number of victims assisted at the national level, as well as the services provided, and to analyse the new trends of trafficking in persons. As far as the trafficked persons’ nationality is concerned, although the percentage of Nigerians (women and young girls) remains stable (approximately 40% of the total number of victims), a decrease is registered for Eastern Europe nationals (Romania, Albania, Moldova, Bulgaria). In general, the percentage of victims coming from Africa (Nigeria, Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia) is increasing, amounting to approximately 60% of the total number. Victims coming from Asia (China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India) represent approximately 10%. The other national groups are numerically quite limited. Sexual exploitation is still the most common form of trafficking in human beings (about 70%). However, persons trafficked for other purposes of exploitation (forced labour, begging, criminal activities) are increasingly being assisted through the social protection programmes in Italy. While in the past years women were mainly exploited in forced prostitution, in 2012-2013, 20% of them on average were victims of other forms of exploitation (forced labour, begging, criminal activities). As for the gender of trafficked persons, the percentage of trafficked men has constantly increased since 2007 reaching approximately 28%. Men, particularly from the Maghreb countries, China, India, Pakistan and Eastern Europe, are trafficked for forced labour not only in the agricultural sector in southern Italy, but also in the textile industry, construction and other sectors of the labour market.

A summary of this text is available in the official language of the country.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

Latvia appears to be almost solely a country of origin for victims of human trafficking. Until now, there were no cases of transit for human trafficking identified, nor any evidence that Latvia was a destination country. However, Latvian victims of human trafficking were identified in Latvia, Ireland, United Kingdom, Germany, Belgium, Greece, Sweden and Russia.

The government has taken several measures to prevent this. Implementing the Declaration of the Intended Activities of the Cabinet of Ministers approved by the Cabinet of Ministers on 16 February 2012 the Ministry of the Interior drafted the project of the National Strategy for Prevention of Trafficking in Human Beings 2014-2020. The anti-trafficking policy planning document was approved by the Government on 21 January 2014.

Social rehabilitation services to trafficking victims are funded from the national budget and offered by a service provider who has been awarded the contract in public procurement organised by the Ministry of Welfare (hereinafter – procurement). The Ministry of Welfare has already come to the conclusion that, to date, procurement procedures have been too lengthy, while calls for tenders were launched every year. Due to the requirements of the Procurement Law and the right of tenderers to apply for review of the decision by the procurement commission, there have been regular delays in signing the contract with the service provider. Being aware of the needs of human trafficking victims and the necessity of receiving the service as soon as possible, the Ministry of Welfare follows the practice of launching procurement for the right of providing the service for a longer period (two years). The winner of the procurement launched in January 2013, Society “Shelter Safe House”, has been awarded a two-year contract on providing the service. It should be noted that non-governmental organisations in the sector which work with trafficking victims and on issues of curbing and possible elimination of human trafficking, are involved in the enhancement of legal framework on a regular basis. Likewise, improving the quality of the service reduces a possibility for re-victimisation. Civil society organisations are among the principal collaboration partners in improving the quality and effectiveness of the service.

The state funding for providing social rehabilitation services for victims of human trafficking is substantially increased during the last years (2009 – 39`061 euros, 2010 – 48`565 euros, 2011 – 41`250 euros, 2012 – 87`794 euros, 2013 – 93`384 euros, 2014 – 159`378 euros).

 

 

A summary of this text is available in the official language of the country.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

According to criminal cases, Lithuania is mostly a source country for trafficking in human beings for sexual, and labour exploitation, as well as for forced commission of criminal activities. Lithuanian women are trafficked for sexual and labour exploitation, men for labour exploitation, and both for forced commission of criminal activities. In 2014, Germany became the main target country, The United Kingdom remainsas the second main target country . Traffickers and victims are mostly Lithuanians.

The fight against trafficking in human beings has been a priority for the Lithuanian Government for a long time. While the first action plan (2002-2004) had a specific focus on trafficking for sexual exploitation and prostitution, the second action plan (2005-2008) had a broader focus, acknowledging different forms of exploitation. In the third action plan, the Programme for the Prevention and Control of Trafficking in Human Beings for 2009-2012, new challenges were taken into account. On 14 November 2012 the Action plan for the implementation of the National Crime Prevention and Control Programme in 2013-2015, was adopted. The Action Plan consists of two chapters one of which contains  only activities to fight against this crime. The Action Plan continues the activities started in the Programme for the Prevention and Control of Trafficking in Human beings 2009-2012. On 7 May 2015 a new programme The State Security Development for 2015–2025 Programme was adopted by the Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania, one of the tasks of which is to develop sufficient fight against human trafficking. This programme replaced the Crime Prevention and Control Programme. The interinstitutional action plan to be adopted by the Government will implement the State Security Development for 2015–2025 Programme.

In Lithuania, especially much attention is being paid to prevention of the crime. In suspicious cases potential victims are approached by the police and/or NGOs and motivated to refuse from labour offers abroad. The email box prekybazmonemis@policija.lt managed by specialised police investigator at the Lithuanian Criminal Police Bureau is also broadly used by the public to inform on suspicious cases of human trafficking and ask for advise. 

A summary of this text is available in the official language of the country.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

The Government of Luxembourg combats trafficking of human beings (THB) which is a serious crime and a gross violation of fundamental rights by a multidisciplinary approach as recommended by international and regional organisations (UNO, EU, OSCE, Council of Europe) in the framework of normative texts, projects and awareness campaigns.

Luxembourg’s policy concerning the trafficking of human beings focuses on three main areas:

  1. Prevention

  2. Protection and promotion of the victims’ rights

  3. Prosecution of the perpetrators and co-perpetrators

Luxembourg is a destination country for women trafficked primarily from Ukraine, Brazil, Romania, Bulgaria and Nigeria for commercial sexual exploitation. In the recent years, there has been an increase of forced labor cases.

Currently the Government of Luxembourg is pursuing its combat against trafficking of human beings (THB) by its multidisciplinary approach.

In this respect, Luxembourg has voted several laws approving the following European and International agreements:

°  Law of 13th March 2009 regarding Trafficking in Human Beings, (1) approving: a) additional protocol of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and b) Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human beings

  • Law of 16th July 2011 approving a) the Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (CETS 201) and b) the Optional Protocol of the Convention of the United Nations on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography and modifying the correspondent articles in the Criminal Law Code
  • Law of 21st July 2012 approving the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Air and Sea, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (“Palermo Protocol”)
  • Law of 27th February 2012 adapting the national law to the provisions of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, approved by a law of the 17th August 2000
  • Law of 9th April 2014 strenghthening the rights of the victims of human trafficking which transposes EU Directive 2011/36/EU into national legislation

 

A summary of this text is available in the official language of the country.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

As a country of source, transit and destination for human trafficking, the Netherlands has long recognised the fight against this phenomenon as a priority, and has taken a victim-centred approach. The Netherlands was one of the first European countries to appoint a National Rapporteur, as early as 2000.

Registered victims of human trafficking are mostly women who have been trafficked for sexual exploitation. However, the broadened scope of the trafficking clause, which since 2005 encompasses exploitation in all economic sectors, has led to an increase in the number of men among registered trafficking victims.

During 2008, the majority of identified sex trafficking victims were from the Netherlands. Other common countries of origin were Bulgaria, Romania and Nigeria. Male victims were trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation as well as into forced labour, especially in the catering, cleaning, agriculture and construction sectors. The main countries of origin for male victims were China, India, Nigeria and Sierra Leone.

Groups vulnerable to trafficking included single underage asylum seekers, women with dependent residence status obtained through fraudulent marriages, and women recruited in Africa, China, and Thailand for work in massage parlours.

In 2010 almost thousand (possible) victims of human trafficking were registered, an increase of about 10 percent. 799 victims were exploited in the sex industry, and 139 in various labour exploitation situations. Main countries of origin: the Netherlands, Nigeria, Eastern European countries. The increase of the number of victims must be considered as the result of improved observation, reporting and registration rather then as a deterioration of the trafficking situation in the Netherlands.

From January – November 2011, 1003 (possible) victims of trafficking were registered: 800 (of which 144 are minors) women and 203 men (9 minors). Of the men, 57 were victims of THB for sexual exploitation and 127 of “other forms of exploitation”, mainly labour exploitation. Of the women, 592 were victims of THB for sexual exploitation and 98 were victims of other forms of exploitation. The number of victims from Hungary and Poland seems to be increasing, due to groups of them being found during searches of agricultural businesses.

The government has doubled the target concerning the number of criminal networks to be eliminated. This will require an overall effort, concerning an increased prosecution effort, as well as a further development of the administrative approach and of a victim care approach that encourages victims to report.

In January 2012, the Dutch Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings published an update report on the prosecution and trial of trafficking in human beings (THB) cases in The Netherlands. See 6. Resources the document: "Prosecution and trial of trafficking in human beings".

The total number of (potential) victims encountered in 2011 was 1222. Of these, around 1,000 were women and around 200 were men. Of the women, 716 were (potential) victims of sexual exploitation and 115 of labour or other kinds of exploitation. Of the men, 66 were sexually exploited and 141 were exploited through labour or otherwise. (Figures from Comensha).

In 2012, up to and including August, 622 (potential) victims were identified, of which 529 are women and 93 are men. (Figures from Comensha).

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

Poland is considered to be a country of origin for victims – trafficked mostly to other EU MS), a transit country and a destination country.

As of today, sexual exploitation remains the prevalent and most commonly identified form of THB in Poland. Recently, Polish sex industry is being partially taken over by Bulgarian organised crime groups, which transfer part of the profits to Polish criminal groups. The majority of victims are Polish women and women from Ukraine and Belarus, providing sexual services in brothels and private apartments. At the same time there is a noticeable decline in the number of Polish nationals forced to provide sexual services abroad – in Germany, Netherlands, Italy and in the UK. A number that has reached its peak directly after Poland’s accession to the EU.

Second largest in numbers form of THB is exploitation for criminal activity – mostly shoplifting and fraudulent transactions using debit/credit cards – and bank loan and social benefit frauds. In 2013 more than 600 people were granted the status of victim in course of the proceedings. Furthermore 113 OCG have been detained and property worth about 5 M PLN was secured. The crimes of forcing people to fraudulently obtain social benefits or buy expensive goods on credit, involving Polish citizens were recorded in the UK and Germany. In 2013 a scheme of women criminal exploitation has been discovered in Italy. The perpetrators who were Polish nationals forced the women to shoplift in boutiques.

Poland noted an increase in numbers of labour exploitation, although labour exploitation cases are still hard to identify. In 2011, 2012 and 2013, 5, 7 and 6 investigations concerning forced labour (respectively) were conducted in Poland. In recent years, large numbers of Poles were identified as victims of labour exploitation in the UK – 157 potential victims of forced labour in 2013. Regarding the exploitation of foreigners in Poland, based on scientific research, it is believed that the exploitation is most common in agriculture and construction sectors. Furthermore the Border Guard estimates the number of Asian countries nationals (particularly Vietnamese) exploited in Poland is increasing.

In 2012-13, Border Guard identified a group of 22 Romanian nationals exploited to begging and 2 victims from Africa (Morocco, Kenia) in domestic servitude.

For the first time Polish women were identified as victims forced to enter into sham marriages with third-country nationals in the UK.

Key Statistical data:

The number of preparatory proceedings conducted by prosecutors’ offices in 2011-2013 remained stable – 52, 65 and 57 respectively. There was a slight rise in the number of cases completed with indictment in relation to all completed cases – 21,15% in 2011 and 34,21% in 2013)

The Police initiated 12 investigations in 2011, 26 in 2012 and 27 in 2013. Most of them were initiated by the Central Team for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings of the Central Bureau of Investigation of the Police Headquarters. The vast majority of these cases concerned Polish citizens exploited outside the country. Moreover, concentration of the phenomenon of THB can be observed in the capital city Warsaw. Additionally Border Guard initiated 21 proceedings in 2011-2013.

Majority of perpetrators accused in 2011-2013 were Polish citizens with the rest of them being Bulgarians, Romanians, one German and one Belarussian.

In 2011-2013, 219 formally identified victims were recorded by the prosecution. Majority of them were citizens of Ukraine, Belarus, Bulgaria and Romania. Additionally IOM office in Kiev provided assistance Ukrainians who fell victim to trafficking in Poland: 108 persons in 2011, 64 in 2012 and 70 in 2013.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

National Strategy/National Action Plan

In 2013, Portugal adopted its 3rd Action Plan to Prevent and Combat Trafficking in Human Beings (2014-2017).

The 3rd National Plan fits within the commitments accepted by Portugal before different international authorities, in particular within the framework of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the European Union and the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries.

The 3rd National Action Plan has a total of 53 measures and it is focused on 5 main strategic areas:

a)     Prevention, Awareness-raising, Acknowledgement and Investigation

This strategic area comprises of 19 measures. The strategic goals are:

  • Raising awareness on THB amongst population in general, and within specific and more vulnerable groups;
  • Improving the levels of awareness and knowledge about THB;
  • Investing in specialisation in the academic field, and thus expanding knowledge about the different forms of trafficking.

 

b)     Education, Training and Qualification

This strategic area comprises 13 measures and has the following strategic goals:

•         Developing of educational actions for children, adolescents and young adults;

•         Qualification and capacity building of professionals intervening in the prevention of and combat against THB.

 

c)      Protection, Intervention and Capacity building

This strategic area comprises 10 measures and has the following strategic goals:

•         Strengthening the measures to protect and intervene with victims;

•         Promoting greater capacity building of victims;

•         Improving the integration mechanisms aiming to prevent eventual situations of re victimisation.

 

d)     Criminal Investigation

This strategic area comprises 5 measures. The strategic goal of this area is:

•         Developing mechanisms that promote a better coordination between the different criminal police departments.

e)     Cooperation

This strategic area comprises 6 measures. The strategic goal of this area is:

•         Strengthening forms of cooperation between the different national and international bodies in combating THB.

To know more on this and previous Plans as well as mid-terms and final evaluation reports, please go to http://www.cig.gov.pt/planos-nacionais-areas/trafico-de-seres-humanos/

In 2008, Portugal created the Observatory on Trafficking in Human Beings (OTSH) / Ministry of Internal Administration through the Decree-Law nº 229/2008 of 27 November. Its mission is to contribute to analysis of, knowledge of and intervention in trafficking in human beings and other forms of gender violence.

The OTSH main tasks include:

  • To produce and collect information on human trafficking and other forms of gender violence,
  • To promote the development of software applications to support information gathering and treatment,
  • To support political decisions in its intervention areas when requested.

The OTSH is also the responsible entity for the national monitoring system. Its goals are:

  • To collect quantitative and qualitative data from different entities with activities related to trafficking in human beings (of a criminal, judicial, prevention and support nature);
  • To retrospectively and prospectively analyze data, in order to generate knowledge on the phenomenon and of its criminal and social dynamics and trends;
  • To make the results easily accessible to all interested parties: namely law enforcement agencies and NGOs;
  • To improve policies, plans and control measures of the phenomenon.

Trends (2008 - 2015):

  • Between 2008 2015 there were 1.306 presumed victims flagged by Law Enforcement Agencies, and NGO’s/Other Entities. By flagged it should be understood the suspicion of.
  • Of relevance the fact that from these 1.306 registers, 308 reports to 2013 – an increase of 146% in comparison with 2012.
  • From a brief analysis it is seen that the figures are influenced by the so-called 'Big Cases' that is a case of (presumed) human trafficking with more than 20 (presumed) victims associated (specially seen in trafficking for labour exploitation, either in Portugal or abroad). As an example:
    • Total of registers of THB in Portugal/2013: 4 occurrences resulted in 63% of the total registers (1 in the district of Lisbon - presumed sexual exploitation, and 2 in the district of Beja and 1 in the district of Santarém - presumed labour exploitation).
    • As a result, this has led to a territorial positive variation in 2012-2013, and to a negative variation in the subsequent years.
 

Therefore, ‘emerging trends’ must be contextualized in a broader analytical framework involving internal and external variables to the crime of THB.

  • From the cases that resulted in criminal investigation, up until February 2016, there were 377 victims of trafficking in persons confirmed by the competent law enforcement agencies. Of notice that there are still cases under criminal investigation and thus this number is from the last data update.
  • On confirmed victims identified up until February 2016:
    • Portugal is primarily a destination country (64%), followed by:
      • Origin country (internal trafficking and abroad) - 23%; and Transit country: 13% (in 1 registration this classification is unknown).

The most confirmed form of trafficking is for Labour Exploitation (65% of victims), following Sexual Exploitation (28% of victims). Less representative: Illegal adoption, Forced Begging, Exploitation of Criminal 

  • Activities, Labour and Sexual Exploitation, Labour Exploitation and Criminal Activities and others (results protected by statistical secrecy).
  • As far as gender, the majority of identified victims are male (57%) – female represent 43% (in 1 register data is unknown).
  • Regarding age group, the large majority are adults (84%); 14% are children (in 6 registers age is unknown).
  • Gender dimension: considering the main two types of trafficking -  labour and sexual exploitation - it is seen:

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

Human trafficking in Romania is a social and criminal phenomenon within supply-demand equations. Romania primarily is an origin country for the victims of trafficking, taking into consideration increased vulnerability of populations in search for better living opportunities. The same extent European countries continue to remain at their status as countries of destination for Romanian citizens drawn into situations of trafficking and exploitation.

       The demand for sexual services, from side of consumers of such kind of services, also of the employers who sought cheap labor, under provision of a contract outside the or to the limit of the legal requirements, have encouraged the supply “market” from some of the European countries with victims, vulnerable because of rudimentary living conditions or attitudes and judgments that have put them in extremely dangerous situations, involved in various circumstances of trafficking and exploitation of their skills and competences, more or less qualified (forced labor, offering sexual services, begging, forced to commit thefts, etc.)

       Concern for countering and diminishing this problem has manifested itself before 2000, but first systemic approach has been made ​​since 2001, following the signing of the Palermo Protocol, when the first steps were made in creating a legal and institutional framework dedicated to this initiative. Strategic dimension of anti-traffic effort was also outlined in the first National Action Plan for prevention and combating THB, followed shortly by a similar document of public policies for combating child trafficking. These first actions were set up the prerequisites of developing assistance centers for victims of trafficking, creation of specialized structures of law enforcement within National Police, followed shortly by the establishment within Public Ministry of Directorate for Investigating Organized Crime and Terrorism (DIICOT), of an entity that brought together prosecutors specialized in the prosecution of this kind of actions. 

Training of judges on trafficking related to the typology of casuistry made by National Magistracy Institute has acquired permanent character in recent years and evolution in the last decade overall of the response capacity of the Romanian authorities related to trafficking is a positive one, confirmed by the descending curve of the number of the Romanian origin victims identified and rescued from the traffic situations but also by the consistent response in judicial plan, materialized in a large number of final convictions with punishments even over 10 years.

Legal and institutional framework that have been adjusted during this time with purpose of improving the framework for action, one of the initiatives being the setting up of he National Agency against Trafficking in Persons, in 2006, specialized multidisciplinary team structure (police officers, social workers, psychologists and sociologists) mandated to coordinate efforts of the stakeholders and to ensure synergy of their actions to combat trafficking.

Following the EU Directive 2011/36, ANITP also fulfills the role of an equivalent mechanism according to article 19.

 The capacity to assist victims taking into consideration financial difficulties, amplified by the economic crisis, has had a slower evolution and to overruns these, were always sought alternative solutions, an example being The Program of coordination of victims during criminal proceedings, solutions that had as main support nongovernmental organizations involved actively in the field. Taking into consideration these grounds, current strategic priorities, established by Government Decision no.1142/2012 for approval National Strategy against Trafficking in Persons and of the National Action Plan to implement the strategy, precisely target those areas whose development will facilitate a comprehensive approach to the issue nationwide.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

The first step in announcing the fight of the Slovak Republic against human trafficking was the Government of the Slovak Republic Decree No. 668 of 7 September 2005 approved in connection with the report on activities of the Government of the Slovak Republic in 2005 focusing on preventing and combating human trafficking. Based on the above-mentioned Decree, the Minister of Interior of the Slovak Republic appointed the National Coordinator for the Fight against Human Trafficking (the State Secretary of the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic was appointed in this role); consequently the first conceptual document at the national level was approved announcing the fight against this serious criminal activity in form of the National Action Plan on the Fight against Human Trafficking for the Years 2006-2007. This document prepared by the Expert Group to prevent and help the Victims of Human Trafficking established at the Council of the Government of the Slovak Republic to prevent criminal activity was approved by Government of the Slovak Republic Decree No. 3 of 11 January 2006. It contained a summary of available information on the situation in the area of human trafficking as well as proposals in line with trends and recommendations of international organisations and the European Union. The first task assigned by this Action Plan was to create a mechanism for the control and coordination of activities in the area of combating human trafficking.  The State Secretary of the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic was appointed in October 2006 in order to fulfil this aim and to serve in the role of the National Coordinator for the Fight against Human Trafficking. Consequently, at the end of 2006, the internal regulation of the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic establishing the Expert Group for the Area of the Fight against Human Trafficking was issued. This supra-departmental group is an advisory, initiative and coordinating body of the national coordinator and. The third sector is also represented in the expert group through representatives of non-governmental organisations cooperating with the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic when realising the Program of Support and Protection for Victims of Human Trafficking.

The National Action Plan of the Fight Against Human Trafficking for the Years 2006-2007 was replaced by the National Program on the Fight Against Human Trafficking for the Years 2008 through 2010 passed by Government of the Slovak Republic Decree No. 251 of 23 April 2008. In terms of fulfilling the tasks of the National Program, multidisciplinary work groups were created by the Internal Regulation of the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic of 4 September 2008 focusing on the fight against human trafficking in order to respond in a timely manner to specific and presently occurring needs and challenges. Working groups are aimed at preventing human trafficking and at providing complex care for victims of human trafficking

In 2011 was adopted new National Program to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings for the years 2011 – 2014. The aim of the National Program on the Fight Against Human Trafficking (hereinafter referred to as “National Program”) is to secure a complex and effective national strategy for  the fight against human trafficking (hereinafter referred to as “national strategy”) supporting the establishment of mutual understanding and coordination of the activities of all participating entities as part of eliminating risks and preventing criminal activities involving human trafficking, as well as creating conditions for providing support and help to victims of human trafficking and ensuring protection of their human rights and dignity.  The National Strategy has been completed by upholding the principles of active participation on the part of the government and civil society, respect for human rights, interdepartmental cooperation and sustainability.

 

The Slovak Republic is a country of origin, transit and destination for human trafficking.  

The procedure for identifying victims of human trafficking in the Slovak Republic and potential victims including in the Program of Support and Protection for Victims of Human Trafficking is defined in the National Reference Framework. This material contains the structure of cooperating entities through which the governmental authorities fulfil their obligations in terms of protection and enforcement of human rights for individuals who became victims of human trafficking, while coordinating their efforts as part of strategic partnership with civil society. Its main aim is to ensure respect for the human rights of victims of human trafficking and provide them with effective and accessible services. Secondarily, the national reference mechanism can help to develop national policies and procedures regarding victims of human trafficking, such as legal provision in the area of legalisation of their stay and resettlement, compensation and protection.

Any entity within the environment of governmental authorities and non-governmental organisations, as well as those from abroad can identify a potential victim of human trafficking. Thus, members of various services of the Police Corps, Prosecution Office, employees of the Migration Office, employees of Offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family, healthcare staff, employees of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic, social workers in the field, employees of consular offices of the Slovak Republic abroad, non-governmental and international organisations working in Slovakia or abroad, as well as the victims of human trafficking themselves or their family members can initiate identification of victims of human trafficking through the National Helpline for Victims of Human Trafficking at 0800 800 818. Detected potential victims of human trafficking in the territory of the Slovak Republic or abroad are referred to the care of non-governmental organisations or of the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) in Slovakia that initiate the procedure for identifying potential victims of human trafficking based on the above-mentioned impulses through the identification questionnaire, personal record of the client based on the definition of human trafficking from the Palermo protocols.

 

Victim care

The scope and quality of services provided to domestic and international victims of human trafficking are set by the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic Decree No. 180/2013 on Ensuring the Program of Support and Protection for Victims of Human Trafficking governing the functioning of the Program of Support and Protection for Victims of Human Trafficking.  Both categories of victims pursuant to the principles of equality and non-discrimination are provided services according to their individual needs on the same level, while care for international victims considers more measures in terms of language barriers, legalisation of the stay of an alien and voluntary return to country of origin.

Comprehensive care is provided to victims of human trafficking – citizens of the Slovak Republic as well as foreign nationals during the period of necessary crisis care and crisis period lasting 90 days. Following this period, comprehensive care is provided during the full duration of a criminal case if the victim decides to cooperate with authorities involved in a criminal case. After the end of the criminal case, care is provided as needed during the period of reintegration lasting 90 days. In case that the victim decides not to cooperate with authorities involved in a criminal case, comprehensive care is provided to a victim who is a citizen of the Slovak Republic during the period of reintegration or integration lasting 90 days and victim of human trafficking – foreign national during the period of preparing return to the country of origin.

Comprehensive care for victim of human trafficking provided as part of the Program of Support and Protection for Victims of Human Trafficking for a victim who is a citizen of the Slovak Republic includes:

  • separation from the criminal environment;
  • help with voluntary return to the Slovak Republic;
  • possibility of anonymous accommodation, if the victim requests it;
  • 90-day period of necessary crisis care and crisis period; in case that the victim decides to cooperate with authorities involved in criminal cases as well as comprehensive care is provided during the whole period of criminal case;
  • financial support, social support, psychological and social counselling, psychotherapeutic services, legal counselling, healthcare;
  • requalification courses;
  • 90-day period of reintegration or integration;
  • possibility of being included in the Witness Protection Program according to Act No. 256/1998 Coll. on Witness Protection as amended;
  • possibility for financial compensation according to Act No. 215/2006 Coll. on the Compensation of Victims of Violent Crimes pursuant to Act No. 79/2008 Coll.

The Program for a Victim who is a foreign national includes those services shown above and legalisation of the stay in the Slovak Republic, interpreting, comprehensive care provided during the period of preparing the victim for return to the country of origin, if the victim is interested in a voluntary return, as well as the possibility to be granted permanent residency permit.  Victims of human trafficking have the possibility to return to the country of origin or another third country in the form of voluntary return. The possibility of voluntary return for victims corresponds with Article 16 paragraph 5 of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings.

 

The statistical information available from the Information Centre to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings and Crime Prevention (hereinafter referred to as “Information Centre”) show that in 2011 were identified new forms of exploitation of THB - a forced marriage and exploitation of criminal activities. In 2011, the Information Centre reported the highest number (31) of trafficking victims, who were enrolled in the program of support and protection for victims of human trafficking. Compared with the year 2010 (26 person were enrolled in to the program), in which the vast majority of cases related to trafficking for the purpose of forced labour (15), including forced begging (2)  and the economic exploitation, in 2012 (22) again the majority purpose was a sexual exploitation (15). In 2013, the Information Centre reported that 30 persons were enrolled in the program of support and protection for victims of human trafficking. Victims of human trafficking enrolled in to the program for support and protection were exploited for the purpose of sexual exploitation (15), forced labour (10), forced marriages (7) and for the purpose of forced begging (2).

Under the program named „Prevention of and fight against crime“ European Commission adopted a proposal of project entitled „Strengthening of Joint Measures for the Prevention of Forced Labour of Roma Communities and the Development of Referral Mechanism“ (duration 01/2013 – 12/2014).

The main ideological purpose of the project proposal is to strengthen and build existing national reference mechanism, provide the most vulnerable groups of population, especially marginalized Roma communities with targeted prevention against exploitation mainly for forced labour and other forms of exploitation.

Individual project activities should be directed to create new tools of targeted prevention or their extended implementation on horizontal level by inclusion of new subjects and sharing experience on national and international levels as well. Wide-spectrum nature of project activities stems from the need to reduce vulnerability of potential victims coming from Roma communities by means of a film and other promotional materials distributed not only in the territory of the Slovak Republic but also in Great Britain which, based on the current experience of the Slovak Republic, has been assessed as the most frequent destination of victims of trafficking in human beings. As the second objective in the field of prevention, precautionary guide for employers in different job sectors will be created in order to increase employers' awareness of trafficking in human being. Targeted nature of precautionary measures above should be achieved by implementation of the research aimed at case analysis of victims coming from Roma communities of selected Slovak regions in the Great Britain. 

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

The fight against trafficking in human beings was given political momentum in December 2001, when Slovenia set up an Interdepartmental Working Group (IWG) on the issue. This was followed by the appointment of a National Coordinator. The tasks of the group are to prepare periodic action plans and supervise their implementation; prepare periodic reports for the Government; and assist the national coordinator in preparing proposals to enhance the efficiency of politics and actions to combat trafficking in human beings.

Since 2004, four National Action Plans prepared by the IWG have been adopted by the Slovenian government, while the fifth Action Plan for years 2014 - 2016 is currently being prepared.

Slovenia is mostly a transit country for victims who are trafficked from Ukraine, Moldova, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Hungary and the Dominican Republic for the purpose of sexual exploitation. The victims are transported through Slovenia to Western Europe.

Majority of trafficking victims in Slovenia are being trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation.  In recent years, the number of other forms of exploitation has also been increasing, especially forced begging and forced labor (construction, massage centers etc.).

But the problem is still being predominantly focused on trafficking in human beings for the purposes of sexual abuse or exploitation and women - foreign nationals - working in night clubs. These persons are staying in Slovenia legally and have their residence status regulated. They also hold work permits. The majority are Ukraine and Dominican Republic nationals, but also the Philippines and Moldova nationals. The police have been monitoring the employment of these female foreigners in nightclubs, but they have been facing the same problem for the past years; the alleged victims do not recognise themselves as victims of trafficking in human beings in the police procedures, despite of the cooperation with NGOs . This is mainly because the perpetrators no longer force them physically and do not control them by restricting their movement, but by using subtle methods of pushing them into financial dependence, i.e. they are forced out of economic necessity (financial sanctioning for breaking house rules and rules at work, fictitious minimum wage, repayment of debt from acquiring the work permit and transport to Slovenia, etc.). It needs to be emphasised that female citizens of Dominican Republic and Ukraine who do not recognise themselves as victims of trafficking in human beings usually come from poor social and economic backgrounds.

This way as the target country it was recognized in the following cases:

  • citizens of third countries from the Eastern Europe and South America (girls from Ukraine and Dominican Republic) with the temporary residence and work permit. Indicated girls in night clubs are mostly employed as dancers or entertainers, further they are utilized for the purpose of prostitution i.e. the other kind of sexual abuses;
  • women from the area of EU (Slovakia, Czech Republic) and girls from the area of South America (Brazil), which for entry into the EU don't need a visa and mostly don't have arranged temporary residence, and also they are not employed and don't have proper social and health insurance in Slovenia. Indicated girls are dealing with the prostitution in apartments and hotels;
  • citizens from the area of EU (Slovakia, Bulgaria and Romania) – in association to the kind of forced labor – begging, also there was detected a case of criminal act of stealing.

Slovenia as the transit country detects:

  • women from SE Europe, Balkan countries and countries of the former Soviet Union, which continue their journey to the west, to Italy, France and Germany;
  • citizens from the area of EU (Slovakia, Bulgaria and Romania) – in association to begging as the kind of forced work. Police in Slovenia is detecting occasional presence of the criminal groups, which are dealing with the trafficking in human beings, with purpose of forced begging. In this the criminal groups usually travel from the source country (Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia) through Slovenia to the other EU countries (Italy, Austria, France...). On the indicated way, in Slovenia they retain only for a short time, mostly in the highway rest stops.

A summary if this text is available in the official language of the country.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

 

A summary is also available in the official language of the country.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

Taking action against human trafficking and modern slavery continues to be a top priority for the UK Government. The Prime Minister’s Modern Slavery Implementation Taskforce has driven forward the operational response to modern slavery in the UK and positioned modern slavery as a key component of the UK’s foreign policy. In Scotland, work is underway to implement the Trafficking and Exploitation Strategy, with the aim of strengthening support for victims, tackling perpetrators, and addressing the wider conditions that lead to trafficking. In Northern Ireland, tackling modern slavery and human trafficking is also a key priority for the Department of Justice and its statutory and civil society partners.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

Ireland’s response to trafficking in human beings has developed rapidly in recent years. A special Anti-Human Trafficking Unit was established in the Department of Justice Equality and Law Reform in February 2008 with a mandate to develop and implement a national anti-trafficking strategy. In June 2008, Ireland introduced specific anti-trafficking legislation in the form of the Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) Act 2008. Administrative Immigration Arrangements for the Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking were also introduced in June 2008 to coincide with the enactment of the Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) Act 2008. In August 2013, the Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) (Amendment) Act came into effect to provide for an extended definition of human trafficking in Irish criminal law  to include trafficking for forced begging and forced participation in criminal acts for profit in line with the EU Human Trafficking Directive. The Act also provided for an aggravating factor for offences committed by public officials and for evidence by persons under 18 by videorecording. In addition, the 2013 Act includes a definition of forced labour in line with the definition in ILO Convention No. 29 on Forced Labour

Since the establishment of the Anti-Human Trafficking Unit 3 other dedicated units have been created.  These include the Human Trafficking Investigation and Co-ordination Unit in the Garda National Immigration Bureau (GNIB), the Anti-Human Trafficking Team in the Health Service Executive (HSE) and a specialised Human Trafficking legal team in the Legal Aid Board (LAB).  These units have been set up as a response to Ireland’s international obligations to provide services to victims of human trafficking.

Ireland is mainly a destination country and to a lesser extent a transit country. Women, men and children are suspected of being trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labour. Women from Eastern Europe, Nigeria, other parts of Africa, South America and Asia are trafficked to Ireland for forced prostitution. Labour trafficking victims, both male and female, are mainly from Africa and Asia. Irish children have also been trafficked for sexual exploitation. These offences would traditionally have been catagorised as offences of child sexual abuse rather than commercial exploitation but have been prosecuted under the terms of section 3 of the Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) Act 2008 because the necessary elements for a prosecution for child trafficking, act and purpose, are present

Victims

In Ireland, women, men and children are suspected of being trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation, forced labour and to a lesser extent other forms of trafficking.  Analysis of data gathered between 2009 and 2013 shows levels of trafficking in human beings reported or detected by An Garda Síochána (Irish Police) peaked in 2010 at 78 alleged victims and have been in decline since that time with provisional figures for 2013 indicating that 44 alleged victims were reported or detected.  Trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation continues to be the most prevalent form of human trafficking detected in Ireland accounting for almost 70% of those reported while trafficking for the purposes of labour exploitation accounts for approximately 20%.  Adults account for 70% of those detected while minors account for 30%. Women account for almost 80% of those trafficked while men account for approximately 20%.  The 3 largest groups of victims include persons from Nigeria (33%), Ireland (15%) and Romania (9%).

 

Offenders

Between 2009 and 2013, convictions were secured against 25 individuals in regard to trafficking related offences.  In 20 of these cases the guilt parties were adult males with the remainder accounted for by adult females. 

Protection of victims

Seventy seven (77) reported victims have been referred to the Legal Aid Board for free legal services up to the end of 2013.  Furthermore, 92 care plans have been completed by the Human Trafficking Team of the Health Service Executive up to the end of 2013

Children

In 2013, a total of 16 minors (6 females and 10 male) were identified by An Garda Síochána as potential victims of human trafficking in Ireland.  

 

Actions taken in respect of Unaccompanied Minors

The decline in the number of unaccompanied children going missing from care has been maintained over the past year with a total of 71 unaccompanied children arriving in Ireland during 2013 with just 2 having gone missing who were still missing at the end of 2013.

 

Whilst the State acknowledges that unaccompanied minors are particularly at risk of trafficking due to the vulnerability of their age and circumstances it must also be noted that both groups are not identical i.e. all unaccompanied minors are not victims of trafficking and all child victims of trafficking are not unaccompanied minors. Current cases and convictions in relation to child victims identifies the majority of victims as Irish Nationals. However, in recognition of the particular risk associated with this cohort of children, the statutory authorities have implemented a number of measures to reduce the risk of trafficking in unaccompanied minors entering the State:-

·              The ‘Equity of Care Policy’ was adopted and implemented by the statutory child protection service in 2010.  This resulted in the closure of hostel accommodation and the placement of unaccompanied minors in family arrangements similar to Irish national children entering into State care.  This initiative combined with other measures contributed substantially to the significant and steady reduction in missing unaccompanied minors from 2010 and throughout the reporting period.

·              The Garda National Immigration Bureau and the statutory child protection service have conducted close collaborative protocol driven screening at major ports of entry which has also contributed to the reduction in missing unaccompanied minors from 2010 to date.

·              The specialist social work service for unaccompanied minors operates a family reunification service that screens adults bringing non-national children into the State in cases where the parentage/guardianship of the adults cannot be established by immigration officers or in cases where concerns exist as to the motivation of adults in relation to the children presenting.  The social work service conducts a thorough and multidisciplinary assessment that includes D.N.A. testing and should this process conclude that the guardianship/parentage is invalid or that there are concerns in relation to the motivation and competency of the adults involved then the children are taken into the care of the State.  Most of the cases dealt with by this service involve children in the younger age bracket who, due to their developmental level, are particularly vulnerable to trafficking.  As such it provides a critical screening and identification service in relation to child victims of trafficking within the State.

Another emerging trend, involves Irish nationals, mainly minors, who are being identified as victims of breaches of section 3 of the Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) Act 2008 in the course of investigations commenced regarding other matters.  In 2013, 11 Irish national minors were identified as potential victims, in such circumstances.  In all 11 cases, the suspected perpetrators, who are Irish nationals, have been identified and are the subject of Court proceedings. 

Information concerning victims of human trafficking and anti-trafficking law enforcement activity is made available in the Anti-Human Trafficking Unit’s Annual Reports which are accessible online via Ireland’s dedicated anti-human trafficking website www.blueblindfold.gov.ie.  Figures for 2013 will be published in 2014.

Levels of trafficking in human beings reported to or encountered by An Garda Síochána (Irish Police) have marginally decreased in 2013 than their levels over the last 3 years.  Work is progressing on finalising the Annual Report for 2013 setting out the statistical details and demographics.  It would be fair to say that trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation continues to be the most prevalent form of THB in Ireland. 

For more information on human trafficking in Ireland see the www.blueblindfold.gov.ie

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

The government of Malta remains committed to suppress human trafficking through several initiatives, including the development of victim assistance services, training of government officials, and raising of public awareness.
Malta has experienced a limited number of cases of human trafficking, the majority of which involved the sexual exploitation of women. Until 2013, the victims were mainly third-country nationals from Eastern Europe, including in particular Russia and the Ukraine, who had entered Malta through legal channels. Only one case involved the sexual exploitation of an EU national. The cases encountered so far did not involve organized crime networks. In view of the limited number of cases encountered so far, particularly during the last three years, it is difficult to extrapolate any particular trends although the last 4 cases encountered concerned victims with different nationalities other than European nationals.
 
In 2013 five new cases were encountered, all involving sexual exploitation. Four employers, of Chinese, Polish as well as one Maltese national, were found to be operating a brothel in beauty parlours and thus exploiting their adult women masseuses to provide sexual services to clients. In another case one Maltese homeless female alleged that she had sought shelter from a male, who is also a relative, and when she moved in with him he recruited her into prostitution. This is being considered as an internal case of human trafficking, a first of its kind, in Malta. In the last case encountered in 2013 a victim asked for help from the police and subsequently she was formally identified as a victim of human trafficking. Further investigations led the Police to arrest and arraigned the alleged perpetrator, a Polish national, with charges of human trafficking, in January 2014.

Thus 2013 statistics reveal a greater number of identified victims since 2003. Contrary to the general trend in Europe whereby a reduction in cases of trafficking arraigned is being experienced, in Malta an increase of such cases arraigned has been registered. The Police prosectuted more cases than in previous years. The alleged traffickers were all arraigned in court for charges for trafficking in human beings, keeping a brothel and living off the earnings of prostitution. In June 2014, Malta received a Tier 2 US TIP rating keeping the same rating as the previous year. Whilst making recommendations in relation to further actions, the report also notes that significant progress has been registered by the Maltese authorities in the sphere of human trafficking and that these initiatives were a step in the right direction.

 

 

A summary of this text is available in the official language of the country.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

The national system of suppression of trafficking in human beings consists of:

  • The national anti-trafficking coordinator.
  • National committee on suppression of trafficking in human beings.
  • Operational team of the National committee on suppression of trafficking in human beings.

 

The national anti-trafficking coordinator: operatively leads and coordinates all activities of the institutions and NGOs connected with the suppression of trafficking of persons in the Republic of Croatia. He also leads the sessions of the Operational team.

The position of the National coordinator was established by the ruling on Amendments to the Ruling on the establishment of the National Committee for the suppression of trafficking in persons.

 

National committee on suppression of trafficking in human beings: established on 9. May 2002 for the first time and the latest Decision on establishing was adopted by the Government in March 2012).

  • Representatives of all relevant ministries and government agencies (Government Office for human rights and the Rights of national minorities, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Social policies and youth, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, Ministry of justice, Ministry of education, State Attorney’s office, Croatian Labour agency, non-government organisations (PETRA network) and the media.
  • The Deputy Prime Minister responsible for social affairs and human rights

The primary assignment: reaching programms and plans on the field of suppression of trafficking in human beings as well as regulating the most important political guidelines on that field. It is the council body to the Government.

 

Operational team: established in order to resolve problems related to the specific cases of trafficking in persons and to coordinate the activities of all parties involved in their resolution.

  • Representatives of all relevant ministries, government agencies and non-government organisations of the Operative team is the National coordinator who also convenes the sessions of the Operative team at least once a month.

 

Since the establishment of the system of suppression of trafficking in human beings

- Three National plans were adopted. The new National plan for suppression of trafficking in human beings covers the period from 2012 to 2015. 

- Three Protocols were adopted: Protocol on identification, help and assistance to victims of trafficking in human beings (in 2008 and amendments in 2010), Protocol on voluntary repatriation (2009) and Protocol on integration/reintegration of victims of trafficking in human beings (2011).

- Memorandums of understanding: Memorandum on cooperation between Office for Human Rights and network PETRA (2007), Cooperation Agreement between the Ministry of Interior, former Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and NGOs on providing help and assistance to victims of human trafficking (2008) and Memorandum on cooperation regarding the SOS help line between Office for Human Rights, Ministry of Interior and network PETRA (2010).

 

Regarding the data on identified victims, we share the table of all identified victims in the Republic of Croatia since 2002.

 

 

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

TOTAL

Republic of Croatia

2

2

6

3

3

9

4

4

4

13

8

22

76

Bosnia and Herzegovina

0

1

2

1

1

2

2

1

1

1

 

 4

16

Bulgaria

0

0

0

1

3

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

4

Kameruna

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

1

Marocco

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

1

Moldavia

3

1

2

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

 

 

7

Romania

0

0

3

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

2

 3

11

Russian Federation

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

1

Slovakia

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

1

Srbia

0

1

3

0

1

3

1

3

1

0

 

 1

14

Ukraine

2

0

2

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

7

Albania

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

1

Stateless

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

1

Macedonia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

SAD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

TOTAL

8

8

19

6

13

15

7

8

7

14

11

31

147

 

Regarding the identified victims, since 2002 until today, 147victims of trafficking have been identified. In 2013 total of 31 victims of trafficking have been identified.

In 2013 a new trend has emerged in Croatia. This is a trend of identified minor female victims, which have been sexually exploited. Regarding the trends on foreign victims, almost all foreign victims in the last 4 years were citizens of Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. This proves that the Republic of Croatia is becoming a destination country for the victims from the region.

Regarding gender, both globally and in Croatia, the largest number of identified victims are women used for sexual exploitation. Conducted criminal analysis has showed that the perpetrators of the crime of THB are mostly citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Croatia.

The directions of transporting victims of human trafficking, however, have somewhat changed. Therefore, in the coming period, Croatia will intensify its cooperation with the countries of the European Union's in the involvement in combating THB and the exchange of experiences and best practices.

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Co-ordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level 
 
The Task Force on Combating Human Trafficking is the national coordinating mechanism, headed by the Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign
Affairs. It comprises representatives of all competent ministries, the federal provinces and non-governmental organizations (the victim support organization LEFÖ-IBF, MEN VIA, ECPAT Austria and the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Human Rights). Special working groups of the Task Force deal with the issues of “Child Trafficking” (chaired by the Federal Ministry for Family and Youth), “Prostitution” (chaired by the Federal Ministry for Education and Women”) and “THB for the purpose of labour exploitation” (chaired by the Federal Ministry for Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection”). 
The Austrian National Coordinator on Combating Human Trafficking was appointed in March 2009 and serves as the Chair of the Task Force. The function is held by a senior official at the Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs (FMEIA). 
 
Legislation
In transposing Directive 2011/36/EU on combating trafficking in human beings Austria has amended section 104a of the Criminal Code (CC) by the Criminal Amendment Act 2013. The amendment entered into force on 1 August 2013. The changes are: 
  • a more comprehensive enumeration of forms of exploitation (including now explicitly begging and criminal activities);
  • an increase of the penalties for the basic offence in section 104a para. 1 CC from up to three years of imprisonment to between six month and five years of
    imprisonment;
  • an increase of the penalties for trafficking children between the age of 14 and 18 years from up to three years to one to ten years (section 104a para. 5 CC);
     
Section 104a CC reads as follows:
“Trafficking in human beings
Sec 104a. (1) A person who recruits, harbours, otherwise receives, transports or offers or transfers to another person an adult using dishonest means (para. 2)
against this person with the deliberate intention of the person's exploitation (para. 3), is to be punished with a prison sentence of a minimum of six months up to five years.
 
(2) Dishonest means are the use of force or severe threats, the deception about facts, abuse of authority, a position of vulnerability, insanity or of defencelessness, intimidation and the receiving or giving of benefits for handing over control over the person.
 
(3) Exploitation includes sexual exploitation, exploitation through organ transplantation, labour exploitation, exploitation of begging and the exploitation to
commit criminal activities.
 
(4) A person who commits the criminal act in the context of a criminal association, under the use of severe violence or in such a way that the life of the person is severely endangered deliberately or by gross negligence or in such a way that particularly serious harm is caused to the person, is to be punished with a prison sentence of a minimum of one year up to ten years.
 
5) With a prison sentence of a minimum of one year up to ten years is also to be punished who recruits, harbours, or otherwise receives, transports or offers or
transfers to another person a person under age1 with the deliberate intention of the person's exploitation.”
According to sec. 64 (4a) of the Austrian Criminal Code (CC) slavery (sec. 104 of the CC), trafficking in human beings (sec 104a of the CC), illegal procurement of adoptions (sec. 194 of the CC) and transborder prostitution trade (sec. 217 of the CC) constitute criminal offences subject to prosecution irrespective of the criminal law in force in the country where the crime has been committed, if 1. either the perpetrator or the victim is an Austrian national or has his or her habitual residence in Austria, 2. the offence impairs other Austrian interests or 3. the perpetrator was an alien at the time the offence was committed, is staying in Austria and cannot be extradited.
 
National Strategy/National Action Plan
The current National Action Plan on Combating Human Trafficking covers the period 2012-2014. It reflects the comprehensive, human rights-based and victim-centered approach taken by Austria in combating human trafficking. It is structured in five chapters (1. National and international coordination and partnership; 2. Prevention; 3. Protection of victims; 4. Prosecution; 5. Evaluation/Monitoring) comprising overall objectives, concrete actions, including a time frame and the competent authorities for their implementation, as well as indicators. The implementation is financed from the allocated budget of the ministries and competent actors.
The next National Action Plan on Combating Human Trafficking is expected to be adopted in early 2015.
 
Compensation
From the point of view of experts, the empowerment of victims is key to (self-) identification. Claiming rights such as unpaid wages or compensation is more
conducive to seeking support to most individuals than the idea of “being a victim” due to its connection to the notions of “helplessness” and “dependency”. Therefore, a number of measures aim at providing potential victims with official and reliable information about their rights.

As a licensed anti-trafficking organization LEFÖ-IBF is mandated by the Ministry of Justice on the basis of section 66 of the Code of Criminal Procedure to legally advise and offer psychosocial support to victims during investigations and court proceedings (“Prozessbegleitung”) free of charge. Access to compensation is part of the offer to legally advise and support a victim by a professional of LEFÖ-IBF (“Prozessbegleitung”). LEFÖ-IBF advocates early confiscation measures and asset freezes and welcomes progress in this regard. Furthermore, LEFÖ-IBF works on gaining knowledge about and experience with the processes of transnational claims to compensation.

Victims of crime have the option to receive compensation from the state according to the Victims of Crime Act (Verbrechensopfergesetz). A recent amendment to the Victims of Crime Act (2013) provides for the possibility of including victims of Trafficking in Human Beings whose stay in Austria has been illegal at the time of the crime.

Illegally employed foreigners can sue the business operator having employed them for their outstanding claims. Furthermore, perpetrators can be fined or – under certain circumstances – even imprisoned e.g. for not paying. The Chamber of Labor provides legal support for claiming unpaid wages and supports victims of THB side by side with LEFÖ-IBF successfully through employment tribunal proceedings.
 
Awareness-raising
An exhibition entitled “THB - 21 century’s slavery” targeting especially young people was launched in October 2010 and is shown at the annual “Aktionstage politische Bildung” as well as at a number of other events. On the occasion of the EU-Anti- Trafficking-Day on 18 October, the Austrian Foreign ministry regularly organizes a public event in order to sensitize the Austrian population for this issue. 
 
The National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism
The Austrian government has not appointed a National Rapporteur.
 
Most important challenges that Austria faces at a national level
  • Identification of victims of human trafficking, including the improvement of data collection.
  • Child trafficking: the elaboration of a comprehensive care/support and cooperation concept at the federal and province levels.
  • Labour exploitation: to adopt a proactive approach regarding the identification of victims of trafficking for the purpose of labour exploitation.
  • Compensation and legal remedies: further strengthening of measures to facilitate and guarantee access to compensation for all victims of THB.
  • As in many other EU-countries, the number of convictions used to be rather low. The creation of a special division at the Vienna Criminal Court as well as
    continuous training of judicial staff has improved the situation, however, these developments need to be further strengthened.
  • Resources: Each trafficking case is very complex and unique. More staff in the law enforcement and judicial sector would be required to investigate cases of
    THB successfully.
 

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation

 

Criminal Law 

The findings of a parliamentary committee of inquiry entrusted with investigating trafficking in human beings as a result of a number of tragic facts gave rise to the law of 13 April 1995 containing provisions to combat trafficking in human beings and child pornography. The same law also provided a legal ground for the prosecution of “smuggling in human beings”.

On 10 August 2005 a new law on trafficking in human beings was enacted (law of 10 August 2005 amending various provisions with a view to reinforcing the fight against human trafficking and against the practices of slumlords).

In doing so, Belgium adapted its national legislation to the new international and European instruments that have been adopted in recent years.

The new law makes a clear distinction between trafficking in human beings, on the one hand,  and smuggling in human beings, on the other hand, and defines the crimes respectively in the Criminal Code (new article 433quinquies et seq.) and in the law of 15 December 1980 concerning access to the territory, stay, residence and the removal of foreigners (article 77bis et seq.).

This law also amended article 10ter of the introductory part of the Code of Criminal Procedure. In virtue of article 10ter anyone, either a Belgian national or a foreigner involved abroad in trafficking and, in addition also in smuggling in human beings under aggravating circumstances, can be prosecuted in Belgium.

In 2013, two legal provisions were established in order to clarify and extend the definition of  trafficking in human beings and the penalisation of the exploitation of begging and prostitution, trafficking in human beings and smuggling in human beings compared to the number of victims . This was accomplished within the context of the transposition into Belgian law of Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of Europe of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting the victims thereof.

Trafficking  and smuggling in human beings are punishable with a prison sentence of 1 to 5 years and a fine of 500 to 50,000 Euro.

The fines are applied in function of the number of victims. The high fines are proportional to the huge profits traffickers and smugglers in human beings make.

The law does not provide an exact definition of “trafficking in children” or “smuggling in children”. However, the minority of the victim of trafficking or smuggling in human beings constitutes an aggravating circumstance and therefore appeals for a harsher sentence. A minor of age is every person under the age of 18.

For unaccompanied minor foreigners who fall victim to trafficking in human beings, specific and appropriate provisions apply which duly take into account their particular situation and vulnerability. Furthermore, the competent authorities must consider the best interests of the minor as long as the procedure runs. The minor will also be placed under guardianship. Accommodation is offered by a specific reception centre for unaccompanied minors.

The legislator also punishes offences such as sexual abuse, corruption or prostitution of minors as well as child pornography in situations other than sexual exploitation against the background of trafficking in human beings  (433 quinquies, 1° CC).

 

Law related to victims

 

  • National Referral mechanism

As early as in 1993, a specific scheme for providing aid and assistance to victims of trafficking in human beings was introduced in Belgium. The integral scheme was embedded in a ministerial circular of 1994 and in two ministerial directives of respectively 1997 and 2003. It then was a set of all sorts of provisions concerning a.o. the issue of temporary (in some cases, permanent) residence papers.

The legal basis of the scheme has been provided by the Law of 15 September 2006 amending the Aliens Law of 15 December 1980 (art. 61/2 to 61/15). It is the result of the implementation of a number of European directives into Belgian law, among which the Directive of 29 April 2004 concerning the issue of temporary residence permits to victims of trafficking in human beings, who cooperate with the competent authorities.

At the end of 2008, the integral victim protection scheme was integrated into a new ministerial circular of 26 September 2008 concerning the introduction of a multi-disciplinary cooperation as regards the victims of trafficking in human beings and/or of certain more serious kinds of smuggling in human beings[6].

 

The main goal of this circular is defining the procedures for the identification, referral, reception and assistance of potential victims of trafficking in human beings and/or of certain more serious kinds of smuggling in human beings. The circular also stipulates the conditions that must be met in view of obtaining the victim status.


In order to efficiently organise the actions, a multi-disciplinary cooperation between the services involved, has been set up. The cooperation involves police and inspection services, the Immigration Office, the recognized and specialised reception centres for victims of trafficking in human beings and the reference magistrates for trafficking in human beings on the level of the public prosecutor and on the level of the auditor.

In view of achieving the abovementioned goals, each of the aforementioned services involved is instructed on its role in the various stages of the process and the frontline actors are made aware of the actions they are expected to take.

The current system is designed to meet two different requirements: on the one hand, offer the victims a series of aid and assistance measures; on the other hand, combat persons and networks involved in trafficking in human beings. In order to achieve the latter, it is essential for the victim to cooperate.

It must be emphasized that the victim protection scheme covers all forms of exploitation of trafficking in human beings as described before.

The victim protection scheme can also apply to victims of certain serious kinds of smuggling in human beings.
The status of victim of trafficking in human beings can be granted either to third-country nationals or to nationals of the Member States of the European Union. The status of victim of smuggling in human beings under aggravating circumstances can exclusively be granted to third-country nationals.

A number of additional provisions concern specific categories of victims such as private domestic staff of members of diplomatic missions and foreign unaccompanied minors. Children who are victims of trafficking are granted a three month residence permit, during which time they have to decide whether to testify against their traffickers. If they do not qualify for victim status, they may still qualify for protection under the government’s rules for unaccompanied minors.

Foreign child victims are received in special centres for unaccompanied minors, which cooperate with the other three specialised reception centres for victims of trafficking.

The Belgian government identifies child sex tourism a significant problem and has an extraterritorial law that allows for the prosecution of its nationals for child abuse crimes committed abroad

In most cases, police and social inspection services identify victims of trafficking in human beings. As frontline services, the latter play a key role in the correct implementation of the procedure.
They use indicators of trafficking and smuggling in human beings. They allow ascertaining whether a certain case is related to trafficking in human beings or not.

The said services must inform the victims on the existence of the victim protection scheme, e.g. by means of a multilingual information leaflet . Each presumed victim must be referred into one of the three recognised and specialised reception centres for victims of trafficking in human beings.


These three recognised and specialized reception centres provide accommodation, assistance, psychological and medical assistance as well as legal assistance. These centres are exclusively competent for applying for residence permits or the renewal thereof with the Immigration Office.

 When the police or inspection service identifies a person as a victim of trafficking in human beings, it simultaneously takes the following steps:

o    Inform the magistrate to the public prosecutor’s office;

o    Contact one of the specialised reception centres;

o    Inform the Immigration Office.

In the circular it is mentioned that the circular has to be the subject of an assessment by the Interdepartmental Coordination Platform for the Fight against Trafficking and Smuggling in human beings (ICP) beings two years after the start of his application.


A first part of the evaluation of the circular, namely of the general application of the circular was ended in 2011. A second part, the evaluation of the application of the circular towards the unaccompanied minors has been finished in 2012.

One of the main challenges will be the improvement of the communication between the different actors for example concerning the decision of the ending of the procedure for the victim.

Other recommendations that were mentioned are the importance of further training of the actors concerned and to sensitise certain sectors like the hospitals, schools, etc.

Also the insecure position of a victim, exploited in another member state then Belgium should be examined. It has to be examined in which country the victim should be looked after.

The federal police has introduced in all police stations the instrument “Victim-Translation-Assistance – VITA” of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime for the identification of victims. It concerns a questionnaire on CD-ROM. The questionnaire is composed of closed questions and is translated to different languages. This tool has as purpose to communicate with the victims just after the intervention and to find out which language the victim speaks. By this way the police can also inform what the “elementary” needs of the victim are. There is also subtitling foreseen so that the police services can follow what the victim says.

  • Residence permits

Potential victims of trafficking are granted a reflection period of 45 days during which they can decide either to file a complaint or make a statement of return to his/her country of origin. During that period, the victim has access to social assistance. After that period of time, any victim who decides to file a complaint or make a statement is granted the special status of 'victims of human trafficking', and thus has access to the various forms of aid provided for within this framework. This assistance includes accommodation, psycho-social help and legal aid. It is worth noting that, under the Belgian system, testimony in court proceedings is not a condition for a victim to be granted the status of “victim of trafficking in human beings”.

The victim may obtain permanent residency after their traffickers have been sentenced. The victim can also obtain an unlimited residence permit without the conviction of the trafficker(s), provided that the Public Prosecutor or the Labour Auditor has established in his/her charges the offence of trafficking in human beings. Nevertheless, if the trafficker is not convicted, the victim may in some cases have to return to his/her country of origin, after review by the immigration authorities.

  • Specialised reception centres for victims of trafficking and smuggling in human beings

Since 1995, three specialised centres have been given recognition as reception centres for providing shelter and assistance to victims of trafficking and smuggling in human beings. These three reception centres are: Pag-Asa (located in Brussels), Sürya (located in Liège, in the Walloon Region) and Payoke (located in Antwerp, in the Flemish Region).

On 1 June 2013, a legal basis was created via the Royal Decree of 18 April 2013 with regard to the recognition of the centres specialised in the reception of and assistance to victims of trafficking in human beings and of certain aggravated forms of trafficking in human beings and with regard to the authorisation to start legal actions.

These three recognized specialised reception centres for victims of trafficking in human beings provide shelter, care, psychological and medical assistance as well as legal assistance. These centres are the only centres competent for requesting residence permits or their renewal with the Immigration Office. They also can start legal actions on behalf of victims of trafficking and smuggling in human beings.

These centres work with pluridisciplinary teams made up of educators, social workers, criminologists…). In consultation, they draw up the assistance scheme for the victim.

This assistance scheme is threefold: it covers psychosocial and medical assistance, administrative assistance and legal assistance. The centres also have a shelter at a secret location.

For unaccompanied minor victims of trafficking in human beings, a series of special measures have been developed. They are provided care and assistance in specific centres.

The three recognised specialised reception centres provide administrative and legal assistance.

The Federal Migration Centre follows up the cooperation between the three centres.


The number of new requests for the granting of the first residence permits in the framework of the application of the protection scheme for victims of THB amounted to : 129 in 2013, 157 in 2012 and 149 in 2011 (see the graph here-below).[7]

         

Conviction data

 

The section hereafter presents an overview of the 2013 convictions data regarding THB from the conviction database of the Ministry of Justice[1].

The conviction databank uses codes which enable us to distinguish the number of THB convictions, the types of exploitation, the aggravating circumstances and the sentences.

Bear also in mind that the criminal record databank only contains final decisions (decisions against which no more appeals are possible).

 

General observations

 

The information set forth here-below results from a data-extraction made by end January 2014.

 

It has to be mentioned that there is a general delay in the encoding of the data. To sum up, and as an example, some judicial decisions taken during the previous years will still be recorded in the database by 2014 and for a slight number of them it also may be later[2].

 

Therefore, it is important to keep in mind that this data gives an overview of the convictions already recorded at the moment the database has been queried for the last time. It explains for instance that an increase of the convictions may occur whether we proceed to a later data-extraction[3]. However, we should mention that the existing delay mainly concerns data related to the “tribunal de police” (court in charge with the lightest offences or traffic offences). So we assume THB data should not suffer from too broad an underestimation. In addition, the conviction rate recorded for previous years[4] averages 70/80 so that we can consider that the convictions should remain close to this number or evolve from this number. 

 

We also have previously observed that some decisions related to “smuggling” cases could sometimes be recorded as “trafficking” cases. By 2012 for instance, on the basis of the conviction reports available in soft format the rate of “false positives” has been estimated at 15%.

 

Currently, 70 THB convictions appear in the databank for the year 2013 (on the basis of 2014 January’s data-extraction)[5].

 

 

Aggravating circumstances

 

An outline of the aggravating circumstances determined by the courts is possible.

 

We should specify that a conviction can include one or more aggravating circumstances. This is why the figures for aggravating circumstances are higher than the number of convictions. For instance, a person can be convicted for THB both for having perpetrated the offence against a minor and for having threatened him. In this situation two aggravating circumstances will be upheld by the court.

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The overall trends already observed are confirmed: the abuse of vulnerability, the fact that the THB activity was habitual and the use of means like force or threat remain the most upheld aggravating circumstances. It is actually not a surprise as two of these circumstances constitute the core of the THB offence. In addition, we can note a slight increase over the last years of convictions determined for cases involving minor victims.

 

The sentences

 

The encoding of the information in the database is based on the « conviction reports ». One “conviction report” can mention one or more principal decisions. These decisions (sentences) concern one or a group of offences (THB + rape for instance). So, the sentences we present below are the sentences related to (an offence or) a group of offences in which the THB offence appears at least once.

 

This first graph illustrates the types and number of sentences determined by the courts. It is important to keep in mind that for one conviction more than one decision can be taken (prison + fine + confiscation for instance). Accordingly, one category doesn’t exclude another (with some exceptions such as the pronouncement of guilt for instance).

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Generally speaking, the figures remain similar to what we have observed during the recent years. The suspended jail sentences rate the half of the jail sentences (suspension can be partial or not. The database does not make the distinction).

 

National Strategy / National Action Plan

 

On 11 January 2008 a first National Action Plan 2008-2012 was adopted by the Federal Council of Ministers. This National Action Plan specifically paid attention to prevention and  awareness raising, an aspect previously lacking in the Belgian system combating trafficking and smuggling in human beings. Until then very few initiatives had been taken to raise  awareness of the fight against trafficking and smuggling in human beings in the private and public sector. 

In 2012, a new National Action Plan with regard to the fight against trafficking in human beings (2012-2014) was submitted to the Ministerial Council.  The plan follows the first action plan and is the basis for a concrete approach in the course of the next two years. The new action plan is more  pragmatic and concrete than the previous versions and the subjects treated correlate to the governmental agreement. Prevention, protection of victims, investigation, prosecution and conviction of  traffickers in human beings form the guideline of the plan.

Moreover, particular attention is paid to the situation of persons of foreign origin who are in a  vulnerable position. 19 propositions insist on the need for realistic measures that are workable in the short term. Stricter prosecution policies for accomplices in and perpetrators of trafficking in human beings, awareness-raising campaigns, recognition of the specialised reception centres for victims are only a few examples in the vast variety of new initiatives. 

The preliminary work for a new Action Plan have been started in 2014.

 

Coordination of anti-trafficking actions at national level

 

In order to coordinate the various initiatives taken within the framework of the fight against trafficking and smuggling in human beings, an Interdepartmental

Interdepartmental Coordination Platform for the Fight against Trafficking and Smuggling in human beings  (ICP) has been set up. This Platform exists since 1995 but it has been given a new boost by the Royal Decree of 16 May 2004 concerning the fight against trafficking and smuggling in human beings.

The chairmanship of the Interdepartmental Coordination Platform is held by the Minister of Justice.

The Interdepartmental Coordination Platform is made up of all the federal players, both operational and political, actively involved in the fight against the aforementioned phenomena. It includes representatives of the Prime Minister, the Ministers of Justice, the Interior, Employment, Social Security etc. and their administrations, next to representatives of the Board of Prosecutors General, the Federal Public Prosecutor’s Office and Child Focus.

The 1st of September 2014 a Royal Decree of 21th of July 2014 amending the Royal Decree of 16th of May concerning the fight against smuggling and trafficking in human begins entered into force. This Decree led to different changes in regard to the composition of the ICP and its Bureau.

The specialised reception centres attended regularly  certain meetings of the Bureau however they were until now no “official” member of the ICP. Since the new Royal Decree they are formally included in the mechanism.

Moreover, In order to emphasise the focus on the financial aspect of THB it seemed relevant to appoint a representative of the Financial Intelligence Processing Unit in the coordination mechanism. 

In addition, a representative of the regions and the communities was added to the ICP. The regional social inspection services are not competent for trafficking in human beings but they can act as an intermediary. The communities are responsible for the formation and assistance to persons, which includes the youth assistance, the reception and integration of persons.

Finally it was decided that a representative of the Board of Prosecutors-General should be added as an observant member of the Bureau. There were already regular contacts between the main coordinator of the Network of smuggling and trafficking in human beings and the president of the Bureau but representation of the Board of Prosecutors General, however, will facilitate the direct interaction between all partners in the Bureau.

At an operational level, the fight against trafficking in human beings is a priority for the Federal Office of the Public Prosecutor. It is responsible for public legal action at the national level, as well as for facilitating the flow and exchange of information between the different Public Prosecution Authorities, investigation magistrates and police services.

The Board of the General Prosecutors also has an important role to play in the fight against trafficking in Belgium. It has established an expertise network to promote the flow of information between “specialised” prosecutors and assist the Board of General Prosecutors.

The Trafficking in Human Beings network gathers all prosecutors and experts, including the Federal Police, the Immigration Office and the Criminal Policy Service, dealing specifically with investigation and prosecution of trafficking in human beings.

The Board of Prosecutors General also publishes relevant case law on the intranet of the Public Prosecution for the benefit of specialised prosecutors.

 

National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism

 

The Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims determines in its article 19 that each member state has to establish a national rapporteur or an equivalent mechanisms. The tasks of such mechanisms shall include the carrying out of assessments of trends in trafficking in human beings, the measuring of results of anti-trafficking actions, including the gathering of statistics in close cooperation with relevant civil society organisations active in this field, and reporting.

In Belgium existing texts already organise different mechanisms which are in conformity with the requirements of the Directive. 

Firstly, there is the Federal centre for the analysis of migration flows, the protection of the fundamental rights of foreign people and the fight against trafficking in human beings, which is the successor of the Centre for Equal Opportunities and the Opposition to Racism, an autonomous public service. It must legally fulfil his duties in all independence. Since 1996 they publish yearly an independent evaluation report about the evolutions and the results of the fight against trafficking in human beings in Belgium. This assignment is described in the Royal Decree of 16th May of 2004 and is one of the most important tool of monitoring.

In addition, the ICP also has the legal mission to carry out critical evaluations and recommendations  pursuant to article 8 of the same Royal Decree. It executes this duty especially in the framework of the elaboration of an Action Plan or specific evaluations (f.ex. evaluation of the multidisciplinary circular). Moreover, in accordance with the Law of April 13 1995, the government must submit to the parliament a biennial report on the enforcement of measures to combat trafficking in human beings in Belgium. This report is drafted by the federal public service  (FPS) of Justice.

Although the requirements of the directive could be considered as already fulfilled, it became formally the case with the Royal Decree of 21th of July 2014 amending the Royal Decree of 16th of  May concerning the fight against smuggling and trafficking in human beings. This Royal Decree came into force on the 1st of September 2014.

Therefore the National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism has been organised by the Royal Decree in the form of a mechanism. This mechanism consist of:

1° The Interdepartmental Coordination Platform for the fight against trafficking and smuggling in human beings as coordination body and the rapporteur of the State under it’s legal mandate to implement article 12 of the law of 13 April 1995 containing provisions to combat trafficking and smuggling in human beings and according to Chapter II of the Royal Decree of 16th May 2004. Within the ICP the FPS Justice, president of the Bureau, is responsible for the draft of the biannual report of the government.

2°The federal centre for the analysis of  migration flows, the protection of the fundamental rights of foreign people and the fight against trafficking in human beings as independent rapporteur under it’s legal mandate of Article 3 of the Law of 17th of August 2013 amending the Law of 15 February 1993 establishing a Centre for Equal opportunities and Opposition to Racism with a view to its transformation into a federal centre for the analysis of migration flows, the protection of the fundamental rights of foreigners and the fight against human trafficking and under Chapter I of the Royal Decree of 16 May 2004.

However, the main task of the ICP remains of course coordinating, presenting and introducing a policy.

 

The most important challenges you face at national level

 

Collection of comparable and standardised data to be shared among different actors.

 

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation

All forms of human trafficking are prohibited. In April 2014 Law 60(I)/2014 was ratified. This Law revises the legal framework regarding prevention, combating trafficking and exploitation of persons and victim protection and provides for, among other things, severe sentences for the perpetrators of such offences, which are even harsher in case the victim is a child. It also provides for the penalisation of the use of services, if there is reasonable suspicion that the service is provided by a victim of trafficking in human beings. It replaces the Law for Combating Trafficking, Exploitation of Human Beings and for the Protection of Victims of 2007 (N.87 (I) / 2007).

Law 60(I)/2014 defines trafficking in persons as a penal offence and provides punishment of up to 10 years' imprisonment, in case the victim is an adult and up to twenty years in case the victim is a child (under 18 years old).

Trafficking in organs is punished with up to 25 years' imprisonment.

Trafficking for forced labour is punished with up to six years imprisonment if the victim is an adult and with up to ten years imprisonment if the victim is a minor.

The Law is aligned with the Council Directive 2004/81 (on the residence permit issued to third country nationals who are victims of trafficking of human beings or who have been the subject of an action to facilitate illegal immigration) and  provides victims of trafficking with at least a one month reflection period with the possibility of renewal. It is also aligned with the Council Directive 2011/36/EU.

According to this Law, sexual exploitation of adults is punished with up to ten years' imprisonment, sexual exploitation of children with up to twenty years' imprisonment, , confiscation of personal documents with five years and / or a fine of €17000, and bribing of civil servants with five years and / or a fine of €17000. If the public servant accepts the bribe, then s/he is subject to up to five years imprisonment and/or up to €20.000 fine. The Law also provides for fines and other penalties (including confiscations and the temporary or permanent shutting down of premises) in case a legal person is convicted for any of the offences described in this Law.

The Law is in conformity with the international treaties, conventions and EU legal acts such as the Framework Decisions of the European Council 2002/629.

The Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings was ratified on 24 July 2007 and put in force on the 1st February 2008.

Coordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level

Law 60(I)/2014 provides for a National Co-ordinator for combating trafficking in human beings (it was first established under Law 87(I)/2007). This role is exercised by the Minister of Interior.

It also provides for a Multidisciplinary Co-ordinating Group, which was first established in 2007. The Group is tasked to take all the necessary measures to combat human trafficking and protect its victims. The Multidisciplinary Co-ordinating Group is chaired by the National Co-ordinator.

The Group meets on a regular basis every three months or at least three times a year. For the more efficient operation of the Group, specialised matters are assigned to working groups with the responsibility to submit recommendations and suggestions to the plenary of the Group.

Some of the responsibilities of the Multidisciplinary Co-ordinating Group are:

  • To review or amend the National Action Plan;
  • To co-operate with countries of origin, transit or other destination countries of victims, providing protection to victims and developing mechanisms for combating the offences described in the Law;
  • To monitor and analyse international developments and Law on human trafficking;
  • To draft an annual report on the implementation of the Law, and the situation domestically and internationally in the field of human trafficking. This report is approved by the Council of Ministers and is then submitted to the House of Representatives for information purposes.

The following bodies are represented in the Multidisciplinary Co-ordinating Group: the Law Office of the Republic, the Ministry of Justice and Public Order, the Police, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Labour, Welfare and Social Insurance, the Department of Labour, the Social Welfare Services, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Civil Registry and Migration Department, the Asylum Service, the National Machinery for the Rights of Women and the Union of Cyprus’ Municipalities. Four NGOs represented in the group, namely the Mediterranean Institute for Gender Studies, the Organization for the Protection of Victims of Sexual Exploitation (STIGMA), the NGO Cyprus Stop Trafficking and the NGO KISA- Movement for Equality, Support and Antiracism (the NGOs participate in the Multidisciplinary Coordinating Group for two years, after which the National Coordinator decides which NGOs will replace them, based on certain criteria).

National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms

Law 60(I)/2014 provides for an independent external evaluator, who is defined as the equivalent of the National Rapporteur. The Republic of Cyprus has not yet appointed the independent external evaluator, but is in the process of doing so. Until then, the competencies of the National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism continue to be exercised by the Multidisciplinary Coordinating Group.

National Strategy/National Action Plan

The first National Action Plan for the Coordination of Actions to combat Trafficking in Human Beings was drawn up in 2001. It was replaced by the National Action Plan (2010-2012), which was prepared by the Multidisciplinary Co-ordinating Group and approved by the Council of Ministers in 2010 and this was replaced, in its turn, by the national Action Plan 2013-2015, which is currently being implemented..

The new National Action Plan includes specific targets and practical measures, under the following nine thematic areas: coordination; prevention; identification and recognition of victims; protection and support of victims; suppression and prosecution; data collection; training; international cooperation; and evaluation.

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation

Trafficking for sexual exploitation or forced labour is prohibited under the Czech Criminal Code. The specific offence of trafficking in persons has existed in the Czech Republic since 2002. The Criminal Code was amended in 2004 to include trafficking for forced labour as well as other forced services.

The new Criminal Code (Act No.40/2009 Coll.), which entered into force on 1 January 2010, widened the definition of trafficking in human beings to also include trafficking for the removal of organs, and forcing somebody into the production of pornography or service in armed forces. One of the changes was also the definition of a new offence - prostitution endangering the moral development of children. This offence is committed by a person who offers sexual services near schools or other places which are reserved for children. The Criminal Code was also amended in 2014 in order to ensure compliance with the Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and with the Directive 2011/93/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of Europe on combating sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children, and child pornography. This amendment introduced two new crimes “participation on pornographic performance” (Sec. 193a) criminalizing participation on pornographic performance in which a child takes part and “unlawful approaching of children” (Sec. 193b) criminalizing approaching of children with the intent to sexually abuse them or to commit a similar crime. Scope of the crime of “production and other disposal of child pornography” (Sec. 192) has been widened to encompass intentional gaining of access to child pornography using ICT.

The legislation prescribes penalties for human trafficking from two to eighteen years' imprisonment.

In 2005, the Act No. 326/1999 Coll. on the Residence of Foreign Nationals in the Czech Republic was amended, which transposed into the Czech law the Council Directive 2004/81/EC (on residence permits issued to third-country nationals who are victims of trafficking in human beings or who have been the subject of an action to facilitate illegal immigration, who cooperate with the competent authorities). In this framework a 30-day reflection period for victims of human trafficking was introduced. The reflection period was later extended to 60 days with the 2008 modifications of the management acts regulating the Victim Support Programme.

In 2011, the Act No. 418/2011 Coll, on the Criminal Liability of Legal Entities and Proceedings against them, was adopted. This is an act that makes it possible to punish cases of THB organized by a legal entity.

In 2012, the Act No. 359/1999 Coll., on Socio-Legal Protection of Children, was amended establishing specialized form of social guardianship for children and minors (see Sec. 31 to 34 of the Act). It aims to provide special care to children and minors that abuse alcohol and drugs, work as prostitutes or that have committed crimes. Also, Act No. 435/2004 Coll., on Employment, was amended in order to increase maximum amount of a fine which can be imposed on a legal entity or a natural person-entrepreneur employing people illegally (from CZK 5 million to CZK 10 million). Minimal fine, at the amount of CZK 250,000 was introduced.

In 2013, the Act No. 45/2013 Coll., on Victims of Crime, was adopted. The Act strengthens legal position of victims of crime, granting the victims of THB ex lege status of “particularly vulnerable victims of crime.”

National Strategy / National Action Plan

The first official document addressing the issue of trafficking in human beings was the 2003 National Strategy for the Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation in the Czech Republic. The Strategy was designed to implement international instruments regarding trafficking into Czech national policy. This strategy assigned the role of National Rapporteur to the Ministry of Interior (MoI).

The National Strategy for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings for 2005-2007 focused on the amended legal definition of trafficking in human beings within the Czech Criminal Code. The new strategy proposes measures against trafficking for sexual exploitation as well as measures against forced labour and other forms of exploitation.

The National Strategy for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings for 2008-2011 was approved in January 2009.Prioritised areas in the strategy were the following:

  • Strengthening data collection

  • Continued monitoring of the situation in this area

  • Updating the Programme to Support and Protect Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings in line with recent trends

  • Focusing on vulnerable groups

The National Strategy to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings in the Czech Republic for the Period 2012-2015 that is currently in force was approved in 2012. (You can find it here) It contains specific tasks that are to be carried out by relevant agencies, e.g. sharing good practice among the police personnel, ratification of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children, supplementing UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, ratify the CoE Convention on Action against THB, carry out complex evaluation of the Program on Support and Protection of Victims of Trafficking, ensure mandatory training on THB for candidate judges, policemen, army officers, labour inspectors, and carry out extensive analyses in the field of THB.

Coordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level

The coordination at the national level has been assigned to the Minister of the Interior. This is then realized by Security Policy Department. Overall, there are three departments at the ministry that are involved in the issue of combating Trafficking in Human Beings, namely the Security Policy Department, The department of Crime Prevention and the Department of Asylum and Migration Policy. The Ministry of the Interior has the main responsibility for coordinating the issue at the national level. It is in charge of inter-ministerial cooperation as well as it is responsible for coordinating the Programme on Support and Protection of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings.

Inter-ministerial Coordination Group

The Inter-Ministerial Coordination Group has been established in 2008 and it brings together the Minister of the Interior (Chair), Deputy Minister of the Interior for Internal Security (Vice-Chair), the Director of the Security Policy Department (Secretary) and representatives from all competent ministries, government councils and non-governmental organisations. The Group serves as a platform for mutual exchange of information regarding ongoing anti-trafficking activities. It is also responsible for submitting proposals for activities at the inter-ministerial level, and it collates, analyses and evaluates data.

In addition to the Inter-ministerial Coordination Group, a smaller group of experts meets once a month. This group has a more operational focus, and addresses problems concerning individual victims of trafficking in human beings.

National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism

The National Rapporteur for Trafficking in Human Beings was established in the Czech Republic in 2003. This was a result of the first Czech policy paper A National Strategy to Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings for Sexual Exploitation. The National Rapporteur is assigned to the Ministry of the Interior, within the Security Policy Department.

The main responsibilities of the National Rapporteur include information gathering, analysis and continuous monitoring; coordination of anti-trafficking policies; and submission of reports and policy papers to the government.

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation

Trafficking was criminalized as a distinct provision in Penal Code since 14.04.2012. Before the aforementioned amendment of the Penal Code different other related provisions were used in prosecuting crimes of trafficking, such as enslaving, aiding prostitution, etc.

 

§ 133. Trafficking in human beings

(1) Placing a person in a situation where he or she is forced to work under unusual conditions, engage in prostitution, beg, commit a criminal offence or perform other disagreeable duties, or keeping a person in such situation, if such act is performed through deprivation of liberty, violence, deceit, threatening to cause damage, by taking advantage of dependence on another person, helpless or vulnerable situation of the person, is punishable by 1 to 7 years’ imprisonment.

(2)The same act, if:

  1. committed against two or more persons;
  2. committed against a person of less than 18 years of age;
  3. committed against a person in a helpless situation;
  4. committed in a torturous or cruel manner;
  5. serious health damage is caused thereby;
  6. danger to life is caused thereby;
  7. committed by two or more persons;
  8. committed by taking advantage of official position,
  9. serious consequences are caused thereby; is punishable by 3 to 15 years’ imprisonment.

(3) An act provided for in subsection (1) or (2) of this section, if

committed by a legal person, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or compulsory dissolution.

(4) For criminal offence provided in this section, the court shall impose extended confiscation of assets or property acquired by the criminal offence pursuant to the provisions of § 832 of this Code.

(5) For the purposes of this section, vulnerable situation is a situation where a person lacks an actual or acceptable opportunity not to commit any of the acts specified in subsection (1) of this section.

[RT I, 04.04.2012, 1 - entry into force 14.04.2012]

 

§ 133¹. Support to human trafficking

(1) Transportation, delivery, escorting, acceptance, concealment or accommodation without prior authorisation of a person placed in any situation specified in subsection 133 (1) of this Code, or aiding without prior authorization his or her forced acts in any other way, is punishable by up to 5 years’ imprisonment.

(2) The same act, if:

1) committed against two or more persons;

2) committed against a person of fewer than 18 years of age;

3) committed against a person in a helpless situation;

4) committed to taking advantage of official position, shall be punished by 2 to 10 years’ imprisonment.

(3) An act provided for in subsection (1) or (2) of this section, if

committed by a legal person, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or compulsory dissolution.

(4) For criminal offence provided in this section, the court shall impose extended confiscation of assets or property acquired by the criminal offence pursuant to the provisions of § 832 of this Code.

[RT I, 04.04.2012, 1 - entry into force 14.04.2012]

 

§ 133². Pimping

(1) A person who organises meeting of a person engaged in prostitution with a client, owns, manages a brothel, aids prostitution or rents premises for keeping a brothel, or influences a person to cause him or her to commence or continue prostitution but the act does not have the necessary elements of an offence provided for §§ 133 or 1331 of this Code,shall be punished by a pecuniary punishment or up to 5 years’ imprisonment.

(2) The same act, if:

1) committed by a person who has previously committed an offence provided for in this section or §§ 133, 1331, 1333 or 175;

2) committed for the purpose of large proprietary gain, is punishable by 1 to 5 years’ imprisonment.

(3) The same act, if committed by a legal person, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or compulsory dissolution.

(4) For criminal offence provided in this section, the court shall impose extended confiscation of assets or property acquired by the criminal offence pursuant to the provisions of § 832 of this Code.

(5) For the purposes of this section, a brothel denotes any premises or limited area where a third party mediates engagement of two or more people in prostitution or aids engagement of two or more people in prostitution.

[RT I, 04.04.2012, 1 - entry into force 14.04.2012]

 

§ 133³. Aiding prostitution

(1) A person knowingly aiding prostitution if the act does not have the necessary elements of an offence provided for §§ 133, 1331 or 1332 of this Code shall be punished by a pecuniary punishment or up to 3 years’ imprisonment.

(2) The same act, if committed by a legal person, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment.

[RT I, 04.04.2012, 1 - entry into force 14.04.2012]

 

§ 138¹. Forcing person to donate organs or tissue

(1) Placing a person in a situation where organs, tissue or cells are removed from him or her, if such act is performed through deprivation of liberty, violence, deceit, threatening to cause damage, by taking advantage of dependence on another person, helpless situation or vulnerable situation of the person, and such act does not comprise the necessary elements of an offence provided for in § 118 of this Code, is punishable by up to 5 years’ imprisonment.

(2) The same act, if:

  1. committed against two or more persons;
  2. committed against a person of fewer than 18 years of age;
  3. committed against a person in a helpless situation;
  4. committed in a torturous or cruel manner;
  5. serious health damage is caused thereby;
  6. the danger to life is caused thereby;
  7. committed by two or more persons;
  8. committed by taking advantage of official position,
  9. serious consequences are caused thereby; shall be punished by 2 to 10 years’ imprisonment.

(3) An act provided for in subsection (1) or (2) of this section, if committed by a legal person, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or compulsory dissolution.

(4) For criminal offense provided in this section, the court shall impose extended confiscation of assets or property acquired by the criminal offence pursuant to the provisions of § 832 of this Code.

(5) For the purposes of this section, vulnerable situation is a situation where a person lacks an actual or acceptable opportunity not to be placed in a situation specified in subsection (1) of this section.

[RT I, 04.04.2012, 1 - entry into force 14.04.2012]

 

§ 139. Illegal removal of organs or tissue

Removal, for transplantation purposes, of human organs or tissue by a person with the corresponding right arising from law, if the person from whom the organs or tissue are removed has not been notified of the essential potential dangers arising from the removal of organs or tissue before he or she grants consent thereto, or if the person removing the organs or tissue was aware that the person from whom the organs or tissue are removed will receive remuneration therefore, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or up to one year of imprisonment.

 

§ 140. Inducing person to donate organs or tissue

(1) Illegal inducing of a person to grant a consent for removal of his or her organs, tissue or cells, if the act does not have the necessary elements of an offence specified in §§ 118 or 1381of this Code, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or up to one year of imprisonment.

(2) The same act, if committed against a person of less than 18 years of age, is punishable by up to 5 years’ imprisonment.

[RT I, 04.04.2012, 1 - entry into force 14.04.2012]

 

§ 175. Human trafficking in order to take advantage of minors

(1) A person who influences a person of less than 18 years of age in order to cause him or her to commence or continue commission of a criminal offence, begging, engagement in prostitution or working under unusual conditions or to appear as a model or actor in the manufacture of a pornographic or erotic performance or work, but it does not contain the necessary elements of an offence provided for in § 133 of this Code, and a person aiding the above-mentioned activities of a person of less than 18 years of age, shall be punished by 2 to 10 years’ imprisonment.

(2) The same act, if committed by a legal person, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or compulsory dissolution.

(3) For the criminal offence provided in this section, the court shall impose extended confiscation of assets or property acquired by the criminal offence pursuant to the provisions of 832of this Code.”.

 

Since the end of 2013, there is also criminalized buying sex from minors as follows:

 

§ 1451.  Buying sex from minors

 (1) Engaging in sexual intercourse or committing another act of sexual nature with a person of less than 18 years of age is punishable by up to 3 years’ imprisonment.

 (2) An act specified in subsection (1) of this section, if committed against a person of less than 14 years of age, is punishable by up to 5 years’ imprisonment.

 (3) An act specified in subsections (1) and (2) of this section, if committed by a person who has previously committed a criminal offence provided in this Division, is punishable by 2 to 8 years’ imprisonment.

 (4) An act specified in subsection (1) or (2) of this section, if committed by a legal person,
is punishable by a pecuniary punishment.
[RT I, 13.12.2013, 5 - entry into force 23.12.2013]

 

The full text of Penal Code is available in English at the website: https://www.riigiteataja.ee/en/eli/ee/Riigikogu/act/521082014001/consolide.

 

Estonia has transposed principles of the Council Directive 2004/81/EC (on the residence permit issued to third-country nationals who are victims of trafficking of human beings or who have been the subject of an action to facilitate illegal immigration) into its national legislation. An amendment to the Aliens Act was introduced in February 2007. It provides for an unconditional reflection period of 30-60 days and for the issuance of temporary residence permits to victims of trafficking who agree to cooperate in criminal proceedings. The duration of the temporary residence permit is one year.

 

Estonia has transposed EU Directive 2011/36/EU (on preventing and combating trafficking of human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA) on 18.04.2013.

 

Estonia signed the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings on 3rd April 2010.

 

National Strategy/National Action Plan

2010, National Action Plan, which deals with preventing and combating violent crimes, including the trafficking of human beings, was adopted. The implementation of the plan is coordinated by the Ministry of Justice, annual plan of activities and reports are discussed and confirmed by the roundtable of experts and associated partners of the network.

 

Coordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level

A National Coordinator was appointed in Estonia in 2006. The post is held by a senior adviser at the Ministry of Justice. The National Coordinator (NC) is responsible for producing data and analysis, such as crime statistics on crimes related to human trafficking. The NC also gathers information on the progress of the implementation of the national action plan and collects input from different stakeholders, all of which is collated into an annual report. The NC is generally responsible for coordinating work in the anti-human trafficking field.

 

National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms

The National Coordinator is Estonia's equivalent mechanism to the National Rapporteur.

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation

France prohibits trafficking for sexual and labour exploitation. The specific offence of trafficking in persons was first established in France in 2003 under the Law on Internal Security(Loi sur la Sécurité intérieure). The law introduced the definition of human trafficking in the Criminal Code and set up a specific punishment for those who exploit vulnerable persons.

Amendments to the Criminal Code made in august 2013, under the law implementing the UE Directive 2011/36. The use of means is now including in the definition of THB. The new article criminalise trafficking for sexual exploitation, slavery, forced labour, servitude, labour exploitation, removal of organs and the trafficking of children through Article 225-4-1. The Code prescribes penalties which are commensurate with other grave crimes such as rape.

However, the French authorities also use other articles in the Criminal Code to prosecute trafficking cases, in particular the offence of soliciting prostitution of minors, and the offences of “labour and living conditions against human dignity”.

Victims of trafficking are provided with a 30 days reflection period. A renewable six month residence permit is given to those who choose to cooperate in criminal proceedings.

National Strategy/National Action Plan

There is currently the first National Action Plan for combating trafficking in human beings in France. This plan launched by the Minister of women’s rights on May 2014, with 23 measures on three pillars:

  • Identification, assistance and protection of victims of THB
  • Strengthening investigation on THB to dismantle criminal networks
  • Implementing a National strategy

Coordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level

On January 2013, the government established an inter-ministerial mission to implement national strategy and to coordinate different stakeholders with an integrated approach. This inter ministerial mission for the protection of women against violence and for combating Human trafficking (MIPROF) is based near the Minister of Women’s rights.

The MIPROF is responsible for setting up a National Coordination Body and coordination at local level, and for implementing the National Plan of Action to combat trafficking in human beings.

National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms

The French government has not appointed a National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism. Nevertheless, France is aware of the importance of such a mechanism, and a measure in the National action plan provides it. 

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation

All forms of trafficking in human beings are prohibited. Trafficking for sexual exploitation was already a criminal offence when the articles explicitly referring to trafficking in human beings for sexual exploitation were redrafted during the 26th Criminal Code reform in 1992 and again in 1998. The current state of legislation dates back to the amendment to the Criminal Code in 2005, when forms of exploitation other than sexual exploitation were recognised. In addition, since 1997 Germany has had a separate Transplant Act, which was amended in 2001 and prohibits trade in tissues and organs.

The sentences for human trafficking range from six months' to ten years' imprisonment. These penalties are commensurate with those prescribed for other grave crimes.

A reflection period of at least 30 days was introduced in October 2000 for foreign victims without a residence permit. The victim may remain in the country in order to decide whether s/he wants to cooperate with law enforcement or to prepare for a safe return.

During the reflection period, victims are provided with accommodation and with legal, medical and psycho-social assistance. If the victim agrees to testify in court, a residence permit on humanitarian grounds for the time of the court proceedings is granted. This regulation only applies to persons who have entered the country legally. Others may be issued a 'suspension of deportation' (Duldung) if they were accepted in the special programme for victim support according to special cooperation agreements between police and counselling services.

Since 2007, trafficked persons cooperating in criminal proceedings can be issued with a residence permit for as long as the state prosecutor deems it appropriate. The residence permit can be withdrawn if the witness contacts the accused. Legal proceedings can take up to three years, and while access to education, vocational training, and ultimately to the labour market is allowed, this is in reality often impeded by the lack of employment opportunities.

In addition, victims of trafficking may claim compensation from the perpetrator by initiating an Adhesion Procedure within the criminal proceeding. They can be entitled to state financed compensation under the Victims of Crime Compensation Act.

In Germany, innocent victims of an intentional, unlawful violent offence causing a serious injury of lasting damage receive payments on application to compensate the health and economic results of the damage according to the Crime Victims Compensation Act(Opferentschädigungsgesetz). In some cases victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation are protected by this law. Currently, there is an ongoing discussion regarding a top-to-bottom legislative reform of crime victims´ compensation in Germany. In this context it is also planned to improve protection for victims of trafficking.

National Strategy/National Action Plan

The German approach to combating trafficking in human beings has been to streamline anti-trafficking policy measures into other policy tools.

The 'Action Plan of the Federal Government to Combat Violence against Women' entered into force in 1999, and a report on its implementation was presented in 2004. A Second Action Plan of the Federal Government to Combat Violence against Women was developed and approved in September 2007. Both Action Plans contain anti- trafficking actions.

Similarly, measures to combat child trafficking appear within the two national action plans, A Germany Fit for Children, 2005 –2010 and For the Protection of Children and Young People from SexualViolence and Exploitation.

Coordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level

The responsibility for implementing anti-trafficking policies is shared among the relevant ministries, mainly the Federal Ministry of Interior, FM of Justice, FM for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, FM of Labour and Social Affairs, the equivalent Länder Ministries and the regional and federal police.

In 1997, the Government established the Federal Working Group on Trafficking in  Persons (Bund-Länder-ArbeitsgruppeMenschenhandel ), under the lead of the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth. The Working Group is the only nationally coordinated inter-ministerial task force gathering all major governmental and non-governmental actors on the various levels within the Federal system. The members include:

  • Federal Ministry for Women (central coordinator and manager)
  • Federal Foreign Office
  • Federal Ministry of the Interior
  • Federal Ministry of Justice
  • Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
  • Federal Ministry for Economic Co-operation
  • Federal Government Commissioner for Migration, Refugees and Integration
  • Federal Criminal Police Office
  • Representatives from each of the technical conferences of the Laender ministries of the Interior, Justice, Social Affairs and Equality
  • Counselling centre SOLWODI e.V.
  • German nationwide activist coordination group combating trafficking in women and violence against women in the process of migration (KOK e.V.)
  • Co-ordination group of the German Welfare Organisations (BAGFW).
  • The German Institute for Human Rights (DIMR).

The Working Group aims to provide comprehensive policy recommendations on federal and Länder level and to formulate and coordinate specific actions in the area of trafficking inpersons.

The Working Group is one of the two steering committees for the implementation of the Action Plan II to Combat Violence against Women.

Some States have established similar coordinating mechanisms for their level, focusing mainly on trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

Currently, the Federal Government is developing a broader approach to coordinate national policies regarding the granting of support and assistance for victims of human trafficking for labour purposes and forced labour. To this end, within the framework of the CBSS ADSTRINGO Project (Addressing trafficking in human beings for labour exploitation through improved partnerships, enhanced diagnostics and intensified organisational approaches) a first network meeting of the relevant actors in the field has taken place in March 2013. The results of this meeting and the ADSTRINGO will now be followed up..

National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms

Germany has not established a National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism.

However, the federal Criminal Police (BKA) publishes an annual Situation Report Trafficking in Human Beings since 1994. Cases of forced labour investigated by labour inspectors are also included in this situation report. The purpose of the situation report is to provide a compact summary of current information on developments within the field of human trafficking. The report enables police and political decision makers to assess the extent of the problem and plan accordingly. The situation report, together with the feedback given by service providers and research,  is  an important basis for the work of the Federal Working Group on Trafficking in Persons  

The most important challenges at national level

As in the years before, identifications of victims remains one of the biggest challenges. Furthermore expertise in the field to combat trafficking for other forms of exploitations than forced prostitution, especially on the side of the support systems is starting to be developed with the different partners also in civil society.

  •  

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Greece works hand in hand with the European Commission’s Coordinator and our EU partners to enforce the full implementation of the EU Strategy & Directive. Greece endorses a consistent human rights roadmap based on the four ‘P’ approach (Prevention, Protection, Prosecution, Partnership) as the only effective policy:

  • To a less strict and more inclusive identification regime for the victims
  • to tackle criminal networks
  • to promote international cooperation 
  • to implement a comprehensive, multi-agency framework for state and civil society stakeholders
  • to reduce demand and promote prevention through targeted awareness raising campaigns.

The Government has gradually created the solid preventive, protective and prosecutorial framework, necessary for confronting and eliminating modern slavery. Enhanced efforts have been made to respond to the problem, including:

  • legislative reforms,
  • inter-agency coordination in Prosecution,
  • inter-agency coordination in victim Protection, and
  • awareness raising campaigns.

 

Greece ratified the three fundamental legal instruments against THB:

 

1. The UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols – the “Palermo Protocol”: Law 3875/2010 (158/Α΄/2010)

2. The Transposition of the 2011/36/EU Directive with the Law 4198/2013 (215/A΄/2013). The new Law establishes the Office of the National Rapporteur (MFA) and gives an official mandate of accountability to the informal Coordination Mechanism of competent Ministries, International Organisations and accredited NGO’s. This is promoting a better cooperation between the competent authorities and stakeholders, and facilitates the “national ownership” of internationally recognized 'best' practices” for combating THB.

  1. The Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings with the Law 4216/2013 (266/A΄/2013)

 

Through National Structural Funds, ISEC, ISF and other EC Funds, the recently established Office of the National Rapporteur (NREM) is coordinating competent State and NGO stakeholders to work together towards a large-scale anti-THB Action Plan in Prevention, Prosecution, Protection and Partnership.

 

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation

All forms of trafficking in human beings are prohibited in Hungary. The specific offence of trafficking in persons has existed since 1998, under crimes against personal freedom and human dignity.

Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA has been published on 5 April 2011 its transposition deadline was 6 April 2013. Hungary has accomplished its implementation obligations deriving from the Directive.

Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings was signed by Hungary on 10. October 2007 and ratified by the Act of XVIII. of 2013 on 04 April 2013 which entered into force on 1 August 2013.

Act C of 2012 on the Criminal Code entered into force in the 1 of July 2013. The New Criminal Code incorporates the criminal offence of trafficking in human beings which was harmonized with the Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA and with the legal provisions of the Palermo Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially woman and children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings.

The Hungarian Government passed on 27 September 2012 the amendment of Act CXXXV of 2005 on Crime Victim Support and State Compensation. It aims to introduce the concept shelter, as a victim support service and authorizes the Government to develop detailed regulation for the identification of human trafficking victims. The Act specifies the right to legal, social, financial and psychological assistance for victims of human trafficking. Article 9/A and Article 43(3) transposed sections 5 and 6 of the Council Directive 2004/81/EC (on the residence permit issued to third-country nationals who are victims of trafficking in human beings or who have been the subject of an action to facilitate illegal immigration, who cooperate with the competent authorities).

Government Regulation No 354/2012 of 13 December 2012 on the identification system of victims trafficking in human beings entered into force on 1 January 2013. Institutions and authorities taking part in the identification are as follows: health care provider, public health administration body, personal care service, public educational institution, police, labor market service, consular officer, immigration authority, asylum authority. Bodies participating voluntarily: non-governmental bodies or legal entities maintained by local governments. National Crisis Telephone Information Service provides information for the victims on the opportunities of shelters.

The Act II on Entry and Stay of Third Country Nationals, which entered into force on 1st July 2007, is one of the most important tools for supporting victims of trafficking. The Act enables victims to stay in Hungary for a reflection period of one month. If they decide to cooperate with the law enforcement authorities, a residence permit on humanitarian grounds will be granted.

Order No. 13/2014. (V. 16.) of the National Police Headquarters on the police duties concerning the treatment of offences related to prostitution and human trafficking primarily serves uniform police action against prostitution and victim protection tasks for police organs.

 

National Strategy/National Action Plan

 

The national strategy against human trafficking published in Government Resolution 1018/2008 (III.26.) on the National Strategy against Trafficking in Human Beings for 2008-2012 has been repealed as from 31 December 2012. The European Commission presented the EU Strategy towards the eradication of trafficking in Human Beings (hereinafter EU Strategy) on 19 June 2012, which prescribes also for Hungary actions to be implemented between 2012 and 2016.

 

The National Strategy against Trafficking in Human Beings for 2013-2016 has been adopted by the government on 29 May 2013 and the Government Resolution 1351/2013 (VI. 19.) was published on 19 June 2013.

 

Taking into consideration the complexity and the cross-border nature of the phenomenon, the need for international cooperation, the future vision of the strategy has been defined in accordance with the priorities of the EU strategy: Hungary endeavours to combat against all manifestations of human trafficking as efficiently as allowed by its means at the national level, and as a reliable partner at international level, respecting human rights, free of discrimination and giving special attention to the protection of children.

 

The strategy has a comprehensive approach towards the issue of trafficking in human beings, and focuses on national action. The strategy identifies five main priorities in the field of human trafficking:

The operation of an appropriate and well-running victim identification, referral and protection system

Efficient prevention, awareness building and awareness raising

The detection and prosecution of perpetrators; the protection of the rights and interests of plaintiffs and victims

Enhancing coordination with the relevant government, semi-governmental and civil organisations involved

Mapping opportunities for safe return and reintegration at the government level; designing supportive action

 

For the period of 2013 – 2016 47 measures have been planned.

 

Coordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level

 

The framework for combating human trafficking was laid down by the Government Resolution 1018/2008 on the National Strategy against trafficking in human beings. It established a National Coordination Mechanism and appointed a national coordinator. The National Coordinator is the Deputy State Secretary who is responsible for EU and international affairs in the Ministry of Interior. Her main role is to enhance Hungary’s counter trafficking efforts and to facilitate interaction between different State and non-State organisations in relation to the fight against human trafficking. She represents Hungary’s anti human trafficking response both at a national, at a European and at international level.

 

The national coordinator chairs the meetings of the national coordination mechanism, which is the main forum of cooperation of the relevant organisations in Hungary. The mechanism meets 3-4 times per year. Besides the formal coordination an informal NGO Roundtable is operating too which started its activity in 2011.

 

Mission of the NCM and the NGO Roundtable: increasing the effectiveness of the fight against trafficking in human beings, strengthening the cooperation and enhancing dialogue between the national coordinator and the concerned authorities. These forums contribute to the mapping of areas of cooperation and help to avoid duplications.

 

National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms

 

The National Coordinator acts as equivalent mechanism to a National Rapporteur.

 

The most important challenges at national level

 

The National Strategy against Trafficking in Human Beings contains 5 main priorities and 47 measures for the period 2013-2016 of which the following measures are highlighted:

 

The lack of a specific standardized data collection system addresses for Hungary and for the EU Member States a problem in data collection. A standardized system would provide an accurate picture on the number of victims and perpetrators and would help to understand the phenomenon and reason of human trafficking, would contribute to define targeted measures. Therefore the strategy puts great effort on the harmonization of the data collection mechanism. Our aim is to develop an anonym and regular data collection process with the involvement of all relevant governmental authorities and NGOs. 5 main measures in the field of data collection:

Setting up an anonymous database able to examine the trends of human trafficking and making a map of intervention especially considering age, gender and the form of exploitation

Setting up a uniform database facilitating the follow-up on and the filtering of victims, from their identification to their release from the victim protection system

Setting up a data provision mechanism facilitating the monitoring of and follow-up on victims and their involvement in the victim protection system

Encouraging data provision by organs cooperating in the identification of victims

Working out a set of criteria for annual, statistics-based assessments

 

The majority of the experts have not adequate knowledge and experience in the assistance of victims and in the effective methods for the fight against the perpetrators. In order to provide more special trainings the following measures have been planned:

Preparing training materials and modules and making them accessible on a wide scale

Trainings for the acquisition of knowledge and skills required for efficient victim identification and appropriate victim referral

The further development and specialisation of existing knowledge towards the needs of human trafficking victims, for specialists working in victim support and protection

Familiarising justice actors and all other stakeholders with the new legislative framework and working out a general scheduled training plan for them

 

Prevention has an important role in the fight against human trafficking through both the reduction of demand and the reduction of supply. The following main measures have been defined:

It is necessary to involve the Civil Guard and local authority enforcement organs (e.g. public area policing) in the prevention work

A common IT platform serving the combat against human trafficking, which also supports efforts targeted at the reduction of demand and supply

Preparing dedicated information materials serving the reduction of demand and supply

Using the opportunities provided by the Internet for the protection of children and, in the field of exploitation for sexual or labour purposes, for preventing victimisation

Complementing the curriculum of the subject of sexual education within the framework of the National Curriculum with awareness raising of the dangers of human trafficking

Working out a communication and training action plan aimed to increase social awareness

Collecting and evaluating the Hungarian government measures and the programmes of various civil and interest representation organs on the treatment of the phenomenon of prostitution and the revision of the regulatory system on the basis of the results

 

Improving the assistance of the victims is one of the main priorities of the strategy; the following main measures have been defined:

Developing access to mental and psychological support

Setting up a helpline you can call from abroad as well

Capacity and service development at the Shelter (safe accommodation); establishing a new Shelter to be operated from state funding; working out a uniform care protocol to ensure the efficient operation of Shelters.

Preparing information materials for victims

Working out a protocol for the avoidance of secondary victimisation during actions related to the criminal proceedings.

Establishing transitory apartments related to the Shelters, helping victims’ social reintegration: For victims of violence between related parties, there are transitory apartments (Félutas Kiléptető Házak) in operation, related to the crisis centres established for these victims, where psychological and legal counselling and the help of social workers are guaranteed, but where former victims are supposed to provide for themselves as regards their physical needs (food, clothing). From crisis centres, former victims must apply to get into a Transitory Apartment; the condition for successful application is that they have regular income from registered, legal employment. Transitory Apartments provide accommodation for five years; tenants must pay part of the public utility costs from their income. The goal is to develop the former victim’s ability of self-subsistence (as well as the ability to sustain a co-habiting relative, typically their own child) and to reinforce this ability. It is reasonable that Transitory Apartments be connected to Shelters, both of these operating along similar principles.

The avoidance of repeat victimisation requires setting up a follow-up system meant to serve following up on the life and protection of identified and supported victims after their release from safe accommodation

Involving district commissioners in activities for the prevention of victimisation and repeat victimisation

Working out a comprehensive government programme targeting at the social integration and reintegration of human trafficking victims.

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation

All forms of trafficking in human beings are prohibited in Italy. The specific offence of trafficking in persons was introduced in the Italian Criminal Code (article 601) in 2003 by Law No 228/2003.

However, both before and after 2003, some cases of trafficking in persons have been prosecuted under the offences of 'slavery' (article 600 of the Italian Criminal Code) and 'trade of slaves' (article 602), which have been amended by Law No 228/2003.

As far as children are concerned, the Italian Criminal Code also provides for prosecution for trafficking in children under other offences such as 'child prostitution' (article 600-bis), 'child pornography' (article 600-ter) and ‘possession of pornographic material’ (article 600-quater).

Pursuant to the Italian Criminal Code, anyone who commits trafficking in human beings shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of 8 to 20 years. However, penalty is harsher if the offence is perpetrated against minors. Prostitution per se is not criminalised in Italy, but the act of procuring is a crime under article 3 of Law No 75/1958.

Article 18 of the 1998 Immigration Law establishes that six-month temporary humanitarian residence permits may be issued to foreigners needing protection and assistance. The residence permit is renewable for one year and may be converted into a residence permit for education or work. (For further information see under 3.2 - Assistance and support provided to victims.)

Italy complies with Council Directive 2004/81/EC (on the residence permit issued to third-country nationals who are victims of trafficking in human beings or who have been the subject of an action to facilitate illegal immigration) in terms of assistance to victims (through art. 18 of Immigration Law and art. 13 of Law No 228/2003).

The Italian law does not provide for a reflection period for victims of trafficking, but all the victims participating for a three-month period in the programme envisaged by Art. 13 of Law No 228/2003 may not be deported and can therefore decide whether to participate also in the programme envisaged by Art. 18 of Legislative Decree No 286/1998 and, in this case, cooperate with the Italian judicial authorities. However, it is worth mentioning that obtaining a temporary residence permit in Italy is not conditional upon the victim’s willingness to cooperate with law enforcement or judicial authorities.

National Strategy/National Action Plan

In Italy, a complex structure for the assistance to trafficked persons has been in place since 2000. It works through three main tools:

  • Programmes for temporary assistance and long-term social protection
  • Free Helpline (Numero Verde Anti-tratta)
  • Programme for assisted voluntary return

Such a structure is coordinated and supervised at the national level by the Department for Equal Opportunities of the Italian Presidency of the Council of Ministers, which is the central public authority in charge of promoting and coordinating anti-trafficking policies and actions.


In 2014, with a view to implementing an even more comprehensive national strategy against THB, the Department for Equal Opportunities – in cooperation with all the national authorities committed to this issue and all other relevant public and private actors – will work on the development of a National Action Plan against Trafficking in Human Beings. Through an effective coordination among the Ministries, NGOs and associations involved, the Plan will be aimed at enhancing the governance of all national measures against THB and defining the effective cooperation among all national stakeholders involved in the protection of trafficked people and in the fight against THB. In particular, the Plan will focus on prevention, assistance and protection of victims, judicial cooperation, identification of potential victims, and adaptation of national legislation. The National Action Plan will also provide for the establishment of a national referral mechanism for trafficked persons, including minimum protection standards and standard operating procedures for the referral of victims to the proper service providers.

In addition, the National Action Plan will include guidelines on how to design and implement a sustainable system aiming to both prosecute traffickers and provide support to victims, while defining suggested roles for governmental institutions and the civil society. The Action Plan will be adopted by the Council of Ministers by the end of 2014 together with the Regulation on the single programme of emergence, assistance and social integration of victims of human trafficking and serious exploitation.

The projects for the assistance of trafficked persons co-funded by the Department for Equal Opportunities are implemented by NGOs which, in order to be eligible for funding, need to be enrolled in a dedicated public register. The register (Register of organizations implementing activities for immigrants – Section 2) is managed by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policies and is updated annually. 

However, not all organizations included in the list are implementing projects for the assistance to trafficked persons co-funded by the Department for Equal Opportunities.

National Rapporteur or Equivalent Mechanisms

Italy’s equivalent mechanism on trafficking in human beings is the Department for Equal Opportunities of the Italian Presidency of the Council of Ministers. Furthermore, since January 2011, the DEO has been acting also as the national observatory on trafficking in human beings. As such, it gathers documents and reports on THB, information on the national and international legal framework, as well as reference documents and judgments on a specific website providing a secure area on data collection where registered NGOs and local authorities working in this field can have access to enter information on trafficked persons assisted within the framework of the national assistance programmes co-funded by the State. As Italy’s equivalent mechanism, the Department for Equal Opportunities of the Italian Presidency of the Council of Ministers uses a special database (the so-called SIRIT – Sistema Informatizzato di Raccolta Informazioni sulla Tratta – Computerized system for the collection of information on trafficking in human beings) to monitor the phenomenon. 

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation

All forms of trafficking in human beings are prohibited. The specific offence of trafficking in human beings was established in 2002 through the Criminal Code, which prescribes penalties of up to 15 years' imprisonment.

Transposing the requirements of the “Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA” the amendments were elaborated in the following national legal acts of Latvia:

  • The Criminal Law (Directive’s Article 2, Article 4 Para 2 (c) and (d), Article 8, Article 9 Para 2);
  • The Criminal Procedure Law (Directive’s Article 8, Article 15 Para 3 (b) and (c);
  • The Law on State Compensation to Victims (Directive’s Article 17);
  • Cabinet Regulation No 889 on “Procedures by which victims of human trafficking receive social rehabilitation services and the criteria for recognising a person as a victim of human trafficking” (Directive’s Article 11);
  • Cabinet Regulation No 291 “Requirements for Social Service Providers” (Directive’s Article 13 and Article 14).

The Criminal Law Amending Law was adopted by the Parliament on December 13, 2012, published on December 27, 2012 in “Official Gazette” No 201 (4805), will come into force on April 1, 2013.

The Criminal Procedure Law Amending Law was adopted by the Parliament on December 20, 2012, published on January 9, 2012 in “Official Gazette” No 6 (4812), will come into force on April 1, 2013.

Amending Law on State Compensation to Victims was adopted by the Parliament on November 15, 2012, published on November 30, 2012 in “Official Gazette” No 189 (4792), came into force on January 1, 2013.

Amending Regulation No 840 and No 841 was adopted by the Cabinet of Ministers on December 11, 2012, published on December 14, 2012 in “Official Gazette” No 197 (4800), came into force on January 1, 2013.

Criminal Law Section 154.¹ Human Trafficking

(1) For a person who commits human trafficking,

the applicable punishment is deprivation of liberty for a term up to eight years, with or without confiscation of property.

(2) For a person who commits human trafficking if it has been committed against a minor, or if it has been committed by a group of persons pursuant to prior agreement,

the applicable punishment is deprivation of liberty for a term of three years and up to twelve years, with or without confiscation of property and with or without police supervision for a term up to three years.

(3) For a person who commits human trafficking if it has endangered the life of a victim or serious consequences have been caused thereby, or it has been committed involving particular cruelty or against an underaged person, or it has been committed by an organised group,

the applicable punishment is deprivation of liberty for a term of five years and up to fifteen years, with or without confiscation of property and with or without police supervision for a term up to three years.

 

Section 154.² Meaning of Human Trafficking

 

(1) Human trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, concealment, accommodation or reception of persons for the purpose of exploitation, committed by using violence or threats or by means of deceit, or by taking advantage of the dependence of the person on the offender or of his or her state of helplessness, or by the giving or obtaining of material benefits or benefits of another nature in order to procure the consent of such person, upon which the victim is dependent.

(2) The recruitment, transportation, transfer, concealment, accommodation or reception of a minor for the purpose of exploitation shall be recognised as human trafficking also in such cases, if it is not connected with the utilisation of any of the means referred to in the Paragraph one of this Section.

(3) Within the meaning of this Section, exploitation is the involvement of a person in prostitution or in other kinds of sexual exploitation, the compulsion of a person to perform labour, to provide services or to commit criminal offences, the holding of a person in slavery or other similar forms thereof (debt slavery, serfdom or compulsory transfer of a person into dependence upon another person), and the holding a person in servitude or also the illegal removal of a person’s tissues or organs.

 

Section 165.1 Sending a Person for Sexual Exploitation

 

(1) For a person who commits sending a person with his or her consent for sexual exploitation, that is, for any act which facilitate legal or illegal movement, transit or residence of a person for such purpose within the territory of one country or several countries,

the applicable punishment is deprivation of liberty for a term up to five years or temporary deprivation of liberty, or community service, or a fine.

(2) For a person who commits the same acts, if commission thereof is for purposes of enrichment or if they have been committed by a group of persons pursuant to prior agreement,

the applicable punishment is deprivation of liberty for a term up to ten years, with or without confiscation of property and with or without probationary supervision for a term up to three years.

(3) For a person who commits the acts provided for in Paragraph one or two of this Section, if they have been committed by an organised group,

the applicable punishment is deprivation of liberty for a term of five years and up to fifteen years, with or without confiscation of property and with police supervision for a term up to three years.

 

The criminal offence provided by the Criminal Law Section 165.¹ “Sending a Person for Sexual Exploitation” is not considered as the human trafficking according to the Criminal Law Section 154.² “Meaning of Human Trafficking”. At the same time according to the international legal acts the criminal act provided by the Criminal Law Section 165.¹ is recognized as a kind of human trafficking. In Latvia the criminal act provided by the Criminal Law Section 165.¹ is divided from the Criminal Law Section 154.² because the person is subjected to sexual exploitation with her or his consent which is assessable as less dangerous criminal offence and the punishment is less severe. The most important is that Latvia provides criminal liability for such criminal act. Besides the person who is recognized as the victim within the criminal proceeding according to the Criminal Law Section 165.¹ can receive state funded social rehabilitation services for the victims of human trafficking as the person who is recognized as the victim within the criminal proceeding according to the Criminal Law Section 154.¹.

 

Formally identified victims of human trafficking are offered social rehabilitation services through the Social Service and Social Assistance Law. Regulation No 889 on “Procedures by which victims of human trafficking receive social rehabilitation services and the criteria for recognising a person as a victim of human trafficking” was supplemented providing 1) that a recognized victim is eligible to receive state funded social rehabilitation services for victims of human trafficking for 180 hours, 2) that if a person is recognized as a victim of human trafficking or a witness within the criminal proceeding the person at the end of receiving social rehabilitation services for victims of human trafficking is eligible to receive support within criminal proceeding not exceeding 150 hours. Support includes psycho-social assistance (including consultations of individual lawyer, social worker, psychologist), interpreter services and assistance in processing legal documents and, if necessary, representation in court.

 

Victims of human trafficking can be formally identified and receive state funded social rehabilitation services:

  1. by a decision of the performer of the criminal procedure, according to which the person is recognised the victim in a criminal matter regarding the trafficking in human beings;
  2. by the statement of a law enforcement institution that the person has suffered from the trafficking in human beings in a foreign state;
  3. by a person’s assessment report of the provider of services, in which the compliance of the person with the criteria of a victim of the traffic in human beings has been specified.

 

The main purpose according to the Regulations No 889 “Regulations Regarding the Procedures, by Which Victims of the Traffic in Human Beings Receive Social Rehabilitation Services, and the Criteria for the Recognition of a Person as a Victim of the Traffic in Human Beings” is to prescribe the criteria for the recognition of a person as a victim of human trafficking and the procedures by which a person who has been recognised a victim human trafficking shall receive social rehabilitation services for the State budget funds.

 

The Latvian authorities have set up a multi-disciplinary commission of specialists for the identification of victims of human trafficking. The Commission meets in Riga and all potential victims of human trafficking discovered throughout the territory of Latvia and abroad have to be transported there for interviews. The identification of victims of human trafficking aims at facilitating assisting and protecting victims as well as the criminal investigation.

 

The society “Shelter “Safe House”” has elaborated a document “The Rule of the multi-disciplinary commission and the decision-making procedure of the multi-disciplinary commission”. Commission has the rights and duties:

  • To consider a written submission of the person or the legal representative to recognize a persons as the victim of human trafficking;
  • To assess all the circumstances to take a decision and to prepare the person’s assessment report;
  • If necessary to request additional information and the documents confirming the compliance of the person with the criteria of a victim of the traffic in human beings;
  • To refuse recognition of the person as the victim of human trafficking if information provided by the persons or the legal representative are groundless and the person does not comply with the criteria of a victim of the trafficking in human beings.

 

The Commission makes decision coming to the joint agreement. If the joint agreement is not agreed Commission takes a decision to vote. If the votes are divided in similar parts the head of the Commission has the casting vote.

 

The work of the Commission aims at assisting and protecting the victim of human trafficking, to assessing and prevention of possible risks. Of course investigation is not the most unimportant part of the Commission’s work. During the interview the representative of the State Police assesses whether the case comprises all 4 qualifying elements of the criminal offence (object (e.g. person’s freedom, health, sexual inviolability), objective side (active action as recruitment, transportation, transfer, concealment or reception), subject (physical and sane person who has attained 14 years of age) and subjective side (human trafficking is an intentional offence which is characterized by the direct intent). For example, a person has agreed to go to foreign country to conclude a marriage in convenience. A person knew it before departure from Latvia. After arrival in the foreign country the identity documents of the person are taken away, person is physically affected etc. In such case the criminal proceeding is not initiated because the persons has not suffered from criminal acts in Latvia, all criminal acts are committed in the foreign country and the State Police of Latvia is not the competent authority to perform investigation in another country where criminal acts are committed by nationals of that country. At the same time according the provisions of legal acts of Latvia the person is recognized as the victim of human trafficking.

If during an interview there are suspicious that the criminal acts were committed in Latvia and these criminal acts were the reasons why the person became the victim of human trafficking the criminal proceeding is initiated.

Anyway, the main idea of the multi-disciplinary commission is to provide the social rehabilitation services for the victim of human trafficking, to reduce post-traumatic syndrome. The victim does not have the duty to be engaged in the criminal proceeding as the victim. The person can participate in the criminal proceeding as the witness.

 

Latvia has transposed the Council Directive 2004/81/EC (on the residence permit issued to third country nationals who are victims of trafficking of human beings or who have been the subject of an action to facilitate illegal immigration). A reflection period of 30 days may be granted to allow the third countries nationals to consider cooperating in investigations and criminal proceedings. A six-month temporary residence permit can be granted to victims who decide to cooperate in criminal proceedings.

 

Law on Residence of a Victim of Trafficking in Human Beings in the Republic of Latvia Article 3 provides that if a foreigner, who is not a citizen of the European Union, provides information that possibly might aid in the disclosure and elimination in cases of trafficking in human beings, but this information is not sufficient in order to decide the matter regarding commencement of criminal proceedings or in order to decide the matter, within the framework of the commenced criminal proceedings, regarding recognition of such third-country national as a victim of a criminal offence that is related to trafficking in human beings, the State Border Guard, the investigative institution, the performer of procedures or the social rehabilitation service provider shall inform in writing such third-country national regarding the possibility of the granting of the reflection period and rights that he or she would obtain accordingly.

 

Article 5(4) of the Immigration Law states that “a foreigner who is not a Union citizen and who has been recognised as a victim of trafficking in human beings, as well as minor children accompanied by him or her has the right to reside in the Republic of Latvia without a visa or residence permit until the specified reflection period has ended or terminated or a decision has come into effect regarding the issue of a temporary residence permit”.

 

In accordance with Article 6 (2) of the Law on the Protection of the Rights of the Child in all activities in regard to a child, irrespective of whether they are carried out by State or local government institutions, public organisations or other natural persons and legal persons, as well as the courts and other law enforcement institutions, the ensuring of the rights and interests of the child shall take priority. Therefore, it is possible to extend the reflection period for a child when individually assessing specific case it is concluded that it is in the best interest of the child.

 

Support for Unemployed Persons and Persons Seeking Employment Law determines the active employment measures and preventative measures for unemployment reduction intended for unemployed persons, persons seeking employment and persons subject to the risk of unemployment, the competence of the State and local governments in the implementation of these measures, as well as the status, rights and duties of an unemployed person and person seeking employment. In accordance with Art. 2(8) of Unemployed Persons and Persons Seeking Employment Law a person who has a temporary residence permit in relation to the granting of victim of traffic of human beings status in Latvia has the right to receive the support specified in this Law for unemployed persons, persons seeking employment and persons subject to the risk of unemployment.

 

Article 9(5)18 of the Immigration Law states that foreigner has the right to work without any limitations in the Republic of Latvia, if he or she has received a temporary residence permit as a victim of trafficking in human beings.

 

 

In order to stop facilitation of marriages in convenience and to punish organizers and traffickers the amendment in Criminal Law was elaborated in the autumn of 2011. Criminal Law Amending Law was adopted by the Parliament on December 13, 2012, published on December 27, 2012 in “Official Gazette” No 201 (4805), into force since April 1, 2013.

Section 285.2 Ensuring in Bad Faith with a Possibility to Acquire the Right to Stay in the Republic of Latvia Legally, other Member State of the European Union, Member State of the European Economic Area or Swiss Confederation

(1) For a person who commits provision in bad faith with a possibility to acquire the right to stay in the Republic of Latvia legally, other Member State of the European Union, Member State of the European Economic Area or Swiss Confederation, the applicable punishment is deprivation of liberty for a term up to three years or temporary deprivation of liberty, or community service, or a fine.

(2) For a person who commits provision in bad faith with a possibility to acquire the right to stay in the Republic of Latvia legally, other Member State of the European Union, Member State of the European Economic Area or Swiss Confederation, if it has been committed for the purpose of acquiring property or if such a possibility is ensured for two or more persons, or if it has been committed by a group of persons, the applicable punishment is deprivation of liberty for a term up to five years or temporary deprivation of liberty, or community service, or a fine, with or without confiscation of property.

 

Transposing the requirements of the “Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA” the proposals for amendments to CL and the Criminal Procedure Law (CPL) were elaborated. CL Article 58 (Release from Criminal Ability) was supplemented with paragraph 6 A person may be released from criminal liability if he or she has committed a criminal offence during a period when he or she was subjected to human trafficking and was forced to commit it.

CPL Article 379 (Termination of Criminal Proceedings, Releasing a Person from Criminal Liability) paragraph 1 was supplemented with the sub-paragraph 5 “An investigator with a consent of a supervising public prosecutor, public prosecutor or a court may terminate criminal proceedings, if the person committed the criminal offence during the time period when he or she was subject to human trafficking and was forced to commit the offence. This legal regulation aims to protect the human rights of a victim, to avoid re-victimization, to encourage them to get involved as a witness in criminal proceeding against the perpetrators. This protection measure should not preclude prosecution or conviction for offences that a person has committed or participated on a voluntary basis. The compulsion should be understood as the situation in which a person could not choose his or her own actions, because violence, threats or other kind of influence was used against the person and due to it the person did not have an opportunity to avoid commitment of offence. Victims of trafficking should be protected from prosecution or punishment for criminal activities such as the use of false documents and offences under legislation regarding prostitution or immigration, if they were compelled to commit these activities or this was a direct consequence of the fact that they have been subjected to human trafficking.

 

On the basis of a model Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between Law Enforcement Agencies and Specialist Service Providers in the Baltic Sea Region developed by CBSS TF-THB on February 15, 2012 the State Police of Latvia and NGO Shelter Safe House signed an Agreement of Cooperation on assistance for persons suffered from human trafficking. The aim of this MoU is to facilitate appropriate assistance and protection for Victims of Trafficking (VoT) thus increasing efficiency to prevent human trafficking. The MoU provides cooperation to fight human trafficking by provision of assistance for VoT, social rehabilitation services, performing prevention measures, educational and informative activities, and protection of VoT (both persons suffered from human trafficking, and witnesses).

 

 

National Anti-Trafficking Strategy

Latvia adopted its first National Action Plan, The State Programme for the Prevention of Trafficking in Human Beings (2004-2008), in March 2004.

The second National Action Plan, The State Programme for the Prevention of Trafficking in Human Beings (2009-2013), in August 2009.

 

The National Strategy for Prevention of Trafficking in Human Beings 2014-2020 was adopted by the Government on 21 January 2014.

The new policy planning document is based on provisions, requirements, actions and recommendations given by:

  1. EU Strategy Towards Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012-2016.
  2. Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA.
  3. GRETA (Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings) Report concerning the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Latvia (GRETA(2012)15).
  4. Report of the Independent Expert on the effects of foreign debt and other related international financial obligations of States on the full enjoyment of all human rights, particularly economic, social and cultural rights, Cephas Lumina (A/HRC/23/37/Add. 1), approved by United Nations General Assembly on Human Rights Council twenty-third session on January 2013).
  5. Decision adopted by the Human Rights Council 18/107 Outcome of the Universal Periodic Review: Latvia (adopted on 18 October 2011).
  6. Annual Trafficking in Persons Reports (the Department of State, the U.S.).

The new policy document is structured as comprehensive informative material about the overall situation in the country in the field of prevention and combating of human trafficking – general information, trends, education, information, researches, identification of victims of human trafficking, support and assistance, legal protection, legal aid, state compensation, return of victims from foreign countries, residence of victims of human trafficking who are third countries nationals, helplines, non-punishment principle, legal framework for combating of human trafficking, law enforcement agencies, prosecution, justice, cooperation and coordination. It includes also policy results, action results and indicators of effectiveness for measurement of the implemented actions, plan of tasks and measures, as well as information about impact on state budget.

This document is not just a working document for policy makers and competent institutions, but it is a document which helps to raise awareness and understanding of each society member about the phenomenon of human trafficking, about current situation in the country, risks and threats to become a victim of human trafficking, what kind of assistance, support and protection is provided to a victim of human trafficking etc. (document is publicly available on website of the Cabinet of Ministers (only in Latvian) http://www.mk.gov.lv/lv/mk/tap/?pid=40287968&mode=mk&date=2014-01-14).

The new policy planning document contains two main policy goals:

  1. To promote awareness of society and understanding about trafficking in human beings and to provide assistance and support for the victims of human trafficking.
  2. To achieve the reduction of latency of trafficking in human beings, to develop capacity of law enforcement agencies and relevant stakeholders to combat trafficking in human beings.

The main directions:

  1. Prevention of trafficking in human beings.
  2. Combating of trafficking in human beings.
  3. Coordination of cooperation and information collection.

The new policy planning document includes tasks and measures aimed at ensuring sustainable, planned and coordinated implementation of national policy for human trafficking prevention – to prevent and combat trafficking in human beings, to protect and assist victims of human trafficking, with full respect for their human rights, and to promote cross-sectoral cooperation in order to achieve this goal.

It is planned that the majority of tasks and measures will be implemented within the financial resources of relevant institutions allocated from the State budget. At the same the relevant branch ministries involved in the implementation of the new policy planning document have identified need for additional funding: in year 2015 - 44 759 euro, 2016 - 13 455 euro, 2017 - 12 032 euro, 2018 - 12 886 euro, 2019 - 64 536 euro, 2020 - 12 032 euro.

In total document includes 39 tasks and measures. The main tasks and measures to implement the new policy planning document for prevention of trafficking in human beings are:

  • Every year (starting with 2015) to organize informative campaigns to raise awareness of society about trafficking in human beings and reduction of supply, informing about the different forms of exploitation.
  • Every year (starting with 2015) to organize training for state and municipal police officers, border guards, prosecutors, social workers, consular officials, labour inspectors, orphan courts, State Child Rights Protection Inspectorate, Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs, representatives of tourism sector, National Armed Forces, judges, lawyers, teachers on issues of human trafficking, children rights protection, how to treat victim of human trafficking with respect to his/her gender and providing victim-centred approach. It is planned to provide training for approximately180 officials every year by the Ministry of Interior. Additional training will be provided by the State Police College, the State Border Guard College, the Court Administration, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Education and Sciences, the Ministry of Welfare.
  • To provide education of pupils and students.
  • To provide necessary measures to provide relevant functioning of the web page www.trafficking.lv.
  • To provide informative materials about human trafficking, rights of victims of human trafficking in the field of employment and social issues, status of victim etc.
  • To provide information about services for victims suffered from human trafficking and exploitation.
  • To provide state funded social rehabilitation services for victims of human trafficking.
  • To improve legal acts providing provisions and requirements related to criterions for the recognition of victims of human trafficking and procedures for the administration of social rehabilitation services to victims of trafficking in human beings.
  • To organize a conference for high level officials to raise their awareness about human trafficking phenomenon.
  • To consider the risks which impact health of persons involved in prostitution and to develop measures to reduce these risks.
  • To consider need for legal provisions to punish sex buyers.
  • To consider the improvement of support programmes for child trafficking victims.
  • To develop cooperation between service providers and municipal social services to provide reintegration of the victims of human trafficking after rehabilitation period.
  • To elaborate:
  • Guidelines for risk assessment of the victims of human trafficking;
  • Guidelines for reintegration of the victims of human trafficking.
  • Methodical materials for social workers, labour inspectors about identification of human trafficking cases and actions to be taken in such cases.
  • Methodical materials for medical personnel about identification of human trafficking cases and actions to be taken in such cases.
  • Guidelines for data on human trafficking collection.
  • To improve methodical materials for police officers.
  • To form international JITs for better investigation of human trafficking cases.
  • To improve National Referral Mechanism to provide better identification of the victims of human trafficking, inform them, provide support and assistance.
  • To improve national inter-institutional coordination mechanism.
  • To provide continuum of informal working group on anti-trafficking with a focus on labour exploitation.
  • To provide regional network for cooperation for counter trafficking activities.
  • To provide three researches (about awareness of society about human trafficking; impact of social environment on trafficking in children; recruitment mechanisms).

The tasks are planned keeping in mind that in the future the social and economic situation will change and Latvia will be not only the country of origin, but also the country of transit and destination of the victims of human trafficking.

 

Co-ordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level

The independence and impartiality issue is an important pre-condition of NREM. In accordance with the national legal system each ministry is responsible for the sectoral policy planning and the ministry can monitor how the relevant policies are implemented. The competence of ministry covers the right to abolish illegal decision but it couldn`t to influence the decision of policy implementation in direct way. The National Coordinator of THB (NC) is based at the Ministry of the Interior. The post is at the level of Senior Desk Officer of Sectoral Policy Department and it is full time position. The National Coordinator as a coordinating body for the implementation of anti-trafficking policies organizes meetings of experts at all levels (governmental institutions, law enforcement institutions, nongovernmental and international organizations) in order to deal with the problems of implementation of NAP, represents the interests of stakeholders in the field of prevention and combating human trafficking in the Government and in the Parliament. The NC is also in charge for ensuring communication in this field with foreign embassies and IOs. The NC is in charge for comprehensive data gathering, monitoring activities and reporting on human trafficking and anti-trafficking efforts. The NC has also been assigned the task of gathering and analysing data from different state institutions and non-governmental organisations.

 

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National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms

At present the National Coordinator of Latvia is considered an alternative mechanism to the National Rapporteur. The tasks of NC include:

- to collect and analyze information about the implementation of national policy planning documents related to prevention of human trafficking, legal regulations, as well as overall situation and draft proposals for improvement;

- to participate in the procedure of the drafting of policy planning documents and legal acts at national and the EU level, provide the coordination of implementation;

- to evaluate the compliance of national policy planning documents and legal acts with the EU anti-trafficking policy;

- to monitor and analyze legal acts related to the field of prevention of human trafficking;
- to provide functioning and development of the national inter-institutional working group (national anti-trafficking coordination mechanism);

- to represent ministry at meetings, working groups, conferences.

 

National Referral Mechanism

A National Referral Mechanism in general is based on Cabinet Regulations No 889 Regulations on Criteria for the Recognition of Victims of Human Trafficking and Procedures for the Administration of Social Rehabilitation Services to Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings. The multi-disciplinary expert group on human trafficking prevention and support for victims of human trafficking established by a Prime Minister is an important part of the National Referral Mechanism. There is no formally approved list of first responders in place. The first responders are mainly acknowledged and trained to identify victims of human trafficking during various meetings and training. First responders in general are state and municipal police officers, border guards, social workers, NGOs, labour inspectors, State Employment Agency, teachers, Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs, consular officials, librarians etc. In many cases persons recognize themselves as victims of human trafficking or their relatives or acquaintances and approach directly a mandated NGO for social rehabilitation services for victims of trafficking in human beings. According Regulations 889 a person may receive social rehabilitation services for the State budget funds (hereinafter – services) on the basis of a written submission of the person or the legal representative thereof to the provider of services; and a decision of the performer of the criminal procedure, according to which the person is recognised the victim in a criminal matter regarding the trafficking in human beings, or a statement of a law enforcement institution that the person has suffered from the trafficking in human beings in a foreign state, or a person’s assessment report of the provider of services in which the compliance of the person with the criteria of a victim of the trafficking in human beings has been specified. The Social Service Board (subordinated institution of the Ministry of Welfare) immediately, but not later than within a time period of 3 working days takes a decision regarding the provision of services to the person or the inclusion of the person in the queue of the recipients of services, on the basis of the decision of the performer of the criminal procedure or the statement of a law enforcement institution that the person has suffered from the traffic in human beings in a foreign state and the person’s submission; and evaluates the documents submitted by the provider of services – the submission of the person and the person’s assessment report – and take a decision regarding the provision of services to the person, inclusion of the person in the queue of the recipients of services or regarding a refusal to provide services to the person. Services which the state provides are prescribed by the Cabinet Regulations No. 291 Requirements for Social Services Providers. The social service provider ensures a safe shelter and client accommodation, if necessary, co-operating with law enforcement institutions or other service providers; confidentiality of client and data protection; the development of a client rehabilitation plan, determining the necessary amount of social services and the length of receipt of social services; psycho-social assistance and individual specialist consultations (for example, social worker, psychologist, lawyer, medical practitioners) in conformity with client’s needs and the rehabilitation plan; support for the client during criminal proceedings and, if necessary, also afterwards; the involvement of the client in training and education programmes, which facilitate the reintegration of the client into society and labour market; the possibility of the client to acquire or to improve self-care and self-service skills; if necessary, five free of charge consultations for the client after the end of the social service course; appropriately installed premises for accommodation; translation services; five specialist consultations for family members of minor victim if they reside in Latvia; the getting of the client to the social service provider if the client (victim or potential victim and victim’s minor child) is abroad; evaluation of rehabilitation process; cooperates with the state security institutions; represents client at the court if a client authorizes a service provider to do that; cooperates with social services of local municipalities and other institutions where a client resides and provides exchange of information with these institutions. If a victim is involved in a criminal proceeding the special procedural protection can be provided according to Special Protection of Persons Law which ensures the protection of the life, health and other legal interests of such persons who are testifying in criminal proceedings or who participate in the uncovering, investigation or adjudication of a serious or especially serious crime. Special protection of persons is an aggregate of criminal procedural, operative and other protection measures that ensures the protection of the life, health and other legal interests of persons to be protected. If necessary, the provisions of this Law might be applicable to victims of human trafficking, witnesses or their family members.

 

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2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

All forms of trafficking in human beings are prohibited in Lithuania. The most substantial legislative changes in the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania (hereafter the CC, Articles 147, 147-1, 157) and the Administrative Violations Code of the Republic of Lithuania (Article 182-1) were made in the period of 2005−2023, taking into account relevant international treaties and other documents. Criminal liability for human trafficking as outlined in chapters XX (Crimes against human liberty) and XXIII (Crimes and misdemeanours against a child and a family) of the CC.

Penalties for human trafficking range between two and twelve years of imprisonment (Art 147). Purchase or sale of a child is punishable from three to fifteen years of imprisonment (Art 157). Penalties for labour exploitation (Art. 147-1) range from fine to 8 years of imprisonment.

Art. 147 and 157 of the CC also outline aggravating circumstances (two or more victims, offences committed by participating in an organised group or by seeking to acquire the victim’s organ, tissue or cells). The criminal liability covers preparation, attempt and complicity of the crime. Legal entities might be also prosecuted and subjected to fines, restrictions of operations or liquidation. According to Art. 11 of the CC, these crimes are considered to be serious and grave.

On 30 June 2012 the law on amending the CC was adopted with the aim to broaden the definition of trafficking in human beings crime, to include more aggravating circumstances, and to prosecute the users of forced labor and services (new Art. 147-2 in the CC), taking into account the EU Directive 2011/EU/36 and the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (available in Lithuanian.

National laws also allow a person to claim for compensation if s/he is held to be a victim of human trafficking. In addition, implementing the Law of the Republic of Lithuania on Compensation for Damage Caused by Violent Crime, the Ministry of Justice accepts and analyses applications for compensation for damage caused by violent crime, which is paid from the Crime Victims Fund administered by the Ministry of Justice.

The Law on the Legal Status of Aliens (Art. 130) establishes that an alien should not be expelled from Lithuania if he or she has been granted the reflection period, in accordance with the procedure established by the Lithuanian Government. The Law (Art. 49) transposes the Council Directive 2004/81/EC (on the residence permit issued to third-country nationals who are victims of trafficking of human beings or who have been the subject of an action to facilitate illegal immigration). It provides that a temporary residence permit may be issued to an adult alien, who is or has been a victim of human trafficking, and who cooperates with the pre-trial investigation body or the court. The residence permit is for six months and can be renewed.

On 18 April 2012, the Government of the Republic of Lithuania adopted the decision on the procedures granting the reflection period during which a human trafficking victim has to make a decision whether to cooperate with law enforcement or the court. The legal act establishes a reflection period of 30 days.  

The issue of the liability of a client for buying sexual services was addressed on 16 June 2005 in Art. 182-1 of the Administrative Violations Code, which was one of the measures to reduce the demand for prostitution services in Lithuania. Since then the administrative responsibility covers both persons who earn from prostitution and persons who use paid prostitution services, while excluding the persons who have been involved in prostitution being dependent or under physical or psychological violence or deception, or by any mean being a minor or/and a victim of human trafficking when the status is recognised in the criminal proceedings. According to this article, a fine (from 300 to 1000 LTL) may be imposed on the prostitute and the client.

 

National Strategy / National Action Plan

On 7 May 2015, a new programme The State Security Development for 2015–2025 Programme was adopted by the Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania, one of the tasks of which is to develop sufficient fight against human trafficking. This programme replaced the Crime Prevention and Control Programme. The interinstitutional action plan to be adopted by the Government will implement the State Security Development for 2015–2025 Programme. The Ministry of the Interior is responsible for coordination of the implementation of the new programme.

The Action plan for the implementation of the National Crime Prevention and Control Programme 2013-2015 adopted on 14 November 2012 expires at the end of 2015. One of the two is chapters concentrated only on the fight against trafficking in human beings. This chapter included four main tasks: prevention of trafficking in human beings, training of relevant specialists, assistance and protection for victims of trafficking, and development of sufficient international cooperation.

The Ministry of the Interior, the Police department under the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Social Security and Labour, the Labour Exchange under the Ministry of Social Security and Labour, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and NGOs funded from the state budget through the Ministry of Social Security and Labour participated in the implementation of the Action Plan. The Ministry of the Interior was responsible for coordination of the implementation of the Action Plan.

 

Coordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level

An interdepartmental commission to implement the National Crime Prevention and Control Programme (the Programme) has been set up by the Prime Minister. The commission is chaired by the Minister of the Interior. The commission:

  • prepares and presents to the Government an action plan implementing the Programme every 3 years;
  • ensures participation and cooperation of relevant institutions while implementing the Programme and coordinates their activities;
  • evaluates the implementation and efficiency of the Programme, fixes the main problems and looks for solutions, as well as presents relevant proposals to the Government;
  • makes decision on strategic questions related to crime prevention and control;
  • informs the Government on the implementation of the Programme each year until 31 January.

 

The most important challenges at national level

Young men and women trafficked for shoplifting and other crimes;

Men - victims of trafficking: motivating measures to accept assistance and cooperate with law enforcement;

Vulnerable children - presumed victims of trafficking: effective measures to prevent the crime;

Collection of evidence abroad: solutions to obtain it in a shorter period of time;

Disclosure of trafficking in human beings crime under changing modus operandi.

 

National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism

The main functions of the National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism are carried out by the State Security Policy Department of the Ministry of the Interior in support of other responsible governmental institutions, non-governmental organisations and the International Organisation for Migration (IOM). Each year the State Security Policy Department of the Ministry of the Interior prepares a yearly report which is available also in the website of the Ministry of the Interior (in Lithuanian). The chair of the commission to implement the Programme, the Minister of the Interior, reports to the Government every year on the progress made in carrying out the Action plan for the implementation of the Programme.

 

In 2011-2012, the Ministry of the Interior implemented a project aimed at defining the best model of the National Rapporteur for trafficking in human beings institute for Lithuania and the possibilities to implement it. The joint project was implemented together with the Prime Minister’s Office in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the European Law Department under the Ministry of Justice. On 26 June 2012, the Ministry of the Interior with its partners presented the results of the project to responsible institutions and organizations. The conclusions suggested that the Ministry of the Interior should perform functions of the National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism for trafficking in human beings.

 In 2011, the Lithuanian Police implemented the project “Development of nationally integrated information system (NIIS), designed to combat international organized crime related to human trafficking, which enables interconnection with the national EUROPOL and INTERPOL units and other EU Member States“ financed from EEA/Norwegian Financial Mechanism and the State budget. The developed unified Crime analysis information system is based on “hit/no hit” system. If a hit on certain data (e.g vehicle, person name and etc.) is obtained, the information about the object of interest is picked up from different databases and represented in a graphics file with an  “.anb” extension (i2 Analyst’s Notebook chart file). Each collected piece of information is related to the main object with a specific relationship so it significantly increases the chances of proactive investigation identifying necessary relations. To exchange relevant information, electronic data exchange formats in Lithuanian and English have been prepared for local and foreign use.

 

Official crime and criminal justice statistics are managed by the Information Technology and Communications Department under the Ministry of the Interior.

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation

The law of 31st May 1999 concerning the trafficking of human beings introduced a new chapter in the Criminal Code. It modified article 379 of the Criminal Code by introducing the offences of trafficking of human beings for sexual exploitation and the sexual exploitation of children.

The amendments to the Criminal Code distinguish human trafficking from smuggling and illegal migration, and expand the definition of human trafficking to include forced labour or services, the exploitation of criminal activities and the removal of organs.

Penalties prescribed in the new legislation increased from a maximum prison term of three years, to a range of five to 10 years.

Luxembourg legislation provides for the confiscation of assets and proceeds of crime in trafficking cases. It also provides for compensation for victims.

In 2008, the government adopted immigration legislation that provides victims of human trafficking who are third country nationals, with a 90-day reflection period during which a person cannot be removed from Luxembourg territory, and which lays down conditions under which a victim is granted a residence permit after the reflection period.

In 2009, the parliament adopted an act establishing a framework of protection and assistance for victims of human trafficking. Two proposals for subordinate legislation (Grand Ducal decree) to enforce this act. have been adopted in 2014. One concerns the mode of enforcement of the assistance. The other relates to the structure and the missions of the Committee to monitor trafficking in human beings.

The legislation does not establish prostitution as such (i.e. the selling of sexual services) as a criminal offence.

In 2014, the parliament adopted a law transposing EU Directive 2011/36/EU into national legislation. Actually the luxemburgish legislation was already largely compliant with the provisions of the directive. The main modifications of the existing legislation are the inclusion of begging, the precision that the victim does not need to cooperate in order to get protected under the anti-trafficking law and that all victim (no residential conditions anymore) has the right to claim compensation before the Ministry of Justice when the offender is not able to pay it.A major amendment is the inclusion of the trafficking of children.

Finally, the Human Rights Commission has been appointed as national rapporteur.


National Strategy/National Action Plan

The government has adopted a National Action Plan on Equality of Women and Men for 2009-2014.

The fourth point of the Action Plan envisages revision of the domestic violence legislation, the implementation of a monitoring system for legislation on human trafficking, research on prostitution in order to know its evolution at local and national level, and an analysis of alternatives to the Swedish model of criminalizing the purchase of sexual services.

The Committee to monitor trafficking in human beings has started elaborating a new national action plan focusing on human trafficking.


Coordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level

The national coordination of anti-trafficking polices is currently done by a Committee to monitor trafficking in human beings.

The Committee is  responsible for establishing mechanisms to coordinate and monitor prevention and to evaluate the threat posed by trafficking. It also collects and analyses statistical data. Furthermore, it supervises implementation of the relevant legislation to combat trafficking in human beings and evaluates such process. It oversees the enforcement of its provisions, which are aimed at strengthening the rights of victims and improving witness protection. At the same time, it focuses on enforcing legal provisions guiding free movement, and analyses problems related to the implementation of law.

The Committee is composed of representatives of public bodies responsible for the implementation of the proposal, representatives of assistance services, and representatives of approved organizations.

 

National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms

Luxembourg has appointed the Human Rights Commission as National Rapporteur.

 

The most important challenges at national level

The most important challenge Luxembourg faces at national level is to establish clear procedural rules in order to guarantee an effective cooperation between the different actors involved in the fight against trafficking of human beings, to define the respective roles of the persons involved (national referral mechanism) and to assure an effective assistance to victims of trafficking of human beings.

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation

Criminal law

The Netherlands prohibits all forms of trafficking in human beings. The offence of trafficking in persons was created in the Netherlands in 1911. However, the previous Article (250a) of the Dutch Criminal Code was replaced by a new and extended Article (273a) on 1 January 2005, to include all forms of trafficking.

The maximum penalties for human trafficking were increased with effect from 1 July 2009. Persons convicted of any aggravated form of human trafficking face a sentence of imprisonment for up to twelve years. When the offence is committed under the most severe aggravating circumstances the sentence can go up to a maximum of eighteen years. These penalties are commensurate with those prescribed for other grave crimes.

As of 1 April 2010 the jurisdiction rules with regard to trafficking comply in the broadest sense with the provision on jurisdiction in the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. These rules apply when the offence is committed:

  • by a national or by a stateless person who has his or her habitual residence in its territory, if the offence is punishable under criminal law where it was committed or if the offence is committed outside the territorial jurisdiction of any State;

  • when the offence is committed against one of its nationals.

Legislation relating to victims

Under Chapter B9 of the Aliens Act Implementation Guidelines (the B9 regulation), victims or presumed victims of trafficking are offered a three months reflection period, during which they can decide whether or not to cooperate in criminal proceedings. Furthermore, the B9 regulation allows foreign nationals who are, or might be, victims of trafficking to be granted a residence permit for a period of one year (renewable for up to three years) during the investigation and prosecution period if they decide to cooperate in criminal proceedings.

The B-9 Regulation has been amended in several ways. In April 2009 a new description of target groups was inserted, which intends to reflect more clearly that the B9 regulation applies identically to possible victims of human trafficking who work or have worked in the sex industry and possible victims of human trafficking subjected to other forms of exploitation (article 273f of the Dutch Criminal Code).

To get a temporary residence permit, the victim needs to cooperate with the authorities to identify and prosecute the traffickers. Cooperation with the authorities does not necessarily entail the need to give a statement to the police. The regulation has been redrafted in such a way that when cooperation with the police in the human trafficking case leads to a conviction on any of the charges, the victim may remain in the Netherlands. If the victim has a B9 permit for longer than 3 years, the victim may apply for continued stay, even if the criminal case is still pending or the charges are eventually dropped.

In other cases, for example when the cooperation of the victim with the authorities has not led to a court case or a conviction, individual facts and circumstances determine whether there are sufficient humanitarian reasons to be granted a residence permit in the Netherlands.
Non-victim witnesses of trafficking of human beings who reside illegally in the Netherlands might also be entitled to a B9-residence permit if their presence is deemed necessary for the criminal proceedings.

The reflection period is now also available to victims and possible victims who enter the country through Amsterdam Schiphol airport. These most recent amendments to the B9 scheme apply with retroactive force from 1 January 2009. Victims will not be prosecuted for violation of immigration laws, or for illegal activities in which they are involved as a direct consequence of their situation as a trafficked person. Proposed legislation on prostitution

In December 2009, the Interior and Justice Ministers released a draft Act containing new regulations for legalised prostitution. Under the terms of this bill, every sex business must be licensed and every prostitute must be registered.

National Strategy/National Action Plan

Task force on Human Trafficking

A high level Task Force on Human Trafficking was set up in 2008. It is chaired by the chief public prosecutor of Amsterdam and was created to identify bottlenecks in the methods of tackling human trafficking and to come up with solutions according to an Action Plan (2009). The Task force prioritizes the combat of human trafficking and encourages innovative methods. The Task Force brings together representatives of the ministries involved (Justice, Interior and Kingdom Affairs, Social Affairs and Employment, Health, Welfare and Sports, Education, Culture and Science and Foreign Affairs), the police, the Royal Constabulary (KMar), two mayors (Alkmaar, Utrecht) and one deputy mayor (Rotterdam), the judiciary and the National Rapporteur. The NGO Comensha takes part in Task Force meetings, but is not a member. The Task force reports every year to de Minister of Justice.

Early 2011, the mandate of the Task Force on Human Trafficking was extended for another 3 years, until 2014. The Task Force has adopted a new Plan of Action, which focuses among other things on:

  • loverboys;
  • the use of the internet to recruit victims or to offer the services of victims;
  • further development of the administrative approach to trafficking and
  • a structural solution for shelters and assistance for victims.

In July 2011 the Task Force on Human Trafficking approved its action plan 2011-2014. See below 6.2 National Action Plans.
 

Co-ordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level

The Minister of Justice has overall responsibility for coordinating anti-trafficking policies and is responsible for the areas of law enforcement, crime prevention and immigration. Local policy matters fall under the responsibility of the Ministry of the Interior. Other competent ministries are the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Labour and the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, which have all appointed a coordinator for human trafficking. They meet regularly in interdepartmental meetings. Twice a year, all ministries meet with relevant NGOs and the National Rapporteur.


National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms

The National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings was appointed in the Netherlands in 2000. The function of the National Rapporteur is exercised by an independent agency, the National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings and Sexual Violence against Children, who is supported by a team of staff (Bureau). One of the main tasks of the National Rapporteur is to analyse trends in the field of human trafficking and reflect on Dutch efforts to address them. The National Rapporteur collects statistical data from various stakeholders on human trafficking and disseminates the information in periodic reports submitted to the government.  Reports contain concrete recommendations and are made available to the public. The government sends its reaction to the recommendations to Parliament.

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation

Criminal Law

Poland prohibits all forms of trafficking in human beings. The offence is considered a felony and is now prosecuted on the basis of art. 189a of the Polish Penal Code. The article, along with a definition of trafficking in human beings in art 115 § 22, was introduced into the Penal Code in 2010. On the basis of art. 189a § 1 the minimum penalty for the offence is three years of deprivation of liberty (imprisonment). The highest possible sentence is 15 years of deprivation of liberty. Additionally art. 189a § 2 penalises preparations made to commit the crime and sets the penalty to 3 months to 5 years of deprivation of liberty.

Act on Foreigners

New Act on Foreigners (AF) came into force in May 2014. It regulates the issues of residence of foreigners in Poland, including the foreigners who were identified as victims of trafficking in human beings. Under the AF, victims are entitled to a reflection period (3-month time permission of legal stay) as well as to a temporary residence permit which lasted up to 6 months with the possibility of extension for another 6 months.  The temporary residence permit could be granted to foreigners who cooperated with the law enforcement agencies and who terminated contacts with suspects.

In 2011-2013 there were 14 victims who applied for the temporary residence permit dedicated to victims of trafficking (in 2011 – 3 victims, 2012 – 10, 2013 – 1), but none applied for the shorter one (the 3-month time permission of stay) in the framework of reflection period.

The Act on Social Assistance

The Act on Social Assistance (ASA) regulates the system of providing social assistance to social beneficiaries inter alia to victims of trafficking (both Polish and foreign). Based on the provisions of ASA in 2011-2013 victims of trafficking were entitled to short-term assistance and had a right to receive social services such as: shelter, meals, necessary clothing and designated benefit (financial support for specific purposes), as well as the “emergency” psychological assistance and – were appropriate – free social or legal aid.

In the period 2011-2013 there were 40 victims who benefited from the social services (in 2011 – 24 victims, 2012 – 6, 2013 – 10), and 31 victims were designated financial support (in 2011 – 18 victims, 2012 – 3, 2013 – 10).

National Strategy/National Action Plan

Documents outlining policy and setting out specific tasks on a national level were introduced in Poland in 2003. National Programme for Combatting and Preventing Trafficking in Human Beings for 2003-2004, adopted by the Council of Ministers, was the first such document. Developing and adopting the Programme fulfilled Poland’s obligations under the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (also referred to as the Trafficking Protocol or UN TIP Protocol to the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime. Since 2009 the documents are called National Action Plans Against Trafficking in Human Beings.

The Programmes/Plans outline national policy and set out main actions in the area of THB prevention, victim support and protection, improving the effectiveness of prosecution, improving capacity/competence, knowledge gathering/evaluation and international cooperation. By 2014 six Programmes/Action Plans have been adopted. The latest National Action Plan for the years 2013-2015 has extended the timespan from 2 to 3 years to provide stability and effective implementation of actions taking more time.

Co-ordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level

Committee for Combating and Preventing Trafficking in Human Beings

An inter-ministerial Committee for Combating and Preventing Trafficking in Human Beings was appointed by the Council of Ministers in March 2004. The Committee is chaired by the Secretary of State of the Ministry of the Interior. The Committee is made up of representatives from all competent ministries, governmental administration units and non-governmental organisations, and acts as an Advisory Board to the Prime Minister.

The tasks of the Committee include:

  • Evaluation of the implementation of the National Action Plan against Trafficking in Human Beings;
  • Proposing and giving opinions about actions undertaken in the area of combating and preventing THB;
  • Cooperating with agencies of government administration and local government, as well as with non-governmental organisations.

As the Committee only meets twice a year, the on-going work of monitoring and information exchange has led to the establishment of a special Working Group, made up of experts representing the institutions in the Committee’s work. Moreover, to better address chosen issues, expert groups were established, dealing with trafficking in children and preventive actions.

The Ministry of the Interior

The Unit against Trafficking in Human Beings is responsible for monitoring and ongoing assessment of the National Referral Mechanism. With respect to the system of support and protection, the Unit is in charge of commission the public tasks improving the standards of assistance offered to victims as well as of ongoing monitoring their realization. Apart from that, the Unit was responsible for: collecting all available statistical data concerning the assisted victims, cooperation with other stakeholders of the system, and monitoring the implementation of the legal acts and procedures in practice. The Unit also steers the work of the expert group for supporting and protecting victims of trafficking.

National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms

A National Rapporteur has not been established in Poland. The inter-ministerial Committee for Combating and Preventing Trafficking in Human Beings serves as an equivalent mechanism.

The most important challenges at national level

Enhancing regional cooperation between institutions responsible for combating trafficking cases and supporting victims (Police, Border Guard, labour inspection as well as social assistance and the National Consulting and Intervention Centre for Victims of Trafficking) by creation regional task-forces against THB. Task-forces will be used as a platform of exchanging information to better support victims as well as a mechanism of coordination preventive and educational actions in the region;

Preparing an up to date document describing the procedures of National Referral Mechanism in Poland.

Implementing an updated algorithm of conduct of law enforcement officers in cases of THB, along with a toolkit comprising information set for identified THB victims on their rights in different languages, questionnaire to facilitate victim identification and guidelines for risk assessment of  a victim return to the country of origin.

Implementation of the model of support/protection of a child who has fallen victim to trafficking in human beings.

Continuing and extending training activities for professionals and government officials (updating LEA training programmes, training LEA spokesmen, facilitating best practice exchange, training for guarded centres and detention facilities for foreigners personnel, training on identification and/or victim support for social workers, crisis intervention centres staff, medical personnel and NGOs.

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

 

Legislation

Until 2007, the Penal Code of 1982 criminalized only trafficking for sexual exploitation (Article 217). This law was amended in 2007 to include trafficking for forced labour, removal of organs and other forms of trafficking (Article 160. º).

On the 23rd of August 2013, Portugal altered the article on THB (article 160.º of the Penal Code) due to the transposition of the Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA.

Presently, the definition of Trafficking in Persons considers:

  • Offer, deliver, recruitment, entices, accepts, harbors or receipt of persons for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation includes sexual exploitation, labour exploitation, forced begging, slavery, removal of organs or the exploitation of criminal activities;
  • By means of:

a) By violence, abduction or serious threat;

b) By fraudulent ruse or manipulation;

c) With abuse of authority resulting from a relationship of hierarchical, economic, work or family dependence;

d) By taking advantage of the psychic incapacity or situation of special vulnerability of the victim; or

e) Through obtaining consent from the person who has control over the victim;

Will be punished with a prison term of from three to ten years.

The same penalty is applied in case of a minor

  • In the case set forth in the previous number, if the agent uses any of the means set forth in the subsections of no. 1 or acts professionally or with the intention of monetary gain, he/she will be punished with a prison term of from three to twelve years.
  • The above penalties are aggravated in 1/3 (in their minimum and maximum) if the conduct mentioned has:
    • Endangered the victim's life
    • Been committed with violence or has caused particularly serious harm to the victim;
    • Been committed by an employee in the exercise of their duties;
    • Been committed by an association criminal, or
    • As a result of the suicide victim.
  • Whoever, having knowledge of the practice of the crime set forth in nos. 1 and 2, to use the services or organs of the victim, will be punished with a prison term of from one to five years, if a longer term is not suitable because of another legal provision.
  • Whoever retains conceals damages or destroys the identification or travel documents of a person who is a victim of the crime set forth in nos. 1 and 2 will be punished with a prison term of up to three years, if a longer term is not suitable because of another legal provision.
  • The victims consent is irrelevant.

In 2012, the Portuguese Immigration Law that approved the legal framework of entry, permanence, exit and removal of foreigners into and out of national territory was also changed. According to the new Law (nº. 29/2012 of August 9) on the residence permit issued to third-country nationals who are victims of trafficking in human beings or who have been the subjects of an action to facilitate illegal immigration, who cooperate with the competent authorities (Articles 109-115), victims of trafficking are granted a reflection period of a minimum of 30 and a maximum of 60 days. Residence permits are granted on a case by case basis for a period of one year, and are renewable under specific conditions. One of the innovations of this 2nd amendment is the criminalization of the employment of irregular migrants and the reinforcement of the combat of sham marriages.

Existence of the Crime Victim Compensation Fund which allows victims of crime in Portugal (either Portuguese or Foreigner) to claim compensation for moral and material damages (Law nr. 104/2009 of 14 September 2009 on compensation for victims of violent crime and DL n 120/2010 of 27 October 2010).

In 2015 Portugal has sign the Council of Europe Convention against Trafficking in Human Organs.

Also in 2015, the following laws were approved:

- Law 71/2015, of July, 20 – transposition of the Directive 2011/99/EU of the European Parliament and the Council of 13 December 2011 on the European protection order - establishing the legal regime of emission and transmission between Portugal and the other Member States of the European Union as far as the implementation of protective measures adopted in favor of victims, or possible victims, of crimes.

- Law 72/2015, of July 20 - Defines the objectives, priorities and criminal policy guidelines for the biennium 2015 -2017, in accordance with Law No 17/2006 of May, 23, approving the Framework Act Criminal Policy. Trafficking in Persons appears in:

- Article 2 “Prevention of Priority Crimes”;

- Article 3 “Investigation of Priority Crimes”.

In September 2015 the State Secretariat for Equality established a special fund to support the safe return of EU victims. This fund is managed by an NGO and is a step further in the support and assistance to THB victims aiming to prevent their re victimization.

Coordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level

A National Coordinator was appointed in January 2008 under the Commission for Citizenship and Gender Equality (CIG) within the Presidency of Council of Ministers.

The Commission for Citizenship and Gender Equality is responsible for coordinating activities in the National Action Plan. It is supported by a Working Group, involving all competent ministries, and three NGO’s that were elected from the ones bellowing to the National Trafficking Victims Support and Protection Network (RAPVT).

The National Coordinator has the following responsibilities:

1. Draft the annual reports on the level of execution of the National Action Plan and report accordingly to the overseeing Government members;

2. Follow up and supervise the execution of the National Action Plan and responsible entities regarding their level of execution;

3. Promote research projects that may contribute towards a better understanding of the field of action;

4. Provide information, when requested, on legislative measures concerning the fight against human trafficking and the protection of victims of trafficking;

5. Develop an institutional contact network involving civil society, allowing for an individual follow-up of the known trafficking phenomena and the identification of their victims;

6. Establish contact with foreign and international peer entities regarding human trafficking;

7. Promote and participate in developing national and international information networks and structures;

8. Ensure the final assessment of the Plan’s execution by an external entity.

National Rapporteur or Equivalent Mechanisms

A National Rapporteur was nominated in January 2008, in accordance with the National Action Plan. The National Rapporteur also exercises the role of National Coordinator.

The National Rapporteur can propose new legislative measures for combating trafficking in human beings as well as measures to protect victims of trafficking. In addition to the National Rapporteur, the Observatory on Trafficking in Human Beings is mandated to produce, collect, analyze and disseminate information on trafficking in persons and other kinds of gender violence.

The most important challenge at national level

Presently, the most important challenges are:

1.      The consolidation of a National Referral Mechanism, in order to improve the channels of communication between public entities and also with NGO. In this regard, in 2013 the Commission for Citizenship and Gender Equality sign the Protocol that creates the National Trafficking Victims Support and Protection Network (RAPVT). This network congregates both governmental and non-governmental organizations and aims to create a platform for the implementation of new forms of intervention, through the enhancement of agent’s skills, in order to promote a social reintegration of victims of trafficking.

2.      The consolidation of data collection procedures (monitoring system) as far as the collection, analysis and treatment of data and information.

3.      Prevention and training will continue be in the frontline regarding the Portuguese strategies for the next years.

4.      The support to the qualitative research on THB, namely for the purpose of labour exploitation and the link between THB and Internet.

5.      The impact of the revision of the 160. º Article – Trafficking in Persons – of the Penal Code.

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Specialized institutional bodies mandated to fight against trafficking were set up in Romania since 2001. The institutional framework was developed folowing trafficking trends and based on know how and expertise aquired in time.

Now, with more then an extensive period in countering THB, the specialized law enforcement and judicial units existing in every county is continuosly improved its response and techniques succiding to have an excellent record of performance with a high number of prosecutions and convictions over the years.

 

National Agency against Trafficking in Persons

One particular institutional set up, with very positive results since its operationalization, is the ANITP within the Minister of Internal Affairs, a multidisciplinary team consisting of police officers, social workers, psychologists and sociologists, governmental entity tasked to ensure co-ordination, among anti-trafficking actors, state and non-governmental ones, develop policies and prevention activities. The Agency have national coverage through its 15 regional centres set up to mirror at a smaller scale the Central Unit, being also composed of police officers, social workers, psychologists and sociologists performing similar tasks at local level. One of the outcomes of Agency involvment was a consistent improvement of the anti-trafficking response, guided by the victim centred approach principle. Programs like transnational referal mechanism, developed within a SEE countries project coordinated by ICMPD, curently implemented by Romanian authorities when Romanian victims are repatriated with agency support or Victims co-ordination during criminal proceedings that facilitated access to justice for an increased number of victims, are some of the measures that contributed to a steady development of anti-trafficking capacity resulting in a decrease of the number of victims in the past years and more succesfull prosecutions and conviction of perpetrators.

Improvement of cooperation with civil society organization took also a positive trend in the last 5 years. In this matter, efforts are made to amend legal framework in order to ensure financial support for the NGO’s involved in victims assistance.

Prevention was another area of great interest for Romanian authorities that in cooperation with national and international actors from both govenmental and non-governmental spectrum, developed various prevention actions targeting various vulnerable groups to THB.

With a future medium to long term focus on victim’s social assistance development, Romanian authorities are in the process to prepare and launch an evaluation of the national social assistance system with a view of reconfiguring it in order to guarantee easy access and sustainable process of recuperation and reintegration for VoT.

Romania prohibits all forms of trafficking in persons.

Since 2001 until February 2014 criminalization of trafficking was enforced through Law no. 678/2001 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings. The Law was introduced in the Criminal Code in 2009 and entered into force at February 1st 2014.

Legal and social message of the new code is based primarily on objective punitive policy reform and conceptual approach includes a review of sentences, a logical ordering by condensation of law (in this respect a number of offenses in special laws were included as modified or unchanged in the new cod) and also criminal acts and penalties adapted to the current realities.

In relation to trafficking, the new Penal Code brings naturally some changes compared to former law.

Chapter VII of Title I of the special part of the New Criminal Code - Law no. 286 / 17.07.2009, entitled Trafficking and exploitation of vulnerable persons include offenses of trafficking and related offenses and is made ​​with a part of incriminations currently contained in Law no. 678/2001 on preventing and combating trafficking in persons, as amended and supplemented. The incriminations of the New Penal Code is likely to avoid different interpretations and inconsistent practice created by the application of the texts from special criminal law and also representing transposition into internal criminal law obligations under international legal instruments to which Romania is a party.

The provisions for human trafficking prescribe penalties from three to fifteen years' imprisonment.

These penalties are commensurate with the penalties prescribed for other grave crimes, such as rape. In the new Criminal Code of July 17 2009, chapter VII (Trafficking and exploitation of vulnerable persons) is aimed at establishing crimes, particularly against minors, through a modern approach in line with European and international regulation. Therefore, any acts committed against minors that can be severely harmful to their life, freedom, health, physical and mental integrity are criminalized. Examples include trafficking in minors, procurement, exploitation for begging, forcing a minor to beg, benefiting from the services of an exploited person, rape, sexual assault, sexual intercourse with a minor, sexual corruption of minors, and the recruitment of minors for sexual purposes.

According to Romanian law foreign citizens may be granted a temporary residence permit for a period of six months, as victims of trafficking even if they entered illegally, the period that can be extended.

Foreign victims receive a 90-day reflection period to decide whether they would like to cooperate in criminal proceedings.

 

National Strategy / National Action Plan

            The National Strategy against Trafficking for the period 2012 - 2016 is the next step that Romania makes in the efforts to modernize the management process of preventing and combating human trafficking in the national territory and assistance to victims.

For a better approach to the phenomenon in the interest of Romanian society, the national strategy aimed at establishing the objectives envisaged at national level followed by actions and concrete measure of the responsible authorities in the field of preventing and combating human trafficking. 

The national strategy for the period 2012-2016 aims to reduce the impact and dimensions of trafficking at national level by prioritizing and improving the activities so that the efforts of actors involved in the fight against human trafficking to be focused in the following areas:

  1. Discouraging demand - a fundamental cause of human trafficking which supplies all forms of exploitation - represents a factor which supports the decrease of trafficking, by adapting and strengthening legislative, educational, social, cultural, and administrative or prevention campaigns targeted to reduce it.
  2. Improving statistical interpretations, mechanisms to collect and analyze data on trends on trafficking in persons.
  3. Monitoring the situation of victims based on a set of common indicators, standardized, according to European regulations and recommendations.
  4. Creating educational programs, especially for groups of people at risk in order to increase awareness about the risks of being trafficked.
  5. Implementation of supplementary specific measures to ensure respect for the right of victims to financial compensation.
  6. Developing standardized information means to provide specific information, particular to sub domains intervention, for all responsible structures (information on legislation, traffic indicators, the national network of social service providers, contacts etc.).

 

Coordination of anti-trafficking actions at national level

The Government Decision no. 460/2011 designated ANITP to coordinate, evaluate and monitor the implementation of anti-trafficking, victim protection and assistance policies by public institutions at national level, being subordinated to the Minister of Internal Affairs.

ANITP runs fifteen Regional Centres to monitor the local implementation of the National Action Plans and to support anti-trafficking activities performed in the ANITP's area of responsibility.

ANITP is also responsible for maintaining the Integrated System for Monitoring and Evaluation of Victims of Trafficking (SIMEV) a central database on victims of human trafficking, and plays a key role in the referral mechanism. SIMEV is an important tool for the evaluation of the phenomenon, in order to identify trends and make them available for stakeholders and ensuring the effectiveness of early action to implement the national strategy against trafficking in persons. ANITP ensures the effective referral of victims to the assistance services providers, as well as monitoring the quality of assistance with which the victims are provided.

 

National Rapporteur or Equivalent Mechanism

            In order to support the fulfillment of Romania’s obligation as an EU Member State, year 2013 represents the end of the transposition process of the Directive 2011/36 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA. Common approach of all relevant institutions to adapt national legislation to the provisions of the European law were completed in April 2013 at the deadline required by the European Commission, Romania being one of the first seven MS countries that have managed to fully transpose the directive.

In the process of implementing the article 19 of the EU Directive on Trafficking in Human Beings 2011/36, Romanian authorities opted for an equivalent mechanism to a national rapporteur assigning provided task to the ANITP which was set up within the Ministry of Internal Affairs[1].

 

The most important challenges at national level

The main challenge of the national anti-trafficking mechanism remains the assistance provided for victims. The stakeholders continued to identify a large number of victims, but public or private institutions offered assistance to only a minority of victims.

Another challenge that we face is related to the demand reduction. The efforts that we do in this respect have to overcome the difficulty of reaching the target group(s). The clients or the employers of the victims do not represent a visible and compact category of population. It is not easy to find a proper preventive message and an efficient way for its transmission. The solution that we envisaged for dealing with this issue is an extended partnership with NGOs, private companies and state agencies.

 

 

[1] Government Decision no. 460/2011 on the organization and functioning of the National Agency against Trafficking in Persons - ANITP

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation

Legislation regarding the fight against human trafficking in the Slovak Republic is represented mainly by the following regulations:

  • Act No. 300/2005 Coll. Criminal Act - by passing the Criminal Act, Council Framework Decision No. 2002/629/JHA of 19 July 2002 on the Fight Against Human Trafficking was incorporated into the Slovak legal system which applies to crimes involving human trafficking for labour or sexual exploitation. In 2013 was in to the Criminal Act implemented Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA;
  • Act No. 301/2005 Coll. Criminal Code – by passing the Criminal Code, the Slovak Republic incorporated Council Framework Decision No. 2001/220/JHA of 15 March 2001 on the status of victims in a criminal case with the aim to ensure suitable status of victims during criminal case respecting their rights. In 2013 was in to the Criminal Code implemented Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA;
  • Act No. 215/2006 Coll. on Compensation for Victims of Violent Crimes – Council Directive No. 2001/80/EC of 29 April 2004 related to compensation to crime victims was incorporated in the legislation with the aim to provide the ability to submit a request in a Member State other than the country of permanent residency of the applicant.
  • Act No. 404/2011 Coll. on Alien Stays and on amending and supplementing certain acts as amended – provisions of Council Directive No. 2004/81/EC of 29 April 2004 on the residence permit issued to third-country nationals who are victims of trafficking in human beings or who have been the subject of an action to facilitate illegal immigration, who cooperate with the competent authorities were suitably incorporated in the given act (hereinafter referred to as “Act on Alien Stays”). An Amendment of Act No. 404/2011 Coll. on Alien Stays and on amending and supplementing certain acts as amended came into effect on 1 January 1 2007 (Act No. 693/2006 Coll.) and defined the length of a tolerated stay granted to victims of crimes related to human trafficking. In line with the amendment, this period is prolonged and as of January 15, 2010 it is possible to grant victims of crimes involving human trafficking a tolerated stay permit for up to 90 days;
  • Act No. 342/2007 Coll., amending and supplementing certain acts in relationship with the Slovak Republic joining the Schengen area – according to this Act, a waiver is granted to the victims of human trafficking are freed for the administrative fee for granting a tolerated stay permit;
  • Act No. 305/2005 Coll. on Social and Legal Protection of Children and on Social Guardianship and on amending and supplementing certain acts as amended;
  • Act No. 448/2008 Coll. on Social Services and on amending and supplementing Act No. 455/1991 Coll. on Trade Licensing as amended;
  • Act No. 583/2008 Coll. on the Prevention of Criminality and Other Anti-social Activities and on amending and supplementing certain acts. In the area of organisational arrangement of the fight against human trafficking, the legislative conditions of Article 7 Paragraph 3 were used to established the Information Centre to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings and Crime Prevention and defined its tasks in Article 7, Paragraph 1 and 2;
  • Decree of the Minister of Interior of the Slovak Republic No. 180/2013 on Ensuring the Program of Support and Protection for Victims of Human Trafficking,;
  • Decree of the Minister of Interior of the Slovak Republic No. 22 of 30 June 2008 on Establishing the Expert Group for the Fight against Human Trafficking, which was replaced by Decree of the Minister of the Interior of the Slovak Republic No. 126/2012 about  the Expert Group for the Fight against Human Trafficking;

All forms of trafficking in human beings have been prohibited since 2002 through the Criminal Code. In 2005 (implementation of the Council Framework Decision No. 2002/629/JHA of 19 July 2002 on the Fight Against Human Trafficking) legislation was amended, and the new paragraph 179 was made part of the Criminal Act and in 2013 was this paragraph changed because of implementation of the Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA . Paragraph 179 creates the criminal offence of trafficking in human beings. Paragraph 179 forbids and punishes trafficking in human beings for the purposes of prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation including pornography, forced labour or services including begging, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, forced marriage, exploitation of criminal activities, or the removal of organs. The penalties range is from four to 25 years’ imprisonment and is commensurate with those prescribed for other grave crimes.

National Program (National Strategy/National Action Plan)

On 16 February 2011, the Slovak Government approved its third National Program to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings for the years 2011 – 2014 (hereinafter referred to as “National Program”). The National Program is divided into two parts. The first is National Strategy and the second is the National action plan of the fight against Human Trafficking for the years 2011 – 2014.

The National Program covers the following four areas:

  1. Supporting framework (including coordinating structures, legislative framework, coordinated work with information and research, ensuring a budget and funding, monitoring, evaluation and updates;
  2. Prevention (including public awareness, education, minimizing risks and administrative control instruments);
  3. Support and protection of victims (including identification of victims, recovery period, comprehensive care for victims, protection of victims – witnesses and part about reintegration of victims into society and return to the country of origin);
  4. Criminal proceeding (including investigation, international cooperation of law enforcement bodies, criminal proceedings, compensation for victims, communication of law enforcement bodies and court with victims and anti-corruption measures).

Nowadays the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic prepares a new National Program to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings for the years 2015 – 2018.

Coordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level

The National Coordinator for the Fight against Human Trafficking (hereinafter referred to as “National Coordinator”) is State Secretary of the Ministry of Interior and the first was appointed on 1 October 2005. The National Coordinator is mainly responsible for coordinating the activities in the National Action Plan and also activities connected by Program of Support and Protection for Victim of Trafficking.

Expert Group for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings

The Expert Group on Trafficking in Human Beings was established in 2006. It is primary an advisory body of the National Coordinator and responsible for the performance of tasks set under the National Action Plan. The group is composed of experts from the competent ministries in the field, as well as representatives of other central state authorities such as the General Prosecutor’s Office, non-governmental organizations and the International Organization for Migration (IOM).

National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms

The Slovak Republic established the Information Centre to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings and Crime Prevention as a National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism. The Information Centre was established in 2009 with the aim of collecting information on victims of human trafficking, providing analysis and evaluation of activities and sharing information at the national and international level.

The most important challenges you face at national level

The actual National Program (for years 2011 – 2014) is primarily focused on forced labour as a form of trafficking. Continue in process of approving a responses and countermeasures on a complex and systemic level that assumes participation of a wide spectrum of bodies in the governmental, private as well as non-governmental sectors and effective coordination. Continue in ensuring the concordance of domestic legislation and international standards in the area of fight against human trafficking in order to provide the best care for victims of human trafficking and to ensure successful criminal persecution of offenders.

The aim is:

  • to reduce the risk of becoming a victim of human trafficking, mainly in the most vulnerable groups in the population by increasing information awareness of population about the existence of the problem with human trafficking, as well as by passing supporting social and economic measures.
  • to increase the ability of professional representatives of state and non-state entities, municipalities and non-governmental organizations to identify victims of individual forms of human trafficking and report them in the system of help.
  • to minimize social and economic risks for endangered groups of the population.
  • to discourage potential human trafficking and to map the current situation in the area of human trafficking on the  Labour market in connection with avoiding or breaking administrative measures.

 

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation

In 2013 Slovenia implemented the Directive 36/2011/EU, which means that Slovenian legislation in the field of trafficking in human beings is in compliance with the EU standards.

All forms of trafficking are prohibited through paragraph 113 of the Criminal Code. The specific offence of trafficking in persons was established in Slovenia in 2004. However, the offences of 'abuse of prostitution' and 'placing in the condition of a slave' have been used to prosecute some forms of human trafficking both before and after the establishment of this offence.

In November 2008, the government amended Slovenia’s criminal code to increase the maximum penalty for trafficking to 15 years' imprisonment.

According to the Aliens Act, identified foreign victims are granted a 90-day reflection period. Foreign victims who assist law enforcement can apply for a temporary residence permit and remain in Slovenia for the duration of the trial. The victim may choose to stay longer if s/he is employed or in school.

Other internal legal acts of relevance to action against THB are:

  • the Act Ratifying the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, which defines the responsibilities of ministries in the implementation of the Convention and regulates the organisation of assistance to victims of trafficking;
  • The Criminal Procedure Act (CPA), which provides in Article 65 that child victims of THB are entitled to have an authorised person assisting them;
  • the Aliens Act, which provides for measures and procedures regarding victims of trafficking, including a three-month recovery and reflection period and the possibility to obtain a temporary residence permit (Articles 30 and 50);
  • the Witness Protection Act, which includes provisions referring to the protection of witnesses of trafficking in human beings;
  • the Act on Compensation of Victims of Crime, which provides for State compensation to victims who are Slovenian and EU nationals, including in cases of THB (Article 5);
  • the State Prosecutor Act, which envisages that the criminal offences of trafficking in human beings and establishing slavery relations are dealt with by the Specialised Office of the State Prosecutor of the Republic of Slovenia (Article 192).

 

National Strategy/National Action Plan

The Action Plans are prepared and monitored by the Inter-ministerial National Working Group for the Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings. Slovenian Government has so far adopted four National Action Plans for the periods 2004-2006, 2008-2009, 2010 - 2011 and 2012 - 2013. The National Action Plan for the years 2014-2016 is currently being prepared.

Every new National Action Plan is prepared as a continuation of good practice, especially of those projects which have proven effective, and the nature of which requires continuity.

 

Coordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level

A National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator was appointed in Slovenia in February 2002. The Coordinator is located in the Ministry of the Interior. Its responsibilities include the preparation of annual reports and strategic documents that are then submitted to the Government. The Coordinator is also tasked with aligning the work of different governmental sectors and non-governmental organisations whose representatives are members of the Inter-ministerial Working Group.

Inter-ministerial Working Group

An Interdepartmental Working Group (IWG) was established on 18 December 2003. The appointed members are representatives of competent ministries, non-governmental organisations and international intergovernmental organisations. The tasks of the group are to prepare periodic action plans and supervise their implementation; prepare periodic reports for the Government; and assist the national coordinator in preparing proposals to enhance the efficiency of politics and actions to combat trafficking in human beings. At its 21st regular session on 5 July 2012, the government of the Republic of Slovenia adopted Decision No. 01201-7/2012/4, whereby it reappointed the national coordinator to combat trafficking in human beings and established the Inter-ministerial Working Group on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, which is led by this coordinator. This was a reestablishment, or approval of this working group, in view of the government guideline to reduce the number of such working bodies.

The National Coordinator and IWG function as consultative authorities for the government without executive powers.

National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms

An independent National Rapporteur has not been established in Slovenia. However, the National Coordinator exercises the role of an equivalent mechanism.

Each year, the Commission for Petitions, Human Rights and Equal Opportunities of the National Assembly is informed about the Report on the work of the Inter-ministerial Working Group on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings by the National Coordinator.

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Please include reference to anti-trafficking legislation, as relevant

  • RELEVANT LEGISLATION

Please further provide information as per the following subheadings:

  • PROTECTION OF THE VICTIMS AND ACCESS TO RIGHTS
  • PROSECUTION OF TRAFFICKERS AND PERPETRATORS
  • PREVENTION

In March 2015 the Modern Slavery Act came into force.

The Act consolidated slavery and trafficking offences, to provide clarity and focus when investigating and prosecuting modern slavery.

It increased the maximum sentence available for offenders to life imprisonment and classified slavery offences as “criminal lifestyle offences”, to ensure they are subject to the toughest asset recovery regime under the Proceeds of Crime Act. It also introduced a number of measures focussed on supporting and protecting victims, including a statutory defence for slavery or trafficking victims and special measures for witnesses in criminal proceedings.

The Act established the Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner, whose mandate covers the whole of the UK, working with law enforcement agencies, local authorities and third sector organisations to encourage identification, prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution of modern slavery crimes.  The role also includes international collaboration. The Act also includes a transparency requirement which obliges certain businesses to disclose what activity they are undertaking to eliminate slavery and trafficking from their business and supply chains.

The relevant legislation in Scotland is the Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act 2015. This sets out two offences: human trafficking and slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour. It also sets out the statutory period of support for both offences, now set at 90 days. In addition, it sets out new court orders to disrupt trafficking activity: Trafficking and Exploitation Prevention Orders (TEPOs) and Trafficking and Exploitation Risk Orders (TEROs).

The Lord Advocate has issued Instructions on the presumption against prosecution of victims in certain circumstances.

In January 2015, the Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015 came into force in Northern Ireland.  The Act:

  • simplified the legislative framework surrounding offences of human trafficking and slavery;
  • enhanced public protection by amending the sentencing framework for human trafficking and slavery-like offences and introducing slavery and trafficking prevention orders;
  • established a statutory minimum sentence for those convicted of human trafficking and slavery-like offences;
  • enhanced provision to facilitate the confiscation of criminal assets that have been accumulated as a result of human trafficking and slavery-like offences;
  • made statutory provision in respect of the assistance and support for victims and potential victims of human trafficking and slavery;
  • introduced new measures aimed at protecting victims of human trafficking and slavery-like offences during investigations and criminal proceedings, including the introduction of a statutory defence for slavery or trafficking victims who have been compelled to commit certain offences.

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation

The Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) Act 2008 creates offences of trafficking in adults for the purposes of sexual or labour exploitation or the removal of their organs. The 2008 Act also amended the Child Trafficking and Pornography Act 1998 and added trafficking in children for the purposes of labour exploitation and the removal of organs to the offence of sexual exploitation. The 2008 Act also raised the penalty for human trafficking from 14 years to life imprisonment and amended the definition of the age of a child from 17 to 18.

The 2008 Act also makes it an offence to sell or offer for sale or to purchase or offer to purchase any person for any purpose.  Under section 4 of the Act, it is not a defence for an accused trafficker to argue that the trafficked person consented to being trafficked. Furthermore, under section 7 of the Act, persons committing offences provided for in the Act outside of the State may be tried in the State as if the offence had been committed in the State. Penalties of up to life imprisonment and/or an unlimited fine apply to the human trafficking offences.

The Act also provides for measures to protect a trafficked person's anonymity under sections 10 and 11 by granting a judge the authority to exclude persons other than those directly concerned with the proceedings from the court and by prohibiting the broadcasting or publication of material (such as photographs) that may make the trafficked person identifiable.

In relation to the sexual exploitation of trafficked persons, it is an offence under section 5 of the Act to solicit or importune a trafficked person for the purpose of prostitution. Similarly, it is an offence to benefit from such activities.  Penalties of up to five years imprisonment and/or a fine apply in respect of those offences. It is a defence for the defendant to prove that he or she did not know and had no reasonable grounds for believing that the person in respect of whom the offence was committed was a trafficked person.

The Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) (Amendment) Act came into effect in August 2013  to provide for an extended definition of human trafficking in Irish criminal law  to include trafficking for forced begging and forced participation in criminal acts for profit in line with the EU Human Trafficking Directive. The Act also provided for an aggravating factor for offences committed by public officials and for evidence by persons under 18 by videorecording. In addition, the 2013 Act includes a definition of forced labour in line with the definition in ILO Convention No. 29 on Forced Labour

 

Under the Illegal Immigrants (Trafficking) Act 2000 it is an offence for a person to organise or knowingly facilitate the entry into Ireland of another person whom that person knows or has reasonable cause to believe is an illegal immigrant. The penalty for this offence is a maximum of ten years' imprisonment, or an unlimited fine, or both.

The Sexual Offences (Jurisdiction) Act 1996 allows for the prosecution of an Irish citizen, or a person ordinarily resident in the State, who commits an act in another country which is a sexual offence against a child in that other country and if done within the State, would constitute a sexual offence against a child in the State.  The penalties are a maximum of 5 years imprisonment on conviction on indictment. The purpose of this legislation is to deter what is commonly referred to as “sex tourism”.

The Immigration, Residence and Protection Bill 2010 when reintroduced will provide for a period of recovery and reflection of 60 days in the State for suspected victims of trafficking and also, in circumstances where the person trafficked wishes to assist the Garda Síochána or other relevant authorities in any investigation or prosecution in relation to the alleged trafficking, a further six months period of residence, renewable, to enable him or her to do so.  The Bill also provides that the Minister may make regulations prescribing a Recovery and Reflection Period exceeding 60 days where a person is under the age of 18 years.

An administrative framework, entitled the Administrative Immigration Arrangements for the Protection of victims of Trafficking, broadly reflecting the provisions in the Bill, was introduced on 7 June 2008 to provide for the period of recovery, reflection and residency in the State pending enactment of the Immigration, Residence and Protection Bill.  Amendments were made to the Scheme in early 2011.  These amendments include:

  • a procedure to allow a person to make an application to change to a longer term permission to remain in the State after 3 years of Temporary Residency Permissions or when the investigation/prosecution is complete (whichever is the shorter);

  • arrangements to issue a recovery and reflection period for persons under 18 years for periods in excess of 60 days having regard to the arrangements in place for the care and welfare of the child;

  • a clarification that there is no right to family re-unification while on temporary residence permission (each case will be considered on its merits);

  • a provision for those victims of human trafficking, who have been refused asylum, to allow them to have the fact that they have been identified as a suspected victim of human trafficking to be taken into account in any consideration as to whether they may remain in the country under various immigration permissions.  In such cases temporary residence permission under the Administrative Immigration Arrangements will automatically issue pending consideration of any other forms of immigration permission of which the person may wish to avail.

Ratification of International Instruments
Ireland ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons especially Women and Children supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime the UN Protocol came into effect for Ireland on 17 July, 2010.  Ireland has opted into the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA.  Ireland has notified the European Commission that it has fully transposed this Directive both by way of legislation [e.g. the Criminal Law (Human Trafficking) Act 2008 along with the Amendment in 2013] and administrative measures.

National Strategy/National Action Plan
On 10 June 2009 the then Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform published the National Action Plan to Prevent and Combat Trafficking of Human Beings in Ireland 2009-2012. The Plan outlined the measures which have been undertaken already across Government Departments and Agencies to address human trafficking. It identified areas which require further action, and to sets out the structures which bring Ireland into line with its international obligations.  The Plan wass divided into four main areas: Prevention of human trafficking; Awareness Raising; Protection of the Victim and Response to Child Trafficking. A 2nd National Action Plan is currently being prepared

Review of the National Action Plan
In order to ensure that Ireland’s policies are working effectively, the National Action Plan to Prevent and Combat Trafficking in Human Beings which was published on the 10 June 2009 was reviewed.  The review involved a consultation process with relevant stakeholders.   Following the review and country reports on Ireland from GRETA and the OSCE a 2nd National Action Plan will be drafted in consultation with stakeholders  in order to take account of the recommendations by the International bodies, changing circumstances, new issues and our growing experience in this area.

Coordination of anti-trafficking actions at a national level
Coordination and consultation process in place in Ireland is closely modelled on the guidelines set out by the OSCE in their handbook on establishing National Referral Mechanisms. The structure of the consultation process is set out beneath. 
The Anti-Human Trafficking Unit (AHTU) of the Department of Justice and Equality has the overall responsibility for coordinating anti-trafficking policies in Ireland. Much of the Anti-Human Trafficking Unit's work is conducted in close cooperation with a wide variety of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders. Cooperation between the Anti-Human Trafficking Unit and other organisations is primarily conducted through a number of different consultative groups. In total, the Unit is working with over 70 different organisations, nationally and internationally.

High Level Group / Roundtable Discussions/ Working Groups
In terms of overall coordination, an Interdepartmental High Level Group was established to recommend the most appropriate and effective responses to trafficking in human beings.  The Group comprises senior representatives from various Government Departments and Public Sector bodies.  Representatives of the High Level Group engage with NGO representatives by way of roundtable discussions held approximately every four months.

There are  Working Groups in place focusing on the areas of child trafficking, awareness raising and training, labour and sexual exploitation and the national referral mechanism. These groups have worked to implement agreed priorities as set out in the National Action Plan to Prevent and Combat Trafficking of Human Beings in Ireland 2009-2012 and will now work on agreeing a programme under the 2nd National Action Plan.  All of the policies which are brought forward are put before the various working groups so that all those involved whether State Organisations, International Organisations or NGOs have the opportunity to provide their views.  This helps ensure that finalised policy proposals generally contain aspects of all stakeholders’ views.

Dedicated Anti-Human Trafficking Units
In terms of streamlining services to victims of human trafficking, 3 other dedicated units, in addition to the Anti-Human Trafficking Unit in the Department of Justice and Equality, have been established.  These include the Human Trafficking Investigation and Co-ordination Unit in the Garda National Immigration Bureau (GNIB-Irish Police), the Anti-Human Trafficking Team in the Health Service Executive (HSE) who develop an individual care plan for each alleged victim and a specialised Human Trafficking legal team in the Legal Aid Board (LAB).  These units have been set up as a response to Ireland’s international obligations to provide services to victims of the trafficking of human beings.

Dedicated personnel are also assigned to deal with prosecution of cases in the Director of Public Prosecution’s (DPP) Office and in the New Communities and Asylum Seekers Unit in the Department of Social Protection. The latter assist suspected victims who are not in the asylum system making the transition from Direct Provision accommodation to mainstream services for the duration of their temporary residency.

Statement of Roles and Responsibilities
A Statement of Roles and Responsibilities was completed in 2010.  The purpose of this Statement is to outline the roles and responsibilities of all the relevant governmental non-governmental and international stakeholders are involved in (a) protecting potential and suspected victims of human trafficking and (b) combating trafficking in human beings.  The Statement provides greater clarity in terms of the following

  • the process of identification,

  • the range of available services and assistance measures,

  • how these services may be accessed and

  • the part played by the relevant organisations at each of these stages.

National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms
The Irish Government has not established a National Rapporteur.

Ireland has opted into the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA. The Anti-Human Trafficking Unit of the Department of Justice and Equality is in consultation with the relevant Government Departments/agencies and civil society partners about the manner of implementation at present including the issue of the establishment of a National Rapporteur within the context of the 2nd National Action Plan.

Forced labour and human trafficking
 

 

The question of whether current legislative provisions are adequate to criminalise forced labour was the subject of a Report which is available on the website www.blueblindfold.gov.ie.  On foot of these deliberations the term ‘forced labour’ as used in the 2008 Act has been defined in the amending 2013 legislation.  The definition is based on that set out in the International Labour Organisation (ILO) Convention No. 29 of 1930 on Forced or Compulsory Labour.

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Legislation
 
All forms of trafficking are prohibited by the Criminal Code (Cap. 9). Following Malta’s commitment to the United Nations Protocol to Prevent and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Act III (entitled Of The Traffic of Persons) was introduced in the Criminal Code in 2002. Nonetheless, trafficking in persons from Malta for the purposes of prostitution was already a criminal offence under the White Slaves Traffic (Suppression) Ordinance (Chap. 63). The White Slave Traffic (Suppression) Ordinance transposed the 1904 International Agreement for the Suppression of White Slave Traffic into national law, which was subsequently amended by the Protocol approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 3 December 1948.
 
With a view to implement Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA, various legislative amendments were made.
 
For the purpose, Act XVIII published on the 6 December 2013 amended provisions in the Criminal Code to address key developments in relevant law provisions. Such amendments introduced mainly provisions for the transposition of the Directive 2011/36/EU on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims. Additional amendments to the legal framework include proposals for amendments as put forward by the GRETA committee for improved compliance with the Council of Europe Convention against Human Trafficking. Some other amendments were added by Government in order to ensure a holistic legal framework to curb crime in this area and to provide the appropriate tools for the police and the judiciary to act for the suppression of human trafficking in all forms it happens.
 
For the purpose, Act XVIII published on the 6 December 2013 amended provisions in the Criminal Code to address key developments in relevant law provisions. Such amendments introduced mainly provisions for the transposition of the Directive 2011/36/EU on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims. Additional amendments to the legal framework include proposals for amendments as put forward by the GRETA committee for improved compliance with the Council of Europe Convention against Human Trafficking. Some other amendments were added by Government in order to ensure a holistic legal framework to curb crime in this area and to provide the appropriate tools for the police and the judiciary to act for the suppression of human trafficking in all forms it happens.
 
The Criminal Code now increases punishment both in terms of fines and length of prison sentences which are considered to serve as a deterrent to prevent trafficking in person in all situations of exploitation. Aiding and abetting and indirect involvement in human trafficking now shall be considered to be a crime. When a person is found guilty of engaging in or making use of the services or labour of a trafficked person, he shall be liable to punishment by imprisonment. Moreover, when an offence is committed for the benefit, in part or in whole, of a body corporate, the legal person representing the entity is subject to punishment in addition to the judicial winding up and/or temporary or permanent closure of the establishment concerned amongst other punishments. Furthermore the term ‘forced labour’ was also added in the Criminal Code so that together with the other amendments augments the recognition of human trafficking for the purpose of labour exploitation as the severe crime that it is.
 
With the aim of consolidating its plan of action, Government, by means of this new law, grants victims of human trafficking offences access to the compensation which before were awarded only to victims of violent intentional crimes under the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme Regulations.
Additionally, the crime of trafficking in persons is also dealt with under the Title of the Maltese Criminal Code focusing on Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes and the Title addressing Crimes Against the Peace and Honour of Families and Against Morals.
 

Subsidiary Legislation (S.L. 217/07) transposing Council Directive 2004/81/EC (on the residence permit issued to third country nationals who are victims of trafficking of human beings or who have been the subject of an action to facilitate illegal immigration) was passed in 2007. This legislation provides for giving victims of trafficking or illegal immigrants who cooperate with the Maltese authorities permission to reside in Malta for a period of six months (renewable).This legislation also provides for a reflection period of up to two months, prior to the granting of the six-month residence permit.

National Action Plan

On the 21st January 2013, the Monitoring Committee concluded and approved the Second National Action Plan against Human Trafficking, which covers the years 2013 and 2014. Some items from the first National Action Plan that require further attention were incorporated into the Second National Action, thereby ensuring continuity. The implementation of the Second National Action Plan therefore ensures the attainment of Malta’s objective in this sphere, furthermore improving capability at executive level through appropriate action. The Action Plan will also ensure the implementation of international commitments by Malta, including the objectives of the EU Strategy, thereby confirming Government’s commitment in this sphere.
 
The organisation and implementation of the multidisciplinary coalition between stakeholders working together to address this crime require adequate funding which is another challenge in itself. Nevertheless Government shall not be detracted from its fundamental responsibility. Measures addressing the three key areas of human trafficking, namely the prevention of trafficking, the prosecution of traffickers and protection of trafficking victims, shall be strengthened and enhanced.
 
Coordination of anti-trafficking actions on national level
 
Coordination of anti-trafficking action on a national level is conducted on a two-tier mechanism. The Anti-Human Trafficking Monitoring Committee established by the Prime Minister was set up to provide for an overall strategic and policy orientation in the field of trafficking in human beings. The Committee members are major stakeholders in the sector. The Committee is chaired by the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry for the Family and Social Solidarity and includes the Attorney General, the Commissioner of Police, the Permanent Secretary for the Ministry for Home Affairs and National Security, and a representative from the Office of the Prime Minister and from a local NGO. The scope of the Committee is to monitor the implementation of commitments relating to the suppression of trafficking by the competent authorities, be this in the sphere of prevention, prosecution of offenders or the protection of victims. Furthermore it monitors the implementation of the National Action Plan and produces reports on the Human Trafficking situation in Malta. It also establishes knowledge and information exchange relationships with other State authorities and assesses the operational practices and procedures of all organizations involved in Human Trafficking, amongst other.
 
On an operational level the Human Trafficking Stake Holders’ Task Force was established by the Minister for Home Affairs and National Security acting in accordance with the Malta Action Plan. The members are representatives working at operational level coming from Government Ministries and Agencies concerned as well as from 2 NGOs. The Task Force contributes to the implementation of the aforementioned Action Plan, to discuss operational issues, in particular liaison among the entities concerned, as well as to make proposals to the Monitoring Committee.
 
National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms
 
In Malta, the functions of the National Rapporteur or Equivalent Mechanism (NREM) are being fulfilled by the Human Trafficking Monitoring Committee. As mentioned earlier this Committee is made up of high level officials, with the mandate to supervise the implementation of the anti-human trafficking policy in Malta and to provide policy direction in this area. It is also responsible for collecting national data as well provides reports locally and on an international level about human trafficking in Malta. The Committee is represented by an official, in meetings held by the EU Anti-Trafficking Coordinator and reports accordingly following each meeting
 

2. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Regarding the legislative framework, in January 2013 (on January 1st, 2013) a new Penal Code entered into force introducing novelties in the field of criminalization of trafficking in human beings. Previous Article 175 'Trafficking in human beings and slavery' is now devided in two separate articles - Article 105 'Slavery' and Article 106 'Trafficking in human beings'. This is a result of harmonization of Croatian legislation with the Slavery Convention and the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery), as well as with the UN Convention against transnational organized crime and the so-called Palermo Protocol, the Council of Europe Convention on combating trafficking in human beings, the Framework Decision of the Council on fight against trafficking in human beings and with the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning the Transplantation of Organs and Tissues of Human Origin).

On the day of Croatia's accession as a full member to the European Union the Act on Modifications and Amendments to the Criminal Procedure Act (Official Gazette N°56/13) entered into force, by which the Directive of the European Parliament and the Council N°2011/36/EU on the prevention and fight against trafficking in human beings and on the protection of victims of trafficking have fully been transposed. The amendments are especially related to the prevention of secondary victimization in the court proceedings (testimony via video-links, testimony of the victims in their own homes, reducment of unnecessary questioning). Also, relating to child victims of trafficking in human beings, but also other crimes, in the criminal proceedings the focus is on child’s best interest. This also means that when the age of a victim is undetermined, the victim is presumed as a child.

In the Republic of Croatia, the national anti-trafficking coordinator is appointed as the equivalent mechanism of the national rapporteur. His tasks are to operatively lead and coordinate all activities of the institutions and NGOs connected with the suppression of trafficking of persons in the Republic of Croatia. He also presides all the sessions of the Operational team.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

Prevention & Awareness-Raising
Numerous public events, campaigns and efforts to raise awareness of THB take place on a regular basis, including:
  • An annual public event on the occasion of the “EU Anti-Trafficking Day” with an average attendance of 250 people and broad coverage in mainstream media
(Austrian public radio and television ORF, quality newspapers).
  • An exhibition „THB – Slavery of the 21st century“, including materials, has been developed in 2011, targeting primarily schools. It has been used every year at the “Aktionstage politische Bildung” and has also been shown on other occasions such as the annual Open Door Event at the Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs (approximately 5000 visitors per year), at the event on the occasion of the “EU Anti-Trafficking Day” and at the Austrian parliament.
  • Members of the Task Force participate regularly in a broad range of public events at universities or other institutions, support bachelor, master and doctoral thesis or other studies and make themselves available for media interviews.
  • The Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection is in the process of adapting the existing internal decree for labour inspectors on trafficking in humna beings and intends to strengthen its awareness raising measures on this topic. Information on human trafficking will be increasingly integrated in the training for labour inspectors.
  • Through Austrian Development Cooperation, Austria has supported projects, aiming at prevention of human trafficking by improving the situation of vulnerable groups in countries of origin.
  • As home to a large diplomatic community, Austria has put a particular emphasis on preventing THB among private domestic staff in diplomatic households. TheMinistry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs introduced a number of measures and regularly communicates its policy to diplomatic missions and international organizations.

Assistance and support provided to victims

 

​​​LEFÖ-IBF operates on a national level on behalf of the Ministry of the Interior and the Federal Ministry for Education and Women to assist trafficked women in their physical, psychological and social recovery. Supported financially by these ministries, LEFÖ-IBF provides a full range of services, including appropriate and secure accommodation with 24/7 assistance, counselling in the victim’s mother tongue as well as a non-permanent shelter for women who have recovered enough to be able to live more independently. All trafficked women who get in contact with LEFÖ-IBF can receive psychological help as well as gain access to emergency medical treatment. LEFÖ also provides victims of THB with psychosocial and legal assistance during criminal and civil proceedings, with the financial support of the Austrian Ministry of Justice. Funding to LEFÖ-IBF has continuously increased despite budget constraints due to the increasing demand for victim protection.

The most developed system for providing support and assistance to victims of child trafficking is Drehscheibe operated by the City of Vienna. In the case of a

reasonable-grounds indication for believing that a minor might be a victim of child trafficking, he/she is taken to Drehscheibe, a socio-pedagogic institution established in 2001 by the City of Vienna, Municipal Department 11/Vienna, children and youth assistance. Drehscheibe provides children with accommodation, shelter, food and protection, tries to determine their identity and learn more about each child’s individual story. If possible, victims are returned to their country of origin, the focus being on safeguarding the best interests of the child. Drehscheibe has developed a special repatriation model for children and young persons with the EU-members Romania and Bulgaria as well as with a few more non-EU countries in the region. Special monitoring of every single case enables verification and provision of further support and assistance to the children concerned after their return. 

In late 2013 the Vienna-based Men’s Health Centre launched the pilot project MEN VIA, a focal point for male victims of human trafficking financially supported by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection. The clients are provided with safe accommodation, psycho-social support, including during judicial proceedings, medical aid and other services.

In 2014 the drop-in center for undocumented employees UNDOK, run by an association of Trade Unions, the Chamber of Labour (AK), the Austrian National
Student Union (ÖH), NGOs as for example LEFÖ-IBF, self-organized Migrant Organizations and antiracist activists, financially supported by the Austrian Federal
Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs an Consumer Protection, was established. Persons working in Austria without a residence and/or a work permit who are not paid the agreed wage or harmed by their employers in any other way, are provided with basic counselling about issues of labour law, right of residence and social security and with assistance with administrative procedures. Furthermore, UNDOK cooperates actively with THB victim support organizations.
The Austrian Criminal Intelligence Service supports the IOM-Vienna project “CARE: Coordinated Approach for the Reintegration of Victims of Trafficking“. The Kick-off meeting took place on 6 November 2013 in Paris. Eligible beneficiaries are any male, female and minor victims of trafficking returning voluntarily to any third country (outside the European Union). The project aims to provide flexible and tailored assistance helping returning Victims of Trafficking from Austria to resettle and become again active members of their home communities. More specifically, the project implements a coordinated and integrated approach for the delivery of predeparture, post-arrival and reintegration assistance for victims.
Several supported projects aim at increasing knowledge about the specific obstacles members of ethnic minorities face in exercising their rights. ECPAT Austria was involved in several studies in the past years, including a study on “Typology and Policy Responses to Child Begging in the EU”, commissioned by the European Commission and carried out by ICMPD. Identified challenges include the lack of a specific support system for children belonging to Roma communities at risk of being exploited for begging, forced criminality and prostitution, their identification and problems of prejudices and discrimination. Supported by the Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs, the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights (BIM) in cooperation with ECPAT Austria participates in the EU-funded project “CONFRONT – Countering new forms of Roma children trafficking: participatory approach”. The project aims at strengthening child-protection measures in relation to child trafficking, with a focus on protective measures against particular forms of exploitation like begging and sexual exploitation of boys and young men. The project's other objective is to strengthen cooperation with representatives of Roma
groups in order to fight the stereotypical linking of child trafficking to the Roma community. Moreover, the participation of Roma groups in the project will ensure close cooperation in measures aimed at fighting child trafficking as well as childprotection. Finally, the project aims to sensitize Roma individuals on child trafficking in order to act as cultural mediators in potential cases. 
The Austrian Criminal Intelligence Service (BK) has set up a telephone hotline (+43-1-24836-985383) to receive reports of potential human trafficking cases. All reports can be made anonymously, 24 hours, seven days a week. The calls will be handled by specialized human trafficking investigators who can identify suspicious activities and take immediate action. It is also possible to send an e-mail to: humantrafficking@bmi.gv.at.
 
Latest initiatives/activities related to anti-trafficking policy
The Fourth National Action Plan 2015-2017 and the 3rd report regarding the situation of THB in Austria are currently being elaborated. 
The Task Force’s working group on human trafficking for the purpose of labour exploitation has elaborated a list of indicators, which shall support authorities of control in identifying victims of human trafficking for the purpose of labour exploitation. The competent ministries will have the task to spread this information to the authorities concerned. In this context, the Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection is now preparing an update to the existing internal decree for labour inspectors on human trafficking.
In the beginning of 2014 the Vienna-based Men’s Health Centre launched the pilot project MEN VIA, a focal point for male victims of human trafficking financially supported by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection. The clients are provided with safe accommodation, psycho-social support, including during judicial proceedings, medical aid and other services.
 
Also in 2014 the drop-in center for undocumented employees UNDOK, run by an association of Trade Unions, the Chamber of Labour (AK), the Austrian National Student Union (ÖH), NGOs as for example LEFÖ-IBF, self-organized Migrant Organizations and antiracist activists, was established. Persons working in Austria without a residence and/or a work permit who are not paid the agreed wage or harmed by their employers in any other way, are provided with basic counselling about issues of labour law, right of residence and social security and with assistance during administrative procedures. Furthermore, UNDOK cooperates actively with THB victim support organizations.
 
The Austrian Foreign Ministry continued to strengthen its comprehensive policy to ensure the protection of domestic staff in diplomatic households in Austria. An event for domestic workers employed in diplomatic households was organised by the Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs and the Federal Ministry of Interior in 2013, aiming at informing domestic house staff about their rights regarding wages, working hours and other entitlements. A second event of this kind is currently in the planning.
 
 

 

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

Prevention

 

  • On the initiative of the Bureau and of the FPS Foreign Affairs and following the demand of the Belgian diplomatic missions, an information leaflet on the economic exploitation was published in 2009. This leaflet aims at pointing out to persons of foreign origin who apply for a working visa the risks of being exploited. Moreover, it advises them to gather full information with their potential employer before leaving for Belgium. Therefore, different contact points have been mentioned in this leaflet. The leaflet was made available to different “test” embassies, which include the document in the visa applicant’s passport. This information leaflet has been sent to the diplomatic missions concerned  (China, India, Ecuador, Philippines). An information leaflet for the embassies of Brazil and Morocco was published in 2011, complemented in 2012 and 2013 by leaflets for Thailand, Tunisia, Nigeria, and Algeria.
  • In cooperation with the FPS Public Health, the Bureau has developed an awareness-raising instrument on behalf of the medical staff in hospitals, susceptible to be confronted to potential victims of trafficking in human beings. The three specialized centres were previously consulted.
  • The brochure “Trafficking in Human Beings… How to react ?” explains the problem, illustrates the situation of the victims and demonstrates the way in which medical staff can help them. For example medical staff can refer victims to specialised reception centres where they can receive psychological, administrative and legal aid. This initiative was launched in 2012 and relaunched in June 2014.                 

 

  • For years now, the Brazilians have constituted one of the main groups of victims of trafficking in human beings in Belgium. The Brazilian nationals in Belgium are particularly affected by labour exploitation, a phenomenon that grew very significantly between 2000 and 2008. Most of the Brazilians identified as victims of trafficking are indeed exploited in the construction industry (men), in industrial cleaning (men and women) or in domestic work (women).

At the end of 2009, IOM, with the support of the Belgian Immigration Office, launched an information campaign for the Brazilians in Belgium. The campaign informed them on their rights and obligations, and principally focused on the protection mechanisms existing in Belgium for victims of trafficking and of exploitation as well as on the Legal opportunities for Brazilians residing in an irregular situation in Belgium.

Following the campaign, the Belgian and Brazilian authorities set up at the beginning of 2010 the cooperation framework in view of defining modalities of future cooperation, including the implementation of an information campaign in Brazil on the risks of irregular migration to Belgium. A wide range of Belgian and Brazilian institutions was involved in this process at different levels. Immigration and intelligence services, Police, Ministries of Labour and Justice, consulates, trade unions, religious groups and NGO’s were part of the discussion and offered their support in view of future cooperation and of the campaign. These initial contacts set the ground for future direct cooperation at the operational level between the Belgian and Brazilian representatives, initiating the creasing of direct channels of communication and information exchange as basis for future cooperation and communication.

The conclusions of this meeting will be soon were incorporated into a report which will be was signed by both parties. At the beginning of October 2011, there was a return visit to Belgium during which the conclusions will be translated into concrete initiatives.

  • periodic exchange of strategic and operational information;
  • bilateral cooperation in the fight against tax fraud and social security fraud;
  • cooperation between police forces;
  • cooperation on the level of voluntary return and integration;
  • bilateral cooperation on information and awareness campaigns;
  • a visit of a Brazilian delegation to Belgium on the concretisation of a practical cooperation;
  • an exchange of a list of contact points.

 

Anti-trafficking week October 2010 – Belgian presidency

 

On the 18th and 19th of October 2010, Belgium organised during his European presidency an international conference concerning trafficking in human beings ”Towards a multidisciplinary approach to prevention of trafficking in human beings, prosecution of traffickers and protection of victims”. Another national conference on labour exploitation was organised by Foundation Samilia.

 

Investigation and prosecution

 

The main tool with respect to investigation and prosecution of trafficking in Human beings is the Directive of the Minister of Justice and the Board of Prosecutors General, which is designed to develop a coherent investigation and prosecution policy concerning trafficking in human beings.

The Directive provides a coordination structure involving all the Belgian prosecution bodies, namely the offices of the Public Prosecution at various levels (federal, First Instance, Labour Attorneys General and Labour Attorneys). These coordination meetings guarantee an efficient flow of information between relevant actors.

It is also worth noting that there are specialised magistrates who are appointed in each legal district in addition to a specialised police unit within the Federal Police.

The police service is structured at the local level and the national level. Since 1993, a central anti-trafficking unit has been established at the national level. That central unit works in close cooperation with 29 decentralised anti-trafficking teams of the federal police and with anti-trafficking teams of the local police which have been set up in the most important Belgian cities.

 

Latest initiatives/activities related to anti-trafficking policy

 

  • A specialised training course meant for magistrates has been organised by the Board of General Prosecutors and the Judicial Training Institute. The training course focused on the financial investigations.
  • In 2012, Fedasil (Federal Agency for the reception of asylum seekers) took the initiative of raising the awareness of and informing teams working in the field with UFM (Unaccompanied Foreign Minors) with regard to trafficking in human beings. The objective was to improve the system for the detection and protection of child victims and to set up a referral system to the specialised centers. In this context, two workshops have been organised so far. In the course of these workshops a brochure on trafficking in human beings by the working group Prevention of the Bureau of the Interdepartmental Coordination Platform, was distributed.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

Prevention

Specific actions to raise awareness have been included in the National Action Plan. For example, several trainings have taken place, addressing, among others, members of the police, the Social Welfare Services, judges and prosecutors. These trainings will continue to be organised.

Moreover, a large number of police officers are trained every year in Cyprus and abroad. The training programs include modules on current laws and regulations, intelligence gathering and operations, victim identification, interview techniques, victims’ support and protection.

Leaflets have been produced and disseminated and, in November- December 2013, a nationwide awareness raising radio campaign took place. The Head of the Office of Combating Trafficking in Human Beings of the Police gives lectures on a regular basis to educate members of the Police and other government staff about human trafficking.

Assistance and support provided to victims

According to the Law 60(I)/2014, victims of trafficking are protected from penalties in cases where the offence is directly related to their status as victims, including illegal entry and residence. Victims are granted, a reflection period of at least one month, with the possibility of renewal. No fees are required for the issue of the relevant temporary residence permit. During this period the victims have the following rights:

  • protection from deportation;
  • the right to medical care;
  • the right to information concerning their rights and possibilities provided for by the Law;
  • public allowance;
  • the right to psychological support;
  • protection by the police;
  • free translation and interpretation services;
  • protection of personal data;
  • access to programmes provided by the State or by NGOs in cooperation with the State (if available) for rehabilitation of the social life of the victims (e.g. vocational training);
  • the right to change sector of employment.

The Law also provides for the right of the victim to seek compensation.

Since November 2007, a state shelter for female victims of sexual exploitation has been operating within the national framework of supporting victims of sexual exploitation. The shelter is under the responsibility of the Social Welfare Services and provides the victims with safe accommodation, psychological support and counselling and an individualized treatment plan.

Special protective measures for children

Law 60(I)/2014 is compliant with the Optional Protocol of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Several provisions are included for cases where children are involved, for example stricter penalties, while in the 'identification and protection of the victims' part of the Law, special measures and methods are provided for child victims.

The Law also provides for victims' access to education and provides child victims the opportunity to testify in court through videorecorded statements.

Investigation and prosecution

Established multidisciplinary groups, special units/police groups

The Office of Combating Trafficking in Human Beings was established by the Cyprus Police in 2004. The Office is responsible for gathering, processing, analysing and utilizing intelligence about human trafficking. It also co-ordinates the actions of the District Divisions involved in the investigation of relevant cases.

Members of the Office take part in operations that aim to combat human trafficking and they have direct contact with victims until the final court decisions are reached. Furthermore, the Office co-operates with foreign services, governmental and non-governmental organisations on matters related to human trafficking. Finally, the Office organises and runs training programmes for police members in co-operation with the Cyprus Police Academy.

Number of investigations and prosecutions

In 2013 the Cypriot police investigated 31 persons in 22 suspected trafficking cases. Of these, thirteen cases were sent to court, seven are still under investigation and two were otherwise disposed of.

Latest initiatives/activities related to anti-trafficking policy

In April 2014 Law 60(I)/2014 was ratified. This Law has aligned legislation on trafficking in human beings with the Directive 2011/36/EU and provides for the creation of a fund for victims, as well as the need to obtain the services of an independent external evaluator, among other things. It also adds another member to the Multidisciplinary Coordinating Group, namely a representative of the Cyprus Municipalities Union.

Furthermore, Cyprus has been participating in the project “Towards a Pan European Monitoring System”, which is co-funded by the EU, in collaboration with Portugal, Bulgaria and Austria, that aims to create an online platform that will help users monitor and collect data regarding victims of trafficking.

A series of inter-governmental training sessions is planned for different groups of civil servants such as: labour inspectors, immigration officers etc.
 

Within this framework two training sessions addressed to the consular officers were held on the 27-28 February 2013. The presentations were video recorded with the aim to be send to all the consular services of the Republic.

In addition, in 2013 a nationwide radio campaign was launched with the aim to educate the public and reduce demand for services of victims of trafficking.

The main challenges faced by the Republic of Cyprus regarding combating THB remain the low number of convictions, lack of sufficient corroborative evidence to support victims’ testimonies, the need to further enhance international cooperation especially with third countries of origin, the need of encouraging more involvement of local authorities in our efforts to combat THB and the issue of tackling demand. Further challenges arise as regards compensation, the use of interpreters during the criminal procedures and the connection with the asylum procedures.

Cyprus and the International Organization for Migration, signed on the 17/12/2012 in Geneva a Cooperation Agreement between them. Based on the agreement, IOM will open an Office in Cyprus in the near future which will implement projects including the issues of trafficking in human beings, returns, capacity building, etc.

 

National Referral Mechanisms

Articles 44-45 of the Law 60(I)/2014 that revises the legal framework regarding prevention, combating trafficking and exploitation of persons and victim protection provides that:

In the event a service involved or a non-governmental organisation is of the opinion or reasonably suspects that a person might be a victim under the provisions of this Law, it shall refer this person to the Social Welfare Services, and/or notify the Social Welfare Services, who shall inform him of his/her rights and the possibilities under this Law. The Social Welfare Services will provide information to the potential victim, including their rights as victims, the services that can offer assistance, the procedure for them to be recognised as victims etc in a language the victim understands, , and they shall refer him directly to the Police, which is the competent authority to determine and identify whether the said person is a victim

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

The Czech Republic considers the implementation of the Directive 2011/36/EU that is due to 6th of April 2013 very seriously. The main responsible body for the implementation of this directive was assigned, that is the Ministry of Justice of the Czech Republic.

The Ministry of Justice issued an implementation table to clearly define all the necessary provisions that need to be modified. The Ministry of Interior in accordance with the scheduled plans will evaluate the Programme on protection and support for victims of trafficking in human beings to make sure that the set up standards and procedures are in line with those envisaged by the Directive. The Ministry of Interior as the coordination body will actively participate in all matters regarding the implementation of this document to bring it to a successful end as soon as possible.

Prevention

A number of preventive campaigns have been launched in recent years in the Czech Republic, either by the government or by nongovernmental organisations, or in partnership between them.

To prevent vulnerable groups from being trafficked is one of the priorities. In this respect it is crucial to have efficient tools to target such groups with preventive campaigns. The unification of the law enforcement and judicial statistics has been discussed for a long period now and also the harmonization of data collection so that the issued data are able to reliably describe the situation and evolving trends. Efforts are being made in order to engage Czech labour authorities into active identification of victims of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of labour exploitation. Moreover, access to compensation for victims has to be significantly improved.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) is involved in the Inter-ministerial Co-ordination Group to ensure the exchange of relevant information with Czech embassies and consulates abroad. Consular officials at all embassies and consulates have received training materials. Furthermore, the MFA distributed preventive materials produced by the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) to consular officers working in ten selected source countries (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Serbia, Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania, and Bulgaria). In addition, the issue of human trafficking was included in training sessions for consular officials before leaving the Czech Republic to go to the consulates abroad, predominantly to those officials sent to the above selected countries.

The MFA assisted the nongovernmental organisation La Strada with the distribution of booklets on trafficking in human beings and exploitation of Vietnamese migrants in particular.

An especially noteworthy information campaign was launched by the International Organisation for Migration, together with partner organisations, in 2007. The campaign targeted sex clients and victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation. In the first stage of the campaign, telephone lines were opened and operated, and information material was disseminated on public transport and at the airport in Prague, at border crossing points with Germany and Austria, and in clubs and restaurants in large cities in the Czech Republic. Campaign material was printed also on tourist maps and erotic journals. In the second part of the campaign, materials were distributed in public transport in the ten largest cities of the Czech Republic. The slogan of the campaign was ‘Don’t Be Afraid to Say It on Her Behalf’. The campaign continued in 2008 and 2009.

In the year 2013 there Ministry of the Interior organised in cooperation with a private transport company a public competition named “Journey  without risks: think it over, warn others, win”. It was a pilot project of cooperation with the private sector in preventive activities. The competition was organised for people older than 15 years of age. Participants had a chance to make a preventive video clip to highlight the risks and, in particular, to present recommendations for safe travel abroad. The transport company committed itself to providing prizes for the winner including a promise that the winning clip would be broadcasted on screens on the buses of the company. (You can find the best videos here)

Assistance and support provided to victims

The Support and Protection of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings Programme (Victim Protection Programme) was established by the Ministry of Interior in 2005, designated to support victims, both in case of foreigners being trafficked in the Czech Republic and Czech citizens being victims in foreign countries. It is administrated by the Department of Prevention of Criminality, MoI. The main aims of the Programme are to ensure support and protection of human rights and the dignity of the victims, to motivate the victims to cooperate with law enforcement authorities and to enable the victims to return to their countries of origin safely, and thanks to the Programme of Voluntary returns, without any cost. The main advantages of the programme are complex help and assistance to the victim, solving their residence status and the possibility to receive compensation.

 

 

Country of origin

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Total

Czech Republic

 

2

3

4

5

4

3

3

2

 

4

30

Slovakia

 

3

 

1

1

1

1

 

 

 

4

11

Moldavia

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

4

Ukraine

 

1

6

3

3

7

8

 

1

 

 

29

Bulgaria

 

2

4

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

8

Vietnam

1

 

3

3

2

 

 

1

1

 

1

12

Romania

 

 

 

3

 

6

 

 

 

 

14

23

Macedonia

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Russia

1

1

 

 

3

1

 

 

 

 

 

6

Kyrgyzstan

 

1

 

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

3

Latvia

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Uzbekistan

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

Brazilia

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

3

Thailand

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

1

Honduras

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

Nigeria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

3

Sri Lanka

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

1

Philipines

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

NA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

1

Total

5

11

17

14

18

24

13

7

10

1

23

143

 

 

A software database called the ‘Trafficked Person Information System was approved by the government in 2008. This database is meant to collate information on victims of human trafficking supported by the Programme or persons included in voluntary return projects.

In 2010, 7 persons newly entered the Programme on support and protection of victims of trafficking in human beings, 4 of them were exploited in labour, 3 sexually. NGO Diakonie ČCE became a new member of the Inter-ministerial coordination group on trafficking in human beings. Among other services, Diakonie also has a secret asylum flat for male victims of trafficking only.

The government has a formal victim identification mechanism which means that victims are identified by the police in collaboration with NGOs (e.g. La Strada and the Czech Catholic Charity Association). Moreover, based on the victims who have used the services offered by the Programme, the MoI has prepared a list of countries which are most likely to be countries of origin or target countries for victims of trafficking. Czech embassies and consulates present in these countries have then been asked to obtain information on human trafficking from public administration authorities of these countries.

The Refugee Facility Administration (RFA) provides accommodation and other services to asylum seekers, recognised refugees, and detained foreign nationals. It also identifies victims of trafficking in asylum facilities, reception centres or detention centres.

According to the US State Department Trafficking in Persons Report, Czech authorities referred 13 victims to nongovernmental organisations for assistance during 2008. The Czech Republic is placed among the countries in TIER 1 in the long term, except the year 2011. There were 57 identified victims of THB in the Czech Republic in 2013, 23 of them decided to join the Programme.

Residence permit

Foreign victims of trafficking are granted a 60-day period of reflection, during which they can decide whether to participate in criminal investigations. During this period the victims receive complex assistance. This may include asylum accommodation, health care, financial assistance, additional social care, psychological and social advisory services, psychotherapeutical services, legal advisory services, assistance with voluntary return to the country of origin and follow up social assistance, long-term social integration, support in seeking jobs, re-qualifying training courses, etc. Victims who cooperate in criminal proceedings are then granted temporary residence and work visas for the duration of the relevant legal proceedings.

In 2008, 19 victims were granted temporary residency permits. Upon conclusion of the court proceedings, victims have the opportunity to apply for a permanent residence permit. One victim was granted permanent residency in 2008. There exists the institute of issuing long term residence permit for the purpose of protection under the law 326/1999 Coll. which states the conditions for this status, specifically the § 42e which identifies victims of Trafficking in Human Being as a category eligible for this status in case they choose to cooperate with the law enforcement authorities.

Special protective measures for children

In the criminal code, §168 where there is the definition of crime of Trafficking in Human Beings, the special treatment of children is stated. Unlike in case of persons above 18 years of age, in case of children there is no need to have evidence of the means of trafficking, it is enough to prove the action with the intent. This is a way of ensuring special protection to persons under the 18 years of age.

The intentions behind the 2006 National Plan on Combating Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children date back to 2002, when the first National Action Plan against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children was published. These Action Plans have created the institutional and conceptual framework for government actions towards child protection. Some of the tasks of the National Action Plans include legislative changes such as making human trafficking for other purposes than sexual exploitation a criminal offence, which is already in force.

In 2008 the issue was included in the wider context of violence against children, while the main responsibility was delegated to the Minister for Human Rights. In this context the “National Strategy for Preventing Violence against Children between 2008 and 2018” was drawn up. This Strategy was linked to an Action Plan (The National Action Plan on Realization of National Strategy on Prevention of Violence against Children 2009-2010, and the subsequent document of the same name for the years of 2011-14 available here), which contains specific tasks and activities for all authorities of state administration directly involved in the issue. The National plans take into account the vulnerable position of children in this respect. In the year 2009 911 children were endangered because of domestic violence.

In 2005, two child victims of 'vice crimes of trafficking' were identified (one of whom was under the age of fifteen), and in 2008 there were four child victims identified (of whom one was under the age of fifteen). Data on child victims of trafficking is also published by international organisations; the Fundamental Rights Agency published data on ‘trafficked children [who are] receiving full health care services, including psychosocial care and rehabilitation’ and on ‘trafficked children receiving education/training, in particular secondary education and vocational training’.

In case of trafficking in human beings the criminal statistics for the year 2013 state that out of 18 identified cases of THB, in 14 cases persons under the age of 18 were affected. According to the data collected by Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs in the year 2012 33 children were exploited to produce pornography and there were 22 cases of child prostitution.

Investigation and Prosecution

As stated before, there have been four condemnatory sentences of labour exploitation till the year 2014. State authorities are making significant effort to counter exploitation of workers from new EU countries and third country nationals who are often exploited thanks to the loopholes in the labour recruitment system. Especially the mechanism of recruitment agencies is very often criticized for enabling such form of exploitation while also providing a high level coverage for perpetrators of this specific crime.

Human Trafficking Department

A special Human Trafficking Department in the Organized Crime Unit of the Criminal Police and Investigation Service Office of the Police has been operational since 1996. Furthermore, a special Forced Labour Section was created in 2006 and the year after there were fifty officers assigned full time to work in this section.

Numbers of detected and resolved crimes of THB

(formerly Sec. 246 or . 232a of the old Criminal Code; from 1 January 2010 Sec. 168 of the

Criminal Code)

Year

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Detected

15

10

13

16

16

11

29

10

24

19

24

18

Resolved

10

9

12

11

13

11

11

3

13

11

18

11

Total number of resolved

crimes including additionally resolved ones

10

12

12

11

13

11

13

11

17

17

22

16

Investigated and prosecuted

persons

12

19

30

18

11

20

22

32

35

29

22

25

Convicted persons

20

5

12

20

2

4

3

1

10

19

11

19

Prison sentence

5

1

3

8

0

3

3

0

9

18

10

16

Conditional sentence

15

4

9

12

2

1

0

1

1

1

1

3

 

Latest initiatives/activities related to anti-trafficking policy

Two expert missions were organized to Romania and Ukraine with the aim to strengthen cooperation with Police Units and other relevant authorities.
The Ministry of Interior together with the organized Crime Unit of the Czech Police organized a specialized course for state prosecutors and special police officers on THB for labour exploitation.

  • In April 2012 new National Strategy to Combat Trafficking in Human beings for the Period 2012-2015 was adopted.

  • Participation in projects focused on trainings – ICMPD, US Embassy + ILEA.

  • Workshop on Nigerian organized crime with the focus on Trafficking in Human beings took place on the 6th and 7th of November 2012 in Prague. The workshop focused on the modus operandi of organized criminal groups, the specifics of the investigative and operational methods, presentation of case studies and exchange of best practices.

  • Project “Discovering Trafficking for the Purpose of Forced Labour and Labour exploitation” took place – the final conference took place in Prague 22.-23.4. 2013. The analysis of THB - FL and LE judgments has been translated into English (available here)

  • 2013: Cooperation of the Ministry of the Interior with a Czech transportation company; competition launched in February: public was encouraged to shoot a preventive clip pointing out the possibilities of avoiding mistreatment while going abroad for a work etc.

  • In 2014 a training module for Border guards has started. Its main aim is to train border guards in recognition of potential victims of THB and to decrease the number of trafficked persons through, to and from the Czech Republic.

National Referral Mechanism

The Czech Republic has a well established referral mechanism staying on two pillars – the Inter-ministerial coordination group with the national coordinator on the top and the Programme on support and protection of victims of THB with its collaborators (NGOs, Police, Immigration authorities etc.)

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

National Developmental Plan addresses the following issues:

  • Prevention
  • Labour exploitation
  • Supporting victims
  • Investigations and trainings

 

Residence permits

An amendment to the Aliens Act was introduced in February 2007. It provides for an unconditional reflection period of 30-60 days and for the issuance of temporary residence permits to victims of trafficking who agree to cooperate in criminal proceedings. The duration of the temporary residence permit is one year.

 

Special protective measures for children

A number of special measures may be used under the Code for Criminal Procedure.

These include:

  • Protection of identity of victims/witnesses
  • Closed hearings
  • Use of equipment (e.g. video) to prevent contact with the defendants
  • Phone hearing (allowed with consent of the defendants only)

 

Investigation and prosecution

Within the police forces and prosecutors´ offices, there are investigators who are usually dealing with the cases of trafficking, so that the competence is available, but no special units or positions mandated.

 

Latest initiatives/activities related to anti-trafficking policy

Ministry of Social Affairs applied for additional funds from EEA Grants. Application was successful and since 2013 until 2015 there will be different activities implemented through the program preventing and tackling gender-based violence, which will be directed by the Ministry of Social Affairs of Estonia and implemented in co-operation with Norwegian Directorate for Health. The total cost of the programme is 2 million euros.

Outcomes of the programme are: gender-based violence reduced and victims of human trafficking supported.

For achieving mentioned outcomes there will be three pre-defined projects implemented:

  • Developing services for victims of domestic violence, strengthening co-operation between different institutions and raising awareness among victims and certain groups of specialists (will be implemented by the NGO Estonian Women´s Shelters  Union);
  • Supporting victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation through improving the services provided to them (will be implemented by NGO Eluliin).
  • Preventing labour trafficking and supporting its victims through developing further anti-trafficking hotline services provided by the NGO Living for Tomorrow.
  •  

These pre-defined projects were selected because these organizations have very specific activities and target groups in Estonia, and have proved over the years their competence in dealing with these issues. At the same time, namely these services should be developed further and widened to achieve better results in preventing gender-based violence and supporting violence victims. All the pre-defined projects will be implemented in the close cooperation with the organizations and experts in Norway dealing with the same issues. The approximate budget for pre-defined projects is 1 473 000 million euros.

Also, two open calls will be issued to find projects, which will raise awareness in the society regarding gender based violence and human trafficking and will develop some new services for victims. One open call will concentrate on gender-based violence and other on trafficking in human beings.

Projects selected through the open calls should target:

  • researching the spread and nature of gender-based violence and trafficking in human beings in Estonia;
  • raising the general awareness (including awareness about services available) and change the attitudes in society regarding gender based violence and trafficking of human beings;
  • develop new services for victims of sexual violence (new topic in Estonia);
  • trainings for specialists target groups not receiving training via  pre-defined projects.

 

In addition one small grant scheme (SGS) will be implemented targeted to NGOs. Projects should be meant especially preventing young people being the victims of gender based violence and trafficking, also there will be supported through SGS different activities targeting perpetrators of violence.

There will be also ex-ante and ex-post surveys carried measuring the attitudes and change in the attitudes in the general population towards gender based violence and trafficking in human beings. 

 

National Referral Mechanism

Estonia doesn´t have national referral mechanism, but there are in use guidelines for the referral and helping victims in the authorities working with THB cases. Procedural guidelines for referral have been set in 2013 and are in use. The working procedures and guidelines are looked through in 2014 and updated. The collection and analysis of THB data is done through different ministries (primarily Ministry of Justice and Social Affairs) and the information is collected for the developmental plan report once a year by the Ministry of Justice, who is also national rapporteur of THB to EU Commission.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

Prevention

The French government has adopted several initiatives with an aim to improve understanding of various forms of human trafficking and to allow stricter prosecution of this crime. For example, in 2014, the government sponsored a nation campaign to raise awareness on victims and to prevent trafficking.

In National action plan, the government provided training to law enforcement personnel to improve their ability to identify potential trafficking victims, and created and distributed pocket-sized cards containing victim identification guidelines to border police and non-governmental organisations. This national Plan to train all stakeholders is based on the creation of a guideline for first level identification of victims by all practitioners.

Assistance and support provided to victims

The government provides funding to victims, including a monthly stipend of 464 Euros, as well as medical care, legal counsel, shelter, and psychological counselling. The government, together with the city of Paris, also fund non-governmental organisations to provide a network of services and shelter for victims. In repatriation cases the French government works with the country of origin to ensure the victim's safety and medical care.

The government has not provided data on the total number of victims given shelter and assistance but 66 victims were accommodated in the national secure network (Réseau Ac Sé) coordinated by the NGO ALC located in Nice. 152 victims received residence cards in 2013.

The National action plan provided a measure to implement a data base on THB

Residence permits

Victims of trafficking are provided with a 30 days reflection period. During this period, the victim may remain in the country in order to decide whether s/he wants to cooperate with the police. A renewable 6 month residence permit is given to those who chose to cooperate in criminal proceedings. This renewable 6 month residence permit is available during the criminal proceeding. The victims have possibility to receive permanent residence card if the perpetrators are sentenced.

During 2013, the French government provided witness protection services and issued one-year residency cards, which can be renewed every six months, to victims of trafficking who cooperated with authorities in the investigation and prosecution of traffickers.

Investigation and prosecution

Established multidisciplinary groups, special units and police groups

The Office Central pour la Répression de la Traite des Êtres Humains (OCRTEH) handles trafficking cases for sexual exploitation and prostitution. In 2013, OCRTEH had 25 officers assigned full time to the policing of trafficking in persons.

The Office Central de Lutte Contre le Travail Illégal (OCLTI) handles cases of trafficking for forced labour under the offences of slavey, forced labour, servitude and “labour and living conditions against human dignity”. About 100 cases were investigated each year for various forms of labour trafficking.

The Office Central de lutte Contre la Délinquance Itinérante (OCLDI) handles cases of trafficking of victims forced to commit offences

Latest numbers of prosecutions and convictions

The Ministry of the Interior dismantled 45 trafficking networks in France in 2013.

According to the French authorities, the number of human trafficking cases prosecuted through the specific offence of trafficking in human beings (Article 225-4-1) is very limited. Human trafficking cases are mostly prosecuted through the offences of “soliciting prostitution” in cases of sexual exploitation and “labour and living condition against human dignity” in the case of trafficking for forced labour.

The French government reported convicting 21 trafficking offenders under its anti-trafficking statute in 2012, the most recent year for which data was available, compared with 20 convicted trafficking offenders in 2011.In addition, the government reported convicting an additional 19 trafficking offenders for forced begging in 2012. The government reported 662 prosecutions under its anti-pimping statute in 2013. French law enforcement authorities successfully dismantled 45 trafficking rings in France in 2013 and send 208 requests on international cooperation to dismantle international networks and with bilateral partners through joint investigation teams aimed at investigating and prosecuting cases across borders.

Latest initiatives/activities related to anti-trafficking policy

Regarding the financial proceeds from trafficking in human being, in recent years France has sought to strengthen its judicial and repressive tools in the area of confiscation of criminal assets. Since 2005, the Central Directorate of the Judicial Police has established a platform for the identification of criminal assets whose officials are responsible for assets investigation in court cases involving organized crime. This tool has led to an exponential increase in the amount of criminal assets seized.

For example, in January 2011 the Central Directorate of Border Police created a specialized unit for the search and confiscation of proceeds from trafficking in human beings.

The group of cases reported and criminal proceeds investigate in cooperation with fiscal authorities, social services.

At the end of 2011, criminal assets seized by the border police specialized in trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants amounted to 1,661,265 euros, eight times more than in 2010.

In addition, on 9 July 2010, a law to facilitate the seizure and confiscation in criminal matters allow to freeze the assets of suspected traffickers at the beginning of the investigation. This text creates criminal proceedings for confiscation (movable and immovable property, intangible property) and establishes the agency for management and recovery of seized and confiscated assets. This agency managed €324 Million in 2012.

Furthermore, the operational coordination unit for the fight against trafficking and exploitation of migrants, established on 25 October 2010, proceeds to dismantle irregular migration channels and combat all forms of exploitation resulting (Concealed work, trafficking in human beings, treatment contrary to human dignity ...).

Finally, the Central Office for the Repression of irregular migration and employment of immigrants without permits, also establish a partnership with the Central Office for the fight against illegal work to strengthen the fight against the employment of irregular immigrants; this offense is often linked to networks helping unauthorized entry and residence.

France has decided to create a network of focal points, composed of representatives of the ministries concerned with the prevention of trafficking in human beings, victims support, traffickers' prosecution and partnership with institutions and associations at national and international level. The network is headed by the MIPROF.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

Prevention

The German government has undertaken several preventive initiatives over the last few years. These include:

The Alliance Against Human Trafficking for Labour Exploitation (Bündnis gegen Menschenhandel zur Arbeitsausbeutung), a project carried out by the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (BMAS) with European Social Fund (ESF) funding, has produced various activities to date

Work time calendar:

  • Production of work time calendars in multiple languages, featuring basic information on German labour law and indicators of human trafficking for facilitators (counselling centres and unions) to hand out specifically to migrant workers in Germany.
  • The work time calendar is available in German, English, Bulgarian, Romanian and Polish.
  • The calendar is in strong demand. There have been four print runs so far. There are growing numbers of requests for the calendar in other languages (Turkish, Spanish and Russian). A problem is funding the quantity needed.

Specialised portal/website:

www.buendnis-gegen-menschenhandel.de

  • Targeting specialists in the field, facilitators and groups who potentially come into contact with victims, a specially developed online portal provides information material, news and events in the thematic area of human trafficking for labour exploitation.

Examples:

  • In the ‘Worum geht es’ (‘About the Project’) section, the Alliance and its members present their work, and all digital products that have come out of the project are provided for use. The products include counselling leaflets in various languages for vulnerable groups.
  • The ‘Fachportal’ (‘Specialist Portal’) section includes information on the law, information for counselling and guidance on identification.
  • The portal also has a contact feature for making contact with counselling centres.

Approaches for ensuring that foreign workers are well prepared are likewise followed in Triple Win, a joint project for the recruitment of skilled foreign workers (nurses) by Deutsche Gesellschaft für internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and the International Placement Services (ZAV) of the Federal Employment Agency.

Workers undergo preparatory training in their own country. This gives them starting knowledge, enabling them to stand on their own feet when they arrive and helping them find information and potential employers. They also take German lessons. They are supported through the immigration process and during their initial time in Germany.

Social Protection and Prevention of Human Trafficking (SPPHT), a regional project for the Western Balkans, targets publicity and education work in Macedonia, Kosovo, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, primarily by the support of learning and dialogue processes and by developing standards, guidance and further training for counsellors.

 

Assistance and support provided to victims

Assistance services to trafficked persons are provided by State-based services, including health care providers and counsellors. Besides, state governments fund several organisations that provide shelter, assistance, and facilitate protection for victims of trafficking. However, full medical and psychological assistance is only granted to persons who reside legally in Germany. Persons with an illegal status receive benefits according to the German Law on Benefits for Asylum Seekers. These cover basic needs but are below subsistence levels and are generally not sufficient for this target group.

The German NGOs that specialise in counter-trafficking measures are members of the Federal Association against Trafficking in Women and Violence against Women in the Migration Process (KOK.) KOK therefore is an umbrella organisation with about 40 members that provide services, such as counselling centres and shelters, for victims of trafficking.

Residence permit

Victims are given a minimum three months reflection period to allow them to recover and consider whether they would like to cooperate with the police in criminal proceedings. During the reflection period, victims are provided with accommodation, legal, medical and psycho-social assistance.

If the person decides to cooperate and the criminal proceeding has been registered, a temporary residence permit can be granted by the prosecutors’ office. Temporary residence permits are in general issued for six months, with the option of successive renewals. Temporary residence permits can be extended, if the public prosecutor’s office cannot exclude the possibility of a threat to the trafficked person.

The government provides legal alternatives to victims’ removal to countries where they may face hardship or retribution, such as long-term residence permits.

 

Special protective measures for children

The German government has attached special measures to combat child trafficking through the framework of the two national action plans A Germany Fit for Children, 2005 – 2010 and For the Protection of Children and Young People from Sexual Violence and Exploitation.

Children have special rights as witnesses in criminal proceedings and the well-being of the child is the lead principle in cases involving children.

 

Investigation and prosecution

The investigation of human trafficking cases is the responsibility of the State (Länder) police units. Prosecutors who specialize in organized crime also handle human trafficking cases.

Latest number of prosecutions and convictions

In 2013, the latest year for available trafficking statistics, German authorities completed  425 sex trafficking investigations with  542 victims, mostly from EU Member States, including  90 German victims of trafficking. They also  concluded 53 labour trafficking investigations.

According to the Federal Statistical Office, “Criminal Prosecution” – 2012 , in 2012  German authorities prosecuted 142 persons under Section 232 of the Penal Code, and 16 persons under Section 233 of the Penal Code. The government reported 115  trafficking convictions concerning Section 232 and 10 convictions concerning Section 233. .107 of the 115 convictions according to Section 232 involved adults, 8 were proceeded under youth penal law. 99 of the 107 convictions of adults carried penalties involving deprivation of liberty, 32 of these without probation. 

 

Latest initiatives/activities related to anti-trafficking policy

  • In September 2011 the “Plan of Action 2011 of the Federal Government of Germany for the Protection of Children and Teenagers from Sexual Violence and Exploitation” was decreed. 

The Plan identifies the following areas of action as its focal points

Prevention:

  • Keeping parents and experts informed, empowering children and teenagers, and providing therapy for potential offenders 
  • Intervention:

    • Providing comprehensive aid to affected persons, and optimising prosecution

  • Communication Networks:

    • Creating safe havens for children and teenagers, and combating child pornography with all means available

  • Child Trafficking for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation:

    • Expansion of  international cooperation for the protection of  victims and prosecution of  offenders

  • Tourism:

    • Combating the commercial sexual exploitation of minors abroad

  • Knowledge: 

    • Intensifying research and linking it to real-life practices

  • International Cooperation:

Having started on 6 March 2013,  the Violence against women support hotline on 08000 116 016 advises women affected by violence throughout Germany 365 days a year, 24 hours a day, free of charge. It provides information and can refer callers to appropriate local support agencies as needed. The support hotline counsellors (exclusively women) can provide advice on all forms of violence against women, including trafficking. Victims or people wishing to help victims can also consult the website at www.hilfetelefon.de and use the online chat function or email to contact the support hotline. Calls to the support hotline are completely confidential and can be conducted anonymously. Through the use of interpreters counselling is available in many different languages. People who have difficulty hearing can request a free interpreter service via the website. In March 2014 the first annual report of the helpline was published available and serve as an important source of information also in the area of trafficking. In the first six months the helpline was contacted around 38000 times. 65 phone calls involved trafficking in persons, 65 violence in prostitution.

 

Within the EU financed project “ADSTRINGO – Addressing trafficking in human beings for labour exploitation through improved partnerships, enhanced diagnostics and intensified organisational approaches” and as an activity of the CBSS - Task Force against Trafficking in Human Beings a national workshop will take place in the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs in Berlin on 19 of March 2013. Representatives of other ministries, social partners, the Federal Employment Agency, churches and NGOs have been invited to this event.  

Starting in 2009 the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior citizens, Women and Youth is financing a model project exploring ways of supporting women and men who want to leave prostitution in finding alternatives. The project, which runs in three towns (Berlin, Nürnberg and Freiburg/Kehl), aims at diminishing barriers preventing persons from working outside prostitution by psychosocial counseling, programs for qualification and employment as well as other support. To meet this aim support programs have been established to integrate prostitutes into the labour market by establishing systematic and interconnected programs, in cooperation of specialized counseling services for prostitutes , job centers, education and training services, other counseling services and partners. The project runs through 2014 and is scientifically monitored. This project is implementing one of the conclusions of the Federal Government’s Report on the Impact of the Law on the Regulations of the Legal Affairs of Prostitutes.

 

National Referral Mechanism

In 1998 a model for a referral mechanism focusing on victims of trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation was agreed and published for the first time by the Federal Working Group “Trafficking in Women“. This model was updated in 2007. The original model and the updated version had been elaborated by the Federal Criminal Police (BKA) and KOK - German nationwide activist coordination group combating trafficking in women and violence against women in the process of migration. Since police investigation and protection as well as support and counseling of victims of trafficking fall within the competence of the Länder within the federal system of Germany, on the federal level only a model exists, which is included as attachment. The Länder have adapted this model to their regional specificities and have signed formal agreements with the NGOs.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

There is a growing dynamic that is producing results in the field of Proactive law enforcement, victim Protection and THB Prevention. Multi-disciplinary, coherent policy making against THB, requires the involvement of a more diverse group of actors. These should include police officers, border guards, immigration and asylum officials, public prosecutors, lawyers, members of the judiciary and court officials, housing, labour, health, social and safety inspectors, civil society organisations, social and youth workers, consumer organisations, trade unions, employers organisations, temporary job agencies, recruitment agencies and consular and diplomatic staff as well as those more difficult to reach, such as legal guardians and legal representatives, child and victim support services.

The priorities of the National Rapporteur Office are:

A. Stepping up the prevention

B. Identifying, protecting and assisting victims

C. Increased prosecution of traffickers

D. Enhanced coordination and cooperation among key actors

E. Increased knowledge of and effective response to all forms of trafficking in human beings

 

PREVENTION

Numerous awareness-raising campaigns that have been implemented on a local or national level, mainly by NGO’s, such as PRAKSIS, Smile of the Child, ARSIS, KMOP, GCR, the “NO Project”, “A21 Campaign”, or IOM and the General Secretary of Gender Equality.

To furnish just a few examples:

  • The ‘No Project' is mostly active in Schools and Universities and uses performance art as an awareness raising medium. A basic aim is to address the “demand side” and the role of the client before it is “too late” and the commodification of sexuality has affected gender norms.
  • The NGO “A21 Campaign” organized an awareness campaign to taxi drivers in thetwo major cities, Athens and Thessaloniki.
    • The General Secretariat for Gender Equality of the Ministry of the Interior
      launched a three-year long awareness-raising campaign on gender based violence, trafficking in women included.
    • On the occasion of EU Anti-Trafficking Day, the theatrical performance “Invisible Olga” was organized under the auspice of the NR’s Office and the cultural platform “Eλculture.gr”. Partners to the event were IOM and the National Centre for Social Solidarity.
    • The “Shoot it” Festival in collaboration with the cultural platform “Eλculture.gr”  invited amateur hopeful cinematographers to “shoot” with their smart phones and compete on short films about trafficking.
    • The theatrical Group “Omada Oneiro” performed several times the production “Sex Trafficking” The performance will continue to Lesvos, Samos, Crete, Ioannina, and Thessaloniki.

 

IOM and KETHI are planning to organize public awareness campaigns, funded by ISF, reaching out to young people and women, as well as school teachers and pupils through social media, events and happenings.

Public awareness campaigns targeting consumers and users of services, corporate social responsibility, codes of conduct, business and human rights initiatives aimed at eliminating human trafficking from the supply chains of businesses are expected to reduce the demand for all forms of trafficking. Therefore, the establishment of a Private Sector Platform is essential in order to improve cooperation with businesses and other stakeholders in Greece and develop chains that do not involve trafficking in human beings. Towards that end, the NR invited the Greek CSR Network to collaborate with Bulgaria and other EU countries to promote the establishment of a cross regional Private Sector Platform.

 

ASSISTANCE AND SUPPORT TO VICTIMS

 

1. Identification

 

Currently, the Information & Referral Helpline “1109” is operated by the “A21 Campaign”. 1109 operates around the clock with the capacity of communicating in dozens of different languages. The Line received over 5.500 calls in 2013. At State level, EKKA, the National Centre for Social Solidarity, also operates a helpline “197” in a 24hour basis.

Especially for children in danger, the following Help lines are in operation throughout the day: the National Helpline for Children “1107” by EKKA and the Helpline “1506”as well as the European Hotline for Missing Children “116000” operated by the NGO “The Smile of the Child” combined with the National Child Alert Automated System AMBER ALERT HELLAS.

As part of the ISF (2014-2020) framework, IOM in cooperation with the Office of the NR and competent stakeholders, will organise capacity building and training courses for first line identifiers, defining the different types of exploitation, understanding the legal definitions of trafficking, indicia of the different types of exploitation, when and how to assist different victims and who to contact if one suspects they have identified a possible victim.

The Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention – HCDCP will also focus to the development of a training module and interview guide for the primary identification of trafficking victims to health care professionals in detention, and pre-reception centers as well as in hospitals. Accordingly, EKKA will focus to social care professionals.

 

2. Protection

The General Secretariat for Gender Equality in cooperation with municipalities all over Greece has launched the establishment of Shelters for women victims of violence, incl. victims of trafficking. The Project is funded by the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF 2007-2013). Currently, 16 shelters are in operation, and 3 more are operated by the National Centre for Social Solidarity (EKKA) offering assistance to 15 new cases in 2013 and 1 shelter operated by the “A21 Campaign” in Thessaloniki, exclusively for THB victims. The A21 shelter offered specialized assistance and legal support to 20 new cases in 2013. 

THB victims (identified or not) receive psychosocial support, psychotherapy, medical care, vocational guidance and legal representation or the facilitation of repatriation. The support continues to transition period towards their reintegration. To this end the “A21 Campaign” operates a Social Enterprise called “Renew Boutique” where second- hand clothes are given and sold and the NGO “Nea Zoi” is going to establish a non – profitable handicraft business for the women to be members in order to make and sell handbags. 

To the prevention of secondary victimization of the victims who cooperate with the Police, useful instruments are provided by Law 4198/2013 (transposition of the Direction 2011/36/EU):

  • The victims are supported during the court procedure or the testimony by a psychiatrist or a psychologist, designated by the court.
  • Also, new methods of keeping record of the testimonies are used, such as audiovisual recording and
  • The testimony is arranged to be given in the court without the presence of the accused traffickers.
  • Finally, a victim of trafficking can address a petition of compensation to the Greek Authority of Compensation

To this end, the Hellenic Police submitted a proposal in ISF for funding the updating and the translation into 16 languages of a leaflet issued by the Hellenic Police (Division of Public Safety) with useful information regarding the rights of THB victims. Law enforcement units across the country provide this information to the victims contributing to the creation of a trustworthy   environment   between them and the police.

Additionally, Research Centre for Gender Equality (KETHI) will develop action to help to the protection and support to victims and to the persecution of the perpetrators of THB by providing free legal assistance to victims of trafficking in cooperation with local Bar Associations in Greece and their legal representation where required.

 

3. Special Protective Measures for children

 

Unaccompanied minors – possible victims of trafficking, are protected in eleven (11) shelters, funded by the European Refugee Fund, the EEA Grants and the State.  The National Centre for Social Solidarity manages all relevant applications. In 2013, 1150 minors were referred to housing and protection programmes (www.ekka.org.gr)

            Moreover all children’s shelters operated by the State or NGO’s offer protection to children that are in danger, including those who are victims of trafficking.

            The NGO “The Smile of the Child” has been developing the Southeastern European center for Missing and Exploited Children (SEEC) with the mission to generate co-operative actions, improving, sharing and expanding best practices between all relevant stakeholders from Southeastern Europe in order to efficiently combat the growing problem of missing and exploited children. SEEC is building sustainable partnerships with respective national, regional and international actors, namely national and international NGOs, as well as international organizations such as OSCE, SELEC (South Eastern Law Enforcement Centre) etc.

Greece has signed a bilateral agreement with the state of Albania for the protection of minors victims of trafficking (Law 3692/2008). The National Centre for Social Solidarity is on behalf of the greek state the Responsible Authority.

IOM has been running since March 2013, a programme of voluntary return and reintegration (incl. financial support of 1000 euros in services or kind) for unaccompanied minors, funded by the EU and EU countries.

To better protect children – victims of trafficking, the NR Office participates to the dialogue with the competent authorities (Ministry of Justice, Prosecutor’s Office) on the role of guardians and/or representatives of child victims of trafficking.

            Family and Childcare Center (KMOP) is the leading organisation of an international partnership (Greece, Italy, France, Portugal) for the 24 month European program “Resiland: Participation, Capacities and Resilience of Children on the Move against Trafficking and Exploitation” funded by the program “Prevention of and Fight against Crime” (ISEC). The project aims to reinforce participation, capacities and resilience of Children on the Move (COM) as key dimensions for their effective protection from trafficking and exploitation.

The Institute of Child Health (ICH), will combat child trafficking by planning activities such as: a) training of all professionals working in first reception centers, detention and residential care centers, on how to deal with this target group in their everyday work routine as well as to sensitize them on the Convention on the Rights of the Child, b) psychosocial support to trafficked and/or unaccompanied children accommodated in detention or hospitality shelters in Greece and sensitize them to the dangers they may encounter after they leave those centers, including child trafficking (leaflets and posters in 4 languages) and, c) the systematization of data collection in relation to this target group by Hosting and First Reception Centers (database).

 

     4. National Referral Mechanism (NRM)

 

The NR Office will develop guidelines on how to use the criteria for the identification of victims, how to address issues such as compensation and safe return and also define the roles and responsibilities of all those involved through the creation of a National Referral Mechanism (NRM).

            The NRM has been agreed as a first priority both in the Projects funded by EU structural funds (ESPA) and by the Internal Security Fund (ISF) 2014-20. The NR Office has agreed with EKKA that the Organisation will assume a leading role as the principal state agency that will compile information and coordinate all stakeholders and partners of the NRM. EKKA has already been running an innovative programme of managing the housing applications for asylum seekers of the whole country. In this way a much better coordination of all housing projects that are financed by the European Refugee Fund and considerable economy of resources are succeeded. Moreover, the ability of the mechanism to respond to offering shelter in particular to the vulnerable population of unaccompanied minors has considerably increased.
             EKKA is extending a similar mechanism for victims of trafficking. Their protection and support offered by State or Non-governmental Organizations will be adjusted to the existing web platform – called “ESTIA”. Hence, the National Referral System will cover victims' needs and provide a road map and a real-time response to each incidence that is reported.

            In line with a victim-centered approach, the NR Office will opt to participate in a larger EU Transnational Referral Mechanism which links national referral mechanisms to better identify, refer, protect and assist victims.

 

INVESTIGATION AND PROSECUTION

 

            Currently, the Hellenic Police operates 15 counter-THB task forces throughout Greece. Their work is based on large scale national and cross-border operations that have commenced in 2006 with the ILAEIRA project, implemented by the ex Ministry of Public Order (now Ministry of Citizen’s Protection) and the Greek Police Headquarters and are bringing together law enforcement officials and N.G.Os, engaging in victim identification & referral, vigorous investigation and dismantling of criminal networks.

            The operation aimed to suppress and combat trafficking in women and children for sexual exploitation. The ILAEIRA plan is developed on the basis of two parameters:

ü  The first parameter concerns the operational (police-judicial) action for the combating of organized networks with international character and for victim recovery

ü  The second parameter concerns the provision of assistance and protection to victims, as a result of the action that will be developed under the first parameter

            Police authorities (aliens, organized cross-border crime, cyber crime, prosecution of drugs etc) work jointly and tackle every single case under the supervision of the Prosecution authorities. Twenty one other European countries participate in ILAEIRA action. These include EU Member States and third countries as well as International Organizations (Europol, Interpol, Eurojust, Frontex, Seci etc).

Proactive financial investigations of trafficking cases and cooperation with EU agencies is also stepped up and carried out by the Hellenic Financial Intelligence Unit, in order to identify and seize assets, as proceeds of crime. To this end, the new Law 4198/ 2013 extends the liability of acts to legal persons for offences committed by a person for their benefit. 

The NREM welcomes the participation of two key law enforcement Ministries (Ministry of Public Order & Citizens Protection and the Ministry of Justice, Transparency & Human Rights) and anticipates a close cooperation with the Bulgarian and Romanian NREM in the VICTOR Project coordinated by the Greek NGO “The Smile of the Child”. The Project is a two year transnational project (2013-2015), which is funded by ISEC Programmed and brings together an ambitious coalition of public agencies and NGOs across the region of Southeast Europe. The main target of VICTOR project is to promote and develop coordination, cooperation and mutual understanding among law enforcement agencies, other national authorities and civil society in combating trafficking in children.

IOM is planning to organise cross-border meetings with neighboring countries (Bulgaria, Turkey, Romania, Russia, Georgia, Moldavia) to share information, investigative techniques, experiences and best practices, funded by ISF.

As far as training targeting judiciary and cross-border law enforcement officials is concerned, the staff of Hellenic Police (front and second line) and especially  those that work  in the border control participate in educational programs which are organized by Hellenic Police in cooperation with competent European or national, governmental or non-governmental organizations (e.g. IOM , FRONTEX, CEPOL, etc.), paying special attention on awareness, recognition and handling of (suspected) victims of trafficking. Worth mentioning is the recent training of the Greek police staff on trafficking via  teleconference by police expertise, the law enforcement training received by the “Warnath Group” and the training of police & judiciary within the train the trainers programme of the ISEC Project EuroTrafGuide.

Also, extensive training of all anti-THB Police Task Forces takes place on a regular basis by the NGO “A21” (based on the Polaris training).

Furthermore, several other State agencies and Greek NGO’s that have been accredited by the Commission’s Civil Society Platform (Praxis, ARSIS, GCR, Smile of the Child, KMOP) have engaged Greek law enforcement authorities in various trainings in cooperation with leading international agencies such as  IOM, UNHCR, FRONTEX.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

Prevention

Efforts to prevent human trafficking in Hungary have included inter alia awareness raising campaigns as well as training for officials:

 

Trainings

Trainings are continuously organized for police officers, investigators, prosecutors, judges, victim support assistants, consuls in the fields of victim identification, assistance, legislative background of human trafficking. 

Awareness raising

Awareness raising campaigns and programmes are regularly held in Hungary, the following are continuously organized:

The Ministry of Human Capacities launched a prevention project with pilot project characteristics in December 2012, which aimed the potential victims of trafficking in persons, in order to prevent victimization and its implementation is since ongoing. The project aims at organising awareness raising workshops and enforcement of interest prevention trainings for secondary school students in order to reduce the possibility of victimization. The pilot program addresses the age group from 14 to 18 under the framework of form master’s class. The 45 minutes long information-providing and knowledge-transferring workshops focus on the topic of trafficking in persons, violence in relationships and child abuse, during the sensitizing trainings besides the youngster’s knowledge broadening there is an opportunity to shape attitudes, to enable how to recognize the abuser’s behaviour notes in time and to get to know more deeply the danger sources of victimization.

The Ministry of Interior organized a THB prevention and awareness raising campaign of one week 13-17. August 2014 for the third time at the “Sziget Festival”. The event attracts about 400.000 visitors, young people between the age of 18 and 30 who typically come from Western European countries (the Netherlands, Germany, the UK) which are also countries of destination for Hungarian THB victims. In the anti-human trafficking tent of the Ministry of Interior in 1098 visitors filled in questionnaires about human trafficking, 59,47% of the visitors were Hungarian, 7,65 French, 7,56 Dutch, 5,37 German and 3,28 English. The awareness raising campaign is going to take place in August 2015 again.

As part of a country-wide information campaign between 1 June 2013 and 31 December 2014 EURES and the National Police Headquarters continues the “Don’t become a victim abroad!” prevention campaign. Aim of the campaign is to inform people how to avoid labour exploitation and human trafficking. In hope of a more efficient collaboration, EURES and the Police delivered presentations at each other’s conferences and meetings, and attended several job fairs and other events – such as HVG Job Fair and Sziget Festival in Budapest – together with representatives of the police to promote safe employment abroad and raise awareness of the potential dangers.

The Ministry of Interior launched in 2011 a specific website to support the counter-trafficking efforts in Hungary. The aim of this website is to provide a public platform whereby information in relation to the phenomenon and to the State’s anti-trafficking work can be shared. Besides of the this Anti-Human Trafficking facebook site is also available: http://emberkereskedelem.kormany.hu/index, http://thb.kormany.hu/, https://www.facebook.com/thbHungary The Hungarian Victim Support Service also launched their facebook profile in 2014 on which THB-related topics appear as well: https://www.facebook.com/aldozatsegitoszolgalat

 

Assistance and support provided to victims

The Hungarian State provides for victims of crime the following assistance:

information

victim support service (immediate financial aid, facilitating the enforcement of the victim's interest, legal help, psychological assistance, shelter) and

state compensation (only for victims of intentional assault and offence)

All victims of crime are provided with the above mentioned assistance, not only victims of human trafficking irrespective of gender, age or disability. Victims with disabilities are provided assistance with the help of sign language interpreters, the costs of the interpretation are born by the Victim Assistance Service.

 

Based on Act CXXXV of 2005 on Crime Victims Support and State Compensation types of assistance provided for victims of human trafficking:

in case the crime took part in Hungary, person identified as victim of human trafficking is entitled to victims assistance services and to state compensation (In case of the existence of the conditions of state compensation);

in case victim of human trafficking has Hungarian nationality or is a person with the right of free movement and residence – regardless of the criminal prosecution – is entitled to be accommodated in shelter

in case the victim of human trafficking is third-country national than the following additional support is provided:

additional information: besides of general information the victim is provided additional information

the victim is given a 1 month reflection period to decide whether he/she is willing to cooperate with the authorities investigating the crime. For this period of time the victim is entitled to a certificate of temporary stay

in case the victim is willing to cooperate with the authorities, he/she is entitled to a residence permit for the period of cooperation with the authorities

Victim assistance service initiates the issuance of a certificate for temporary stay at the immigration authority (Office of Immigration and Nationality)

 

The Ministry of Human Capacities supports the Chance for Families 2005 Foundation that runs two Temporary Shelters, which provide with complex services and assistance victims of human trafficking forced to labour exploitation or prostitution. The duration of stay can be extended once with 90 days on the basis of request. The Temporary Shelter can provide full services including accommodation, meal, sanitary, travel reimbursement, legal and mental counselling and the involvement of a medical expert if necessary.

 

The temporary shelter takes victims of human trafficking and there is another separate system (14 crisis management centres, 1 secret shelter and 4 transitory apartments) that take the victims of domestic violence.

The Temporary Shelter provides the following services, forms of assistance:

Accommodation in a safe place,

Full supply according to individual needs (meeting the physical needs, meals, clothing, bed linen, medicines),

Assistance in administrative issues (transfer, replacement of documents, postal fee),

Availability of professionals for improving the status of the victims (social worker, social helper, psychologist, psychological counsellor, psychiatrist, lawyer, doctor).

If the victim does not have social security, then for request the medical treatment for the victim as a member state of the EU or the Temporary Shelter will provide (finance) the opportunity for treatment with reimbursement.

Foreign victims are entitled to the same support and assistance as victims who have Hungarian nationality.

 

Special protective measures for children

The Office of Immigration and Nationality opened a special Centre for Unattended Minors for child victims of trafficking and migrant smuggling in January 2008. The Centre consults the National Bureau of Investigation on a regular basis in order to help investigations in cases involving minors. In order to provide special treatment for child victims, Office of Public Administration and Justice prepared a child-friendly protocol.

Act C of 2012 on the Criminal Code entered into force on 1 July 2013. Exploitation of Child Prostitution (Section 203) Child Pornography (Section 204) and Child Labour (Section 209) are individual sections. According to the Criminal Code any person who gives money or any other form of remuneration for sexual activities with a person under the age of eighteen years is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment and any person who obtains or have in his possession pornographic images of a person or persons under the age of eighteen years is punishable for a felony by imprisonment.

 

Investigation and prosecution

Special unit

The Trafficking in Human Beings Unit is a special unit at the Intelligence Division of the National Bureau of Investigation which is part of the Riot Squad Police. 11 investigators are working at the Unit who are responsible for handling international human trafficking cases. The National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) cooperates continuously with its foreign partner authorities and provides legal assistance.

The Trafficking in Human Beings Unit of the National Bureau of Investigation and the Metropolitan Police Service of the United Kingdom has set up a Joint Investigation Team 30. January 2013. Investigations mainly focus on trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

The Hungarian and Dutch Police signed an Action Plan on operational cooperation. Experience in recent years has shown that crimes related to trafficking in human beings especially to labour exploitation and prostitution have significantly increased therefore closer cooperation is required between the two countries. The fight against trafficking in human beings will be realised in form of common investigations, sharing best practices and personal experiences. The aim of the cooperation is “to clarify the competences, the legal and judicial system of the two countries”, underlined the Police. Guidelines will be provided by a practical, user friendly manual in Hungarian, English and Dutch language. The fast and efficient data transfer between Intelligence Services will be supported by the established signalling system.

On 17 December 2013 among Dutch, Belgian and Hungarian judicial bodies an agreement about setting up a Joint Investigation Team was signed which aims to wind up a Hungarian trafficking group existing in the Netherlands and in Belgium.

 

Latest number of prosecutions or convictions

According to the Unified Criminal Statistics of Investigation Authorities and Public Prosecution the number of criminal proceedings initiated on grounds of trafficking in human beings was in 2014– 25.

 

Latest initiatives/activities related to anti-trafficking policy

Hungary aims at strengthening its efforts in relation to the following aspects of countering human trafficking.

The Ministry of Interior of Hungary submitted an application „Referral of and assistance for victims of human trafficking in Europe” (RAVOT-EUR) for Action Grants under the Programme “Prevention of and Fight against Crime” 2012 ISEC General Call for Proposals of the European Commission with the deadline 6 March 2013. The European Commission delivered a favourable opinion on the application, so that the 24 months project could be officially launched on 1 February 2014, and by 31 January 2016 RAVOT-EUR may provide comprehensive solutions to the challenges set by the hideous crime of trafficking in human beings. The project is implemented by the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice, the Belgian Payoke vzw. and the Hungarian Ministry of Interior. The project aims to develop a transnational referral mechanism among Hungary, Belgium and the Netherlands which would contribute to the assistance and safe return and referral of victims of human trafficking related to sexual and labour exploitation and facilitate transnational networking and trust building among professionals.

„Operational cooperation for fighting sexual exploitation committed by Hungarian-based organized crime groups in Europe” project proposal was submitted for Action Grants under the Programme „Prevention of and Fight against Crime” 2012 ISEC General Call. The European Commission delivered a favourable opinion on the application. Aims of the operational cooperation are: increasing effectiveness of investigations against Hungarian organized crime groups, tracking asset deriving from illegal activities, detecting crime groups. Activities: setting up Joint Investigation Teams, operational cooperation, multilateral meetings, providing opportunity for experts to spend a period at Europol which coordinates human trafficking cases. Partners of the project: Hungarian Police, Dutch Police, Austrian Police, Europol. Beneficiary of the project: Hungarian Riot Police, National Bureau of Investigation.

The National Strategy against Trafficking in Human Beings for the period 2013-2016 has been adopted by the government on 29 May 2013 and the Government Resolution 1351/2013 (VI. 19.) was published on 19 June 2013.

 

National Referral Mechanism

Government applies regulation on the national victim referral system which is of general scope and obligatory for all responsible authorities, it laid down the system of the authorities’ cooperation. (Government Regulation No 354/2012 of 13 December 2012 on the identification system of victims trafficking in human beings.)

According to the Government Regulation institutions and authorities taking part in the identification are as follows: health care provider, public health administration body, personal care service, public educational institution, police, labor market service, consular officer, immigration authority, asylum authority.

Bodies participating voluntarily: non-governmental bodies or legal entities maintained by local governments. National Crisis Telephone Information Service provides information for the victims on the opportunities of shelters.

Victims are entitled to safe accommodation, health screening and counselling in a safe shelter maintained for trafficked persons. The operation of the shelter is based on a Framework Agreement between relevant State and non-State actors; it is run by an NGO that contracted the Ministry of Human Capacities. The contract provides the funds necessary for the NGO to run the shelter and provides the Ministry with the right to monitor and evaluate the operation of the shelter.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

A national toll-free anti-trafficking helpline has been in place since 2000. Within the framework of the system actions laid down in art. 18 of Legislative Decree No 286/1998, the Department for Equal Opportunities in partnership with the Ministry of the Interior has recently broadcasted an awareness-raising campaign at the national level to promote the anti-trafficking toll-free helpline and sensitize the public on the various forms of exploitation connected to trafficking in human beings (“La tratta cancella le persone, tu puoi cancellare la tratta” – “Trafficking deletes people, you can delete trafficking”- 2009). Furthermore, the Department for Equal Opportunities was partner of the campaign promoted and coordinated by the Romanian National Agency against Trafficking in Persons within the framework of an EU-funded project and broadcasted on the Web in Romania, Spain, Bulgaria and Italy (“La tratta non perdona” - "Trafficking in persons does not forgive” - "Traficul de persoane nu iarta", 2010). The campaign was aimed at raising awareness on trafficking for the purpose of forced prostitution. Less recently, in 2007, the Department promoted, in collaboration with the AICCRE (the Italian section of CEMR, the Council of European Municipalities and regions), a national campaign called “tratta no” (“no trafficking”) to advertise the national anti-trafficking helpline. The initiative also included the elaboration of guidelines on the proper way to address the issue of trafficking by the media.


Assistance and support provided to victims

Programme for social assistance and integration

The Department for Equal Opportunities is responsible for the coordination of assistance and protection of victims. Two special programmes exist for trafficked persons in Italy:

1. Article 13 short-term programme

The Article 13 Programme offers a set of protection and initial support measures for Italian, EU and non-EU victims of slavery, servitude and trafficking. According to the law, trafficked persons can benefit from a three-month programme that, when applicable, may be extended for a further three months. Victims receive accommodation, social assistance, and health care services. Once the programme is over, they can continue to be assisted under the Article 18 Programme.

2. Article 18 long-term programme: “Social Assistance and Integration Programme”

The system to protect and assist trafficked persons currently in place in Italy is based on article 18 of Legislative Decree No 286/1998 and the related Regulation providing for the granting of a “humanitarian residence permit” to victims, the so-called “Article 18 permit”.

Article 18 of Legislative Decree No 286/1998 (Immigration Law) establishes that temporary humanitarian residence permits may be issued to foreign citizens needing protection and assistance. This permit applies to foreign citizens in situations of abuse or serious exploitation where their safety is considered to be endangered as a consequence of attempts to escape from the conditioning of a criminal organisation or as a result of pursuing criminal action against traffickers.

Once a victim is identified as such by the competent authorities, he/she can follow either:

  • The 'judicial path', which entails cooperation with law enforcement agencies; OR
  • The 'social path', which only requires the submission of a statement on behalf of the victim by an accredited non-governmental organisation or by the social services of a local authority.

Both procedures can result in the issuance of a six-month temporary humanitarian residence permit, which is further renewable for 1 year and can be converted into a student or work residence permit, if necessary.

Through Legislative Decree No 24 of 4 March 2014, the Italian legislator unified the two above mentioned protection programmes into one single programme of emergence, assistance and social integration, with a view to developing a new model more aimed at the active integration of victims of trafficking and serious exploitation. The Regulation of the single programme will be adopted by the end of 2014.

Number of victims

From 2000 to 2013, 665 projects were co-funded within the framework of art. 18 of Legislative Decree No 286/1998 and, from 2006 to 2012, 166 projects were co-funded under art. 13 of Law No 228/2003. From 2000 to 2013, 22,699 people (among whom 1,215 children) were assisted within the framework of the “art.18 programmes” and, from 2006 to 2012, 4,207 people (among whom 240 children) received assistance under the “art. 13 programmes” (2013 data is still being elaborated. Therefore, the above-mentioned figures might not be final).

Special protective measures for children

Trafficked children are provided with special assistance and care carried out by specialised services and professionals. Age-appropriate individual services are supplied under the national assistance projects for trafficked persons co-funded by the Department for Equal Opportunities, including dedicated shelters, specific counselling, medical and social support, in order to properly address the needs of such vulnerable children.

Investigation and prosecution

In Italy, investigations of human trafficking are carried out by the District Anti-Mafia Directorates (Direzioni Distrettuali Antimafia) and coordinated by the National Anti-Mafia Directorate (Direzione Nazionale Antimafia).

According to the Italian authorities, human trafficking cases have been prosecuted under the offences of 'trafficking in persons' (Article 601 of the Italian Criminal Code), 'slavery' (Article 600) and 'trade of slaves' (Article 602).

Latest initiatives/activities related to anti-trafficking policy

An urging challenge that Italy is facing is the sustainability of anti-trafficking policy in the long run, particularly with regard to the funding of the national assistance system for trafficked persons. Italy set up a very effective and comprehensive assistance system whose implementation entails high costs (8.5 million Euros per year). Costs which cannot be borne only by the central state funds anymore. Thus, the Department is starting a project to sensitize and encourage local authorities (i.e. Regions) to take over the ownership of assistance measures implemented on their territories, by making proper use of their resources, with specific regard to the European Social Fund in the 2014-2020 programming period.

The most important challenges at the national level

The Italian model of protection and assistance for victims of trafficking is in line with the European standards. However, the next step will be to ensure a system which is sustainable in the long run. The main focus will therefore be on promoting and providing public services for victims of trafficking on a permanent basis and enhancing prevention activities, including awareness raising on trafficking for labour exploitation and other forms of non-sexual exploitation, and engaging society as a whole by working with all the relevant stakeholders, such as the corporate sector, the cultural and artistic sector and academia.

Just like other European countries, Italy has been recently affected by the current economic crisis and suffered from relevant cuts in public expenditure, including in the public funding of the social protection projects implemented under art. 18 and art. 13 of the aforementioned provisions (Immigration Law No 286/1998 and Law No 228/2003). Nevertheless, although affected by strong economic cuts, the Department for Equal Opportunities has developed a strategic plan to preserve the necessary funding for the national assistance programmes for 2011 and 2012.

National Referral Mechanism

Within the framework of the National Referral Mechanism, which will be set up through the National Action Plan, guidelines will be developed for the identification of minimum standards for reception and assistance of victims, as well as for the definition of shared operating procedures. In this context, multi-agency memoranda of understanding to address THB cases will be signed, and further initiatives to promote the regular and systematic training of professionals working in this field (police officers, border police, immigration service officials, public prosecutors, lawyers, the judiciary and the judicial staff) will be undertaken. 

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

Prevention

The Latvian government has launched and implemented several nationwide information campaigns in order to increase understanding of human trafficking.

The Ministry of Education has introduced trafficking in human beings as a core topic in the human rights curriculum of all primary, secondary, and high schools. The government has also funded information sheets and travel guides for tourists, through the Latvian State Tourism Agency, with the aim of discouraging sex tourism in Latvia.

Since the beginning of September 2009, the State Police every year carries out the awareness campaigns Security Days at Schools. The entire Latvian school system is covered in this campaign, from preschools to upper secondary schools and universities. One aim of this campaign is to inform and educate pupils how to avoid the risks of deception related to work abroad and how to avoid illegal recruitment and sham marriages. The police carries out this campaign every autumn.

The State Police frequently uses the media to inform about trafficking and gives recommendations on how to avoid becoming a victim.

Since 2010 the professional development education programme “Investigation of human trafficking/southernism cases” is acquired by the State Police officers in the regional classes of the State Police College.

 

Assistance and support provided to victims

  • Social Rehabilitation Services.

The social service provider shall ensure:

  • the development of a specialist work (including for the commission of specialists and for decision-making);
  • safe shelter and accommodation, if necessary, in cooperation with the law enforcement agencies’ and other social service providers or by applying other laws which foresee accommodation options;
  • protection of client confidentiality and data;
  • the development of a client rehabilitation plan, determining the necessary amount of social services and the length of receipt of social services;
  • psycho-social assistance and individual specialist consultations (for example, social worker, psychologist, lawyer, medical practitioners) in conformity with the rehabilitation plan;
  • support for the client during criminal proceedings (individual lawyer, social worker, psychologist), services of a translator, help in writing legal documents throughout the criminal proceedings and, if necessary, representation in the court;
  • the opportunity to learn or enhance self-care and self-service skills and, if necessary, to get the basic necessities (such as food, medicines, clothing, footwear or funds);
  • the involvement of the client in training and education programmes, which facilitate the reintegration of the client into society and labour market;
  • after completing a course of social services – five tutorials (tutorials duration: one hour), if the client needs it.
  • the following premises:

if accommodation is needed, accommodation is in accordance with the requirements for the operation of residential space;

rooms for individual consultations according to the specifics of the consultations;

  • interpreting services in writing and orally, if it is required;
  • if necessary, five consultations in total for the family members of a minor, if they are staying in Latvia;
  • If necessary, organisation of consultations in the place of residence of a client in a foreign country, as well as for their minors (if they are starting with the client or potential client) and, if the client or potential client is not able to travel independently, his or her carrying to the potential service place;
  • clients’ rehabilitation process evaluation as needed, and finally the service provision.
  • The service provider shall co-operate with State security institutions, as well as during the period of the provision of services assist in the implementation of the representation of the victim in criminal proceedings if the client authorises him or her.
  • The social services at the social service provider institution shall be provided by a social work specialist, lawyer and psychologist. The head of the institution is entitled for ensuring social rehabilitation services to involve other specialists.
  • The social service provider shall co-operate with the client local government social service office and other institutions, ensuring the exchange of information.
  • Legal Aid
  • Compensation
  • Education - the equal rights to acquire education
  • Access to Labour Market – support for persons seeking employment, including occupational training; a third-country national is entitled to work with any employer in the Republic of Latvia, if he or she has received a temporary residence permit as a victim of human trafficking
  • Medical Treatment - the right to receive emergency medical care
  • Residence Permits for Third Countries Nationals - if a third-country national has been recognised a victim of trafficking in human beings, a competent State institution shall present his or her valid travel document for the request of a residence permit and submit the documents, as well as a decision of a competent institution regarding recognition of the third-country national as the victim of trafficking in human beings and a statement regarding the necessity to receive a residence permit.
  • Reflection Period - the reflection period shall be 30 days.
  • Special Protection - the protection of the life, health and other legal interests of such persons who are testifying in criminal proceedings or who participate in the uncovering, investigation or adjudication of a serious or especially serious crime.

 

Residence permit

A reflection period of 30 days may be granted to trafficked persons to allow individuals to consider co-operating in investigations and criminal proceedings. A six-month temporary residence permit can be granted to victims who decide to cooperate in criminal proceedings.

The Citizenship and Migration Board is responsible for granting permits for the reflection period and temporary residence permits to foreign victims of human trafficking. Permits are granted on the basis of a request submitted by the police. Since 2009, no applications for residence permits were received from foreign citizens who could be possible victims of human trafficking.

 

The procedure to be followed in case of arrival to Latvia of children, whose parents/guardians require asylum in Latvia

In case when asylum is required by parents/guardians accompanying a child the State Border Guards performs their actions according the procedures provided by the Asylum Law. In the beginning of asylum procedure parents or guardians of a child shall submit an application to the State Border Guard. The State Border Guard performs inspection of an asylum seeker and possessions thereof, seizes objects and documents, if they may have significance in examination of an application. The State Border Guard conducts an interview with an asylum seeker. Interviews with a minor shall be conducted by an official who has the necessary knowledge regarding the special needs of minors. If an asylum seeker has a legal basis to enter and to reside in the Republic of Latvia after submitting an application an asylum seeker and a minor thereof may reside in Latvia at the place of residence indicated by an asylum seeker. In case when an asylum seeker cannot indicate the place of residence, an asylum seeker shall be accommodated at an accommodation centre for asylum seekers (accommodation centres for asylum seekers are structures of the Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs) where necessary living conditions are provided. A minor shall be provided with the living conditions necessary for the physical and mental development thereof. Children shall be accommodated together with adult relatives, as well as children from one family shall not be separated, except in cases where it is done in the best interests of the children. A minor asylum seeker shall be provided with opportunities for acquiring education according to the procedures provided by the Cabinet of Ministers. When examining an application, the opinion of the minor shall be taken into account. A decision to grant or refuse the granting of refugee or alternative status shall also apply to the minor children of an asylum seeker (including dependants) if they are located or arrive in the Republic of Latvia concurrently with the parents.

If an unaccompanied minor submits an application in accordance with the procedures specified in the Asylum Law during the asylum procedure the personal and property relations of the unaccompanied minor shall be represented by the Orphan’s Court or a guardian appointed thereby, or the head of a child care institution.

Regarding to the measures implemented to detain possible human trafficking victims among asylum seekers the State Border Guard has not issued any special internal or external legal document. According the view of the State Border Guard the compulsorily performable measures are provided by the Schengen Borders Code Appendix VII – minors deserve the particular attention of border guards, whether they are travelling accompanied or not. In the case of accompanied minors, the border guard must check that the persons accompanying minors have parental custody over them, especially where minors are accompanied by only one adult and there are serious grounds for suspecting that they may have been unlawfully removed from the care of the person legally exercising parental custody over them. In such case the border guard will have to make all necessary investigations in order to prevent the abduction or in any case unlawful removal of the minor.

According to the Cabinet Regulations No 174 adopted on February 23, 2010 “Procedures for the Provision of a Minor Asylum Seeker with Opportunities for Acquiring Education” a minor asylum seeker is provided with the preparation for the acquisition of basic education from the age of five years, the opportunity to acquire basic education and general secondary education, an asylum seeker is provided with an opportunity to finish the commenced acquisition of general education also after reaching the age of 18 years, is provided with material assistance to buy school books, is provided with possibility to study Latvian language, as well as is provided with support measures (individual classes) to acquire concrete subject.

 

Special protective measures for children

Legal protective measures

The procedures for the entry and residence of unaccompanied foreign minors are outlined in

o    Regulation No 310 from 2001, Procedures by which Persons Cross the State Border of the Republic of Latvia

o    Regulation No 707 from 2003, Procedures by which Alien Minors Enter and Reside in the Republic of Latvia Unaccompanied by Parents or Guardians

In 2008, a separate unit was established within the State Police, with specially trained officers, with a mandate to investigate sexual offences against children.

When carrying out checks of persons leaving Latvia, particular attention is paid to detecting children in order to prevent their unauthorised removal from Latvia. Children travelling without a parent or a legal guardian should hold a valid passport and a written consent of at least one of the parents certified by a notary. When a child is accompanied by an adult, the latter should hold a written consent of at least one of the parents certified by a notary.

 

State compensation to victims

Transposing the requirements of the “Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA” the “Law on State Compensation to Victims” was supplemented. The Law provides that the victim recognized as a victim of human trafficking within criminal proceeding has the rights to receive State compensation which in this case is 70% from maximum of State compensation which is amount of 1 140 Euros.

Amending Law was adopted by the Parliament on November 15, 2012, published on November 30, 2012 in “Official Gazette” No 189 (4792), into force since January 1, 2013.

 

Investigation and prosecution

Special units

The Trafficking in Human Beings Investigation Unit of the Organized Crime Enforcement Department of the State Police was established in 2003, building on the successful experiences of the Vice Squad since 1999. The unit is staffed by 19 full-time police officers in Riga. Additionally, there are four full-time police officers located at regional boards of the State Police who are responsible for issues regarding human trafficking prevention and combating in the regions as well as for training officials in this field.

The Prosecutor's Office has set up a specialized unit to fight organised crime, with about ten prosecutors investigating human trafficking cases.

 

Other latest initiatives/activities

On 31 January 2013 the GRETA Report concerning the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Latvia was published.

 

On 1 March 2013 Latvia has submitted Initial Report by the Republic of Latvia on implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography 2006-2010 to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child.

 

The project “A safety Compass – signposting ways to escape trafficking” was launched on 14 February 2013 by NGO “Resource Centre for Women “Marta”” (Latvia) in cooperation with Ministry of the Interior and State Inspectorate for Protection of Children’s Rights (Latvia), NGO “Youth With A Mission Riga” (Latvia), NGO “Eluliin” (Estonia), “women@thewell” and National Alliance for Women Organizations (Great Britain). Within the project it is planned:

  • to do two researches on (1) new trends, risks and recruitment mechanisms in internet and social networks, and (2) paths to prostitution as a pre-research for development of exit programme;
  • to develop exit/support programme for victims of sex trafficking;
  • to create international referral mechanism between Latvia, Estonia and UK;
  • to do trainings for operators of hotlines, emergency lines and police officers on duty (about 300 persons in Latvia);
  • to do campaigning on challenging the supply and demand side for trafficking;

The project duration – 36 months. It is planned that more than 1 120 000 people will be involved to implement objectives of the project.

 

On 26-27 September, 2013 a training course “Recognition, investigation and prevention of human trafficking as effective tool for the termination of the phenomena” (Project No. JUST/2010/JPEN/AG/1546 funded within EU program “Justice”) took place in Riga. The aim of this training course was to organize a broad and extensive training seminar for practitioners with presentations and case study in order to practice to effectively recognize, investigate and prevent human trafficking and to create investigation as an effective tool both in Latvia and in other EU Member States. 150 representatives from Latvia participated (judges, prosecutors, investigators, advocates, representatives from ministries and subordinated institutions and NGO’s that work with the elimination of human trafficking). There were lectures from Latvia, EU Member States and the European Commission: Vadims Nazarovs (Anti-Trafficking Unit, Latvia), Aivars Bergmanis (specizalized prosecutor, Latvia), Sandra Zalcmane (NGO Shelter Safe House, Latvia), Olegas Fedosiukas (judge, Lithuania), Ann Hamilton (COM), Patricia Le Cocq (Belgium), Rhys Hadden (the UK). As the most important outcome of this training seminar was that Latvian policy makers started discussions on necessity to supplement the Criminal Law Article 154.² “Human Trafficking Definition” with an additional mean – abuse of vulnerability.

 

On 15 October 2013 the General Prosecutor’s Office in cooperation with the Foundation Latvian Judicial Training Centre organized a one day seminar for prosecutors and judges on issues concerning prevention of trafficking in human beings and qualification of the criminal offence concerned human trafficking and penal issues.

 

Considering Priority D: Enhanced coordination and cooperation among key actors and policy coherence of the EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012-2016 the task to organize multi-disciplinary training on human trafficking issues is included in the National Strategy for Prevention of Trafficking in Human Beings 2014-2020. It is planned that every year (starting with 2015) training will be organized for state and municipal police officers, border guards, prosecutors, social workers, consular officials, labour inspectors, orphan courts, State Child Rights Protection Inspectorate, Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs, representatives of tourism sector, National Armed Forces, judges, lawyers, teachers on issues of human trafficking, children rights protection, how to treat victim of human trafficking with respect to his/her gender and providing victim-centered approach. It is planned to provide training for approximately180 officials every year by the Ministry of Interior. Additional training will be provided by the State Police College, the State Border Guard College, the Court Administration, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the Ministry of Welfare.

 

In August 2014 the Grant Agreement (No.HOME/2013/ISEC/AG/THB/4000005845) was signed between the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Latvia and the European Commission on the implementation of the transnational project “Preventing human trafficking and sham marriages: A multidisciplinary solution” (HESTIA). The project is co-financed by the Prevention of and Fight against Crime Programme of the European Union.

To address the problem of sham marriages in Europe in October 2013 the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Latvia in cooperation with the society “Shelter “Safe House”” (Latvia) has developed a project proposal inviting as partners governmental and non-governmental organisations from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Ireland, Finland and the Slovak Republic. In total 76 project proposals were submitted to the European Commission and 13 project proposals were granted.

The objective of the project is to create a shared understanding of a new, evolving from of trafficking in human beings – through sham marriages, and initiate a comprehensive action for its prevention.

In the framework of the project it is planned to carry out an analysis and a comprehensive research about the phenomenon of sham marriages in Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Ireland and the Slovak Republic, to elaborate training methodology and implement training inviting to participate social workers, teachers, media representatives, national and municipal police, NGOs, social pedagogues, to organize informative campaigns and an international conference in Riga in the end of 2016.

The project begins in 1 January, 2015 and will last for 24 months. The total budget of the project is 640 000 euros. The leading partner of the project: Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Latvia.

Partners:

  • NGO “Shelter “Safe House”” (Latvia);
  • NGO “Mittetulundusühing “Living for Tomorrow”” (Estonia);
  • NGO “Caritas Lithuania” (Lithuania);
  • Immigrant Council of Ireland (Ireland);
  • Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak Republic (Slovakia);
  • European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, Affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI) (Finland). Associated partners:
  • The State Police (Latvia);
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia;
  • Department of Justice and Equality (Ireland).

 

On May 2014 the National Anti-Trafficking web page (www.cilvektirdznieciba.lv, www.trafficking.lv) was launched.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

Prevention

The Ministry of the Interior has a special section for “Police advice” on its website. In May 2009, the article entitled What you should know in order to avoid becoming a victim of trafficking in human beings was published on the website. The Lithuanian Criminal Police Bureau has created an electronic mailbox for maintaining contact with the population (prekybazmonemis@policija.lt)

Furthermore, information on human trafficking is published on the websites of police authorities and other responsible institutions and organisations. Hotline telephone numbers are disseminated and the population is encouraged to report known cases.

Since 2009, the Ministry of the Interior has administrated the website with the intention of reducing violence against women.

In 2013, a preventive video clip on trafficking in human beings (in Lithuanian with English subtitles) was presented to the public and transmitted in stations and airports, as well as it was distributed free of charge seeking that more people join the campaign and watch the video clip. Funds of the European Union under the partnership agreement between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania and the European Commission were used for the production of the video.

In 2008, the Lithuanian Government funded a nationwide education campaign targeted at children and young people who may be potential victims of trafficking.  The campaign also targeted potential sex clients.

In November 2009, Vilnius police officers, in cooperation with employees of Vilnius City District Prosecutor’s Office and representatives of the Lithuanian Caritas, held an educational event for the inmates of Vilnius special education and guardianship homes entitled Do not become a human trafficking victim. Furthermore, the officers held lectures on the topic of human trafficking at educational establishments (leaflets were distributed) and visited the Centre for Support for Families of Missing People.

The officers of Trakai District Police Office of Vilnius County held lectures for pupils on the fight against human trafficking. On these occasions, the film Devil’s Circle was shown and leaflets were distributed. Lectures were also held by the officers of Joniškis District Police Office of Šiauliai County.

Šiauliai County Chief Police Office organised meetings throughout the country with relevant stakeholders to prevent human trafficking and prostitution.

Capacity building

In Lithuania, each institution is responsible for capacity building of their personnel. Training is included into their plans. Most often interdepartmental training activities are organised. E. g. the Ministry of Social Security and Labour regularly organises training for social workers and other specialists in child protection. This training is designed to prevent violence against children as well as prostitution and trafficking in human beings. The Police Department under the Ministry of the Interior each year arranges training for police officers on identification of human trafficking and actions in such cases. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has supplemented their training programme for consular officers with a topic on human trafficking identification and actions in such cases.

On 3–4 June 2015 in Vilnius the Ministry of the Interior in cooperation with the Nordic Council of Ministers Offices in Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia arranged an international knowledge forum “identification of Victims of Human Trafficking”. Over 100 practitioners of the Baltic Sea Region (criminal and uniformed police, prosecutors, social workers, NGOs, IOM, consular officers, policy makers, and researchers) exchanged their knowledge and improved professional skills.

In 2013–2015 the Lithuanian Caritas together with 4 partners (Oslo Criminal Police, ROSA project run by Oslo Crisis center, the Ministries of the Interior and of Social Security and Labor of the Republic of Lithuania) implemented the project “Lithuanian society against trafficking in persons: the systematic approach model”, which aimed at developing a model of sustainable assistance to victims of THB by teams composed of NGO representatives, police officers, prosecutors, social workers, child rights officers and representatives of municipalities.

In 2013–2015, training activities on THB have also been organised by the IOM Office in Vilnius together with the Lithuanian Caritas and Save the Children Lithuania under the Operational Programme for the Development of Human Resources 2007-2013, funded by EU structural funds and run by the Ministry of Social Security and Labour. By way of example, Caritas organised training for target groups in five towns with 24 participants. IOM organised 10 training courses in different municipalities involving 198 social service providers as well as training on THB for Vilnius county police officers (25 participants), future border guards (150 participants), and border guards in service (40 participants).

In 2012 − 2013, the Ministry of the Interior in cooperation with the Nordic Council of Ministers Offices in St. Petersburg, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia implemented a regional project “Nordic, Baltic, Russian Cooperation on the Fight against Human Trafficking - Regional Cooperation across Juridical, Law enforcement, Social authorities”. During it, around 150 specialists (judges, prosecutors, police investigators and social workers) will develop their capacities and develop networking for fighting against human trafficking crimes. In Vilnius on 19-20 February 2013 the international seminar „Cooperation Organising and Coordinating Successful Investigations of Trafficking in Human Beings: a Good Practice Model of Nordic – Baltic Countries and Russia“ with over 80 judges, prosecutors, police investigators, social workers and other specialists from 10 countries was organized by the Ministry of the Interior in cooperation with the Nordic Council of Ministers as one of activities under the project.

In October 2011 the Institute of Law organized a seminar on problems of prosecution for trafficking in human beings in the Ministry of Justice for police officers, prosecutors and other specialists dealing with trafficking in human beings cases.

In 2010 – 2011, round table discussions were organised by reponsible governmental actors and NGOs in different regional centers of Lithuania to fix problems, answer to questions, and together look for solutions in combating trafficking in human beings on local level.

The Ministry of the Interior, in cooperation with the Police Department, held the European Police College (CEPOL) training course called Human trafficking and illegal immigration on 5–8 May 2009. The course was attended by 30 law enforcement officers from EU Member States. Lithuanian law enforcement continues their participation in various CEPOL activities within the topic.

In September 2009, the Ministry of the Interior held a training course for foreign diplomats residing in Lithuania. One of the objectives of this course was the identification of victims and discussion of the role of diplomats in preventing human trafficking and assisting victims.

In 2009, Lithuanian police officers participated in international training sessions (funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers) for police officers from the Baltic and Nordic States, and the Russian Federation.

In 2005 − 2008, Lithuania participated in a regional initiative implemented under the auspices of the Nordic-Baltic Project. The project aimed to build a network to facilitate regional referral for female victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation. The Nordic Pilot Project for the Support, Protection, Safe Return and Rehabilitation of Women Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings for Sexual Exploitation was implemented by the European Women’s Lobby. Other countries involved were Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Estonia, Latvia, Norway and Sweden.


Assistance and support provided to victims

The Government of the Republic of Lithuania finances projects for the support and reintegration of victims of human trafficking through the Ministry of Social Security and Labour.

In 2014, 5 selected projects offered by specialised NGOs received funding. Necessary assistance (psychological, medical, housing, legal counseling, and etc.) was provided to 133 individuals (50 of them were men): 80 victims of human trafficking and 53 people under risk to become victims of this crime.

In 2013, 5 selected projects offered by specialised NGOs received funding. Necessary assistance (psychological, medical, housing, legal counseling, and etc.) was provided to 129 individuals (33 of them were men): 74 victims of human trafficking and 55 people under risk to become victims of this crime.

In 2012, 5 selected projects offered by specialised NGOs received funding. Necessary assistance (psychological, medical, housing, legal counseling, and etc.) was provided to 152 individuals (55 of them were men): 92 victims of human trafficking and 60 people under risk to become victims of this crime. In 2011, 6 best projects of specialised NGOs were granted funding. Necessary assistance (psychological, medical, housing, legal counseling, and etc.) was provided to 128 individuals, recognised and presumed victims of trafficking in human beings.

In 2010, The Government of the Republic of Lithuania financed 5 projects run by specialised NGOs. Necessary assistance (psychological, medical, housing, and etc.) was provided to 118 individuals, recognised and presumed victims of trafficking in human beings.

A Program for the Psychological Rehabilitation, Vocational Guidance and Employment of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings and Prostitution was implemented in six municipalities during 2003-2004. The aim of the program was to create conditions for the reintegration of victims into the labour market. Currently the program is offered at national level, and services include professional training courses, social competence groups, self-help courses and job placement assistance.

Special protective measures for children

The Children’s Rights Ombudsman is a specialised monitoring body for child protection issues, which was established in July 2000.

One of the tasks is to collect information and analyse the child trafficking situation in Lithuania and make recommendations to the Government. Additionally, the Ombudsman controls and observes the implementation of international and national law on children's rights, and investigates alleged violations.

Investigation and prosecution

In 2014, 24 criminal investigations related to domestic and international human trafficking were registered in Lithuania (in total there were 38 such investigations carried out in Lithuania in 2014). 11 out 24 pre-trial investigations dealt with human trafficking for forced commission of criminal activities, 7 with human trafficking for prostitution, 2 with human trafficking for forced labour, 1 with human trafficking for forced labour and forced commission of criminal activities, and 1 with human trafficking for forced marriages. The main target country was Germany, other target countries: the United Kingdom, France, Sweden, Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Armenia. In 2014, in total 47 individuals (44 adults (19 women and 25 men) and 3 children (1 girl and 2 boys) were recognised as victims of human trafficking in criminal procedures, 40 traffickers (34 men and 6 women) were prosecuted. In 2014, 18 traffickers were convicted.

In 2013, 23 criminal investigations on trafficking in human beings were initiated. The disclosed cases related to domestic and international trafficking in human beings for sexual and labour exploitation, exploitation for criminal activities and pornography, and 1 investigation was initiated for exploitation for forced labour. It was the first year when more investigations were started for other, not sexual, exploitation (only 8 out of 23 cases were related to trafficking for sexual exploitation). The main target countries were the United Kingdom and Germany, other target countries were: Denmark, France and the Netherlands. In the investigations started in 2013 47 victims were identified (3 of them were minors), 33 traffickers were prosecuted and 18 traffickers were charged (the cases were sent to court). In 2013, 7 criminal cases on trafficking in human beings reached Lithuanian courts and 5 such cases were solved. In those cases, 11 traffickers were convicted with high penalties amounting up to 12 years of imprisonment.

In 2012 11 criminal investigations on domestic and international trafficking in human beings were started, 2 of them for trafficking in children (girls of 15-17 years old). All these investigations dealt with trafficking for sexual exploitation. Ireland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom were mentioned as target countries. In the initiated criminal investigations, 14 people were recognized as victims of human trafficking and 25 traffickers were prosecuted.

In 2011, 21 criminal investigation on trafficking in human beings was initiated. The disclosed cases related to domestic and international trafficking in human beings. The majority of investigations dealt with trafficking for sexual exploitation. The main target countries were the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, and the Scandinavian countries. In 2011, 45 presumed victims of trafficking were identified by the police, 25 of them were recognised as victims/witnesses in the criminal procedure the same year. In 2011, the police collected information on 53 people which could be involved in human trafficking, 30 of them were prosecuted for trafficking in human beings already the same year.

In 2010, 15 new criminal investigations of trafficking in human beings were recorded in Lithuania, 9 traffickers were convicted with sentences from 7 to 11 years of imprisonment. The police identified 22 presumed victims of trafficking, 3 of them were minors. All were Lithuanians. The law enforcement mostly cooperated with colleagues from the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Belarus, Norway and Latvia.

In 2009, 23 criminal investigations of human trafficking were registered in Lithuania. In total 48 such investigations, including five related to child trafficking, were conducted. Until then, most of the investigations had been related to sexual exploitation. However, in 2009 there were two cases brought to trial of trafficking for forced labour and one case for exploitation for forced labour. In 2009, the authorities prosecuted 14 individuals for sex trafficking offences and 14 trafficking offenders were convicted.

National Referral Mechanism

The National Referral Mechanism includes state and private actors: ministries, departments, organizations. They work within their competence and under MoU. Recently consultations have been started with all responsible bodies on the development of the whole national combating trafficking in human beings system in Lithuania including the National Referral Mechanism.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

Prevention

In 2008, the government focused its preventive actions on demand-reduction campaigns. For instance, the Ministry of Equal Opportunity funded a sex trafficking demand reduction poster campaign bearing the slogan, If you hire a prostitute, you are financing human trafficking.

In 2014, the government focused its actions on awareness raising by distributing multilingual brochures about human trafficking to the large public but also to potential victims.

 

Assistance and support provided to victims

The government does not provide any long-term shelter or housing benefits for victims of trafficking. However, during 2009, the government continued its funding of two non-governmental organizations which provide services for women in distress and female human trafficking victims. The Grand-Ducal decree regarding governmental agreements for shelters of September 11th 2014 gives now the possibility to grant specific agreements for shelters for human trafficking victims.

The government has not yet established a formal referral mechanism for victims of human trafficking. . During the reporting period of the United States Trafficking in Persons (TIP) report 2014, police identified 14  victims during 2013, compared with 16  the previous year and 25 victims in 2011. Law enforcement authorities reportedly referred identified trafficking victims to NGOs and provided them with short-term shelter and basic assistance. In principle, any state service, NGO or individuals detecting a possible victim of THB must bring this situation to the attention of the police services so that they can take a decision on identification and referral to the specialized assistance services. The government has a stated policy of ensuring that victims are not punished for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of their being trafficked.

In 2008, immigration legislation was adopted that provides for the granting of temporary residence permits to victims of human trafficking who are third country nationals for a 90 day reflection period. The government encourages victims to participate in the investigation and prosecution of trafficking offenders during the reflection period, though the granting of the reflection period is not conditional on victims’ cooperation with authorities. During the 90 day reflection period, victims are entitled to protection and assistance measures. After the reflection period, victims are granted a residence permit for a renewable six month period if the conditions in immigration legislation are met.

 

Special protective measures for children

Until now a few minors have been encountered during investigations in Luxembourg. Child victims of trafficking would be placed in a shelter for juveniles, which offer specialized services for trafficking victims. Since the 2014 acts, if it is not possible to determine the age of the person and if there is a presumption that the victim might be a minor, the victim will be granted the rights of a children victim.

Interviews with children by the Judicial Police section take place in special children-friendly rooms designed and adapted for this purpose.

Furthermore, if a child is a victim or a witness of trafficking of human beings, the recording of the hearing is mandatory. This record can be used as proof and can be reproduced in the courtroom in order to avoid secondary victimization. (Articles 48-1, 79-1 and 158 of the code of criminal procedure). The child may also be accompanied during the hearing by an adult of his/her choice, unless a reasoned decision has been made to the contrary in respect of that person. The hearing of children can also take place without the presence of the public.

The 2009 act on the assistance and protection of victims of human trafficking, establishes the right of child victims of human trafficking to be represented by a guardian if they are not accompanied by an adult until the authority of their country of origin can take charge of them.

 

Investigation and prosecution

According to the 2014 US TIP Report, the Luxembourg judicial authorities initiated six new trafficking investigations and prosecuted 13 alleged trafficking offenders, compared with at least nine prosecutions the previous year. The judicial authorities convicted five sex trafficking offenders and no labor trafficking offenders during the reporting period, compared with seven trafficking offenders the previous year.

 

Latest initiatives/activities related to anti-trafficking policy you would like to share with other Members of the Informal Network

A delegation of the Council of Europe's Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA) carried  out a country visit to Luxembourg from 11 to 14 December 2012. The visit was  organized in the context of the first round of evaluation of the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (2010-2013) The report has been published on January 15th 2014.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

Prevention

Efforts to prevent human trafficking in the Netherlands have included regular projects and awareness-raising campaigns. For example:

  • In February 2009, the government introduced an information card entitled 'Exploitation in the Workplace', which was made available to all municipalities and social welfare agencies. The card provided examples of labour exploitation, information on where to seek help, and details on victims’ rights, in several languages.
  • The Justice Ministry funded the 'Meld M' multimedia campaign (Crime Stoppers) targeting the general public to report suspicions of trafficking to an anonymous hotline in 2006 and 2008.
  • The Ministry of Foreign Affairs website includes travel information warning Dutch travellers that sex with children is prosecutable in the country of destination as well as in the Netherlands. The government funds several initiatives to prevent child sex tourism including a project to assist tour operators in Cambodia, Thailand, and the Philippines to adopt and implement a code of conduct aimed at preventing child sex tourism.
  • The Dutch military provide training to all military personnel on the prevention of trafficking. Additional training on recognizing trafficking victims is provided for Dutch troops being deployed abroad for duty as international peacekeepers.


Assistance and support provided to victims

In the Netherlands, the Coordination Centre for Human Trafficking (CoMensha) is the focal point for initial assistance to and registration of possible victims of trafficking. CoMensha is an NGO that receives government funding, and closely collaborates with police and other national authorities. As soon as these partners suspect a person is a victim of trafficking, they have to notify CoMensha. Victims can also approach CoMensha directly. The responsibility for keeping a national register of suspected victims has also been delegated to CoMensha. According to the Dutch Rapporteur, CoMensha identified and registered 826 trafficking victims, 46 of whom were male, in 2008. According to CoMensha Report (in Dutch), 909 victims were registered, 138 of whom were male, in 2009.

In 2008, the government opened a number of shelters specifically aimed at male victims of violence, including human trafficking. In June 2010, the government started a pilot project of three new shelters specifically equipped to assist female and male victims of human trafficking.

In addition, victims of trafficking may claim compensation from the perpetrator within the criminal proceedings. They can be entitled to state financed compensation under the Violent Offences Compensation Fund Act. The Fund is a division of the Ministry of Justice and is financed by general tax revenues.

Residence permit

As set out under section 2.1, Dutch authorities provide a temporary residence mechanism to allow foreign trafficking victims to stay in the Netherlands for a reflection period of three months, during which they can decide whether or not to cooperate in criminal proceedings. If a victim chooses to do so, a temporary residence permit may initially be granted for a year, and is renewable for up to three years. During both these periods, the government provides victims with the necessary legal, financial, and psychological assistance, including shelter, medical care, social security benefits, and education financing.

According to the 2010 report of the National Rapporteur, 235 victims of human trafficking have received a temporary residence permit (as compared with 143 in 2007).


Special protective measures for children

The Netherlands has developed a policy plan for dealing with all manifestations of child abuse (including child prostitution and child trafficking).

Since January 2008, the government has provided single underage asylum seekers with awareness training in secure shelters to protect them against traffickers.

The Dutch criminal procedure contains specific provisions for under aged victims. The judge can order the testimony of the victim in court to take place behind closed doors to protect the personal privacy of the young victim. This can also be requested by the victim who is called as a witness (Article 269 of the Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure). The Dutch criminal procedure is also structured in such a way that a direct confrontation between the victim and the suspect in the public hearing can be avoided. If the judge feels that the victim needs to be interviewed further, s/he will usually refer the case to the examining judge, who will not interview the victim during a public hearing, but will do so in the presence of the defence lawyer(s), who will be given the opportunity to ask the victim questions. In serious cases, it is possible for a young victim to write a statement about the effects of the crime. This statement is added to the file. It is common practice for the judge to read such a statement during the hearing. In addition, it is possible to exercise the right to speak during the hearing.

Investigation and prosecution

Human trafficking is also one of the selected themes in the Programme on Strengthening the Fight against Organised Crime of December 2007, with the result that many preventive, administrative and criminal law initiatives have been implemented. This approach has local as well as regional, national and international aspects and requires intensive collaboration between all the parties involved, including private parties and local administrations.

In 2008, the Justice Ministry took measures to prevent victims from being punished for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked, including through training prison staff on proactive victim identification. Police and prosecutors provide specialised training to assist judges, labour inspectors and immigration officers in identifying and assisting trafficking victims.

In the Netherlands, local governments are responsible for regulating legalised prostitution sectors and for conducting anti-trafficking inspections of brothels. Brothels are inspected at regular intervals by the police, local health authorities, the Labour Inspectorate, and fire prevention authorities. Guidelines drawn up by the National Expert Group on Trafficking in Human Beings (LEM) (see also under Established multidisciplinary groups, special units and police groups etc.) suggest that sex establishments should be checked at least six times a year. The Dutch Government is preparing new legislation with regard to licensing requirements, under which any type of sex establishment would be subject to the licensing system. This will include ensuring that prostitutes who want to work independently will have to register as such, and will be punishable if they have not done so. Clients that circumvent the new system will also be punishable.

Latest number of prosecutions and convictions

According to the 2009 Report of the National Rapporteur, Dutch law enforcement authorities prosecuted 221 persons for human trafficking offences in 2007. Verdicts were handed down in 120 cases, 81 per cent of which resulted in convictions, 12 per cent of which resulted in acquittals, and 7 per cent of which were dismissed.

The United States State Department Trafficking in Persons (TIP) report 2010 reports that in 2009, eleven regional human trafficking prosecutors were appointed to handle complicated human trafficking cases. Police completed and referred for prosecution 215 human trafficking investigations in 2008, the last year for which trafficking statistics were available, compared with 281 in 2007. In 2008, verdicts were handed down in 116 cases, of which 79 were convictions, compared with 73 convictions in 2007. There were 33 acquittals, and 4 dismissals in 2008, compared with 14 acquittals and 2 dismissals in 2007.

According to the National Rapporteur’s office, average prison sentences imposed in 2007 ranged from 20 to 23 months.

Established multidisciplinary groups, special units and police groups etc.

An Expertise Centre for Human Trafficking and Smuggling was established in May 2005, consisting of employees from the National Crime Squad (NR), Royal Military Constabulary (Kmar), Immigration and Naturalisation Service (IND) and the Social Security Intelligence and Investigation Service (SIOD). Information is collected, analysed and disseminated to all partners.

The National Expert Group on Trafficking in Human Beings (LEM) was established within the National Police Project on prostitution and trafficking in human beings in 1997. Experts on human trafficking and smuggling from all police regions address operational problems and share experiences. Coordination meetings between human trafficking and smuggling prosecutors also take place on a regular basis.

Other latest initiatives/activities

Early February 2012 a bill will be sent to Parliament which contains a proposal to increase the sentences for THB even further (they were already increased in 2009). The maximum penalty for the basic crime will go from 8 to 12 years of imprisonment; from 12 to 15 years if two or more persons are acting in concert; from 15 to 18 years if the serious bodily injury has been caused; and from 18 years to 30 years or life imprisonment in case of death.

In February 2012 a letter will be sent to Parliament, detailing plans for the further development of a shelter for victims. The pilot project for specialized shelter for victims of trafficking will become permanent and the number of specialized places will be increased from 50 to 70. In order to ensure that when victims are ready to move on to (semi-) independent housing, such housing is available, municipalities now have an obligation to provide them with housing. This will free up places in the shelters that are now often occupied by victims who no longer need them. Also, within the specialized shelters, psycho-social diagnostics will be introduced, to make certain that victims receive tailor-made care and assistance, also after they leave the shelter. For the victims of labour exploitation, who often do not need care and assistance, but instead prefer to find another job or to return home, the NGO Comensha will be given a budget to organize temporary shelter. Should any of these victims need care, after all, they can go to the specialized shelters. Finally, for Dutch victims, who are often victims of “loverboys”, the general women’s shelters and youth care facilities will remain available. Measures will be taken to further improve the care given to victims of trafficking in women’s shelters and youth care facilities.

In December 2011 a comprehensive action plan was launched, addressing the issue of “loverboys”. Loverboys are young men who utilize persuasive techniques to force vulnerable girls into the prostitution sector. The action plan focuses on raising awareness, empowering girls, improving the comprehensive fight against loverboys and improving the system of care and shelter for victims of loverboys.

In October 2011 a bulletin was published to inform airline personnel about the signs of THB. The bulletin was drawn up by the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee (the border guards) and the NGO Comensha. Airline personnel is given this bulletin when they receive training from the Marechaussee.

  • In July 2012, the Court of Leeuwarden awarded a victim of trafficking for sexual exploitation € 950.000,- in damages. She had been forced to work as a prostitute for seven years. The damages were based on the money she earned for her trafficker during those years. The trafficker was sentenced to six years in prison.
  • At the end of August 2012, Comensha/La Strada Netherlands launched a leaflet and website for trafficked persons (www.fromhereon.eu) in five languages: Dutch, English, Hungarian, Polish and Bulgarian. The aim of the leaflet and website is to inform trafficked persons about their rights as victims. The leaflet and website have been especially developed at the request of the Ministry of Security and Justice for trafficked persons who have had contact with the police and those who are considering to do so. Readers can find information about a range of issues that trafficked people face and useful tips, such as police contacts and Dutch legal provisions related to the reflection period, residence permit, financial and medical support, compensation, shelter, and return. The leaflets will be distributed to all police stations and counseling centres in the Netherlands so that trafficked persons can be informed about their rights at an early stage.
  • Two things are worth mentioning regarding the fight against “loverboys” or “pimp boyfriends”. First of all, an educational short movie about “loverboys” was made called “The Most Beautiful Chick of the Web” (‘De mooiste chick van het web’: see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CY9-Ql4UvIU (the movie is in Dutch)). The movie is meant to educate young people about the risks of using social media, which is increasingly being used by loverboys as a work (recruitment) area. In addition, the movie is meant for victims, friends, parents and teachers: how to make your daughter, friend or student aware that something wrong is going on? Second, a guideline for the approach to loverboys has been drawn up (‘Handreiking aanpak loverboys problematiek’ (also in Dutch)). The guideline was developed involving all relevant stakeholders. The guideline supports the action plan of the Ministry of Public Security and Justice (launched in December 2011) to address loverboys more fully, effectively and innovatively.

It has been a busy year for the Dutch National Rapporteur. In 2012 the cabinet has decided to broaden the mandate of the National Rapporteur. Starting June 2012 the National Rapporteur reports on human trafficking and on sexual violence against children.

On the 6th of June, the National Rapporteur presented the first report on Child Pornography at the United Nations to Ms. Marta Santos Pais, Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on violence against children. The report can be found on our website www.dutchrapporteur.nl.

In 2012 the National Rapporteur published the following reports:

  • A survey of prosecution and judgments on human trafficking cases in the period 2006-2010. Available in Dutch.
  • A survey of the National Rapporteur of cases under the B9 article (a protective measure for victims of human trafficking that work with the police in order to prepare a case). Available in Dutch.
  • A survey of the National Rapporteur on organ removal and forced commercial surrogacy. Available in Dutch and will be available in English in 1 or 2 weeks on our website www.dutchrapporteur.nl
  • A survey on al human trafficking cases in the period 2009-2012 will be presented on 18 October. It will be available in Dutch and a summary will probably be translated into English.
  • A survey on the approach of municipalities, the police, the prosecutors' office and the tax officers to THB is pending. We expect to finalize this survey in November. It will be available in Dutch.
  • The 9th report of the National Rapporteur on Human Trafficking in the Netherlands is pending. We expect to present it in the first months of 2013.
  • The first report of the National Rapporteur on Sexual Violence against Children is expected to be published in the last months of 2013.

National Referral Mechanism

The NGO Comensha receives a subsidy from the central government to register all possible victims of trafficking and refer them to shelters if necessary. They receive reports from all 26 police forces, the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee (border guards), the Inspectorate SZW (labour inspectorate), shelters, lawyers, NGOs, IOM, social workers and so on. The THB guideline of the Public Prosecution Service, which tells prosecutors and detectives how to handle cases of THB, obliges police chiefs to report victims to Comensha. When new organizations dealing with THB spring up, Comensha contacts them and tries to convince them to report any victims they come across.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

Prevention

In recent years Poland has carried out a number of awareness raising activities. The most noticeable were:

  • Awareness raising competitions organised by the MoI. The MoI organises two series of competitions: “Human trafficking in my eyes” – competitions for a short artistic work concerning THB targeted at young people (2010/2011, 2011/2012, 2013/2014) and competitions for a graduation thesis for university graduates (2011/2012, 2014/2015).
  • Launching a website (www.handelludzmi.eu) containing information on trends and scale of THB in Poland, victim support, legal framework, educational resources, information on publications, reports, analyses and activities in the field of THB (August 2013). The website is managed and constantly updated by MoI.
  • “Migrants rights in practice” project conducted by International Organisation for Migration, Ministry of the Interior and General Labour Inspectorate – a three year project initiated in 2010 targeted at those foreign nationals who receive the most long-term (above 12 month) residence and work permits and are vulnerable to human trafficking and labour rights abuse – Armenians, Belarusians and Ukrainians. Actions were directed at migrants staying in Poland as well as those staying in their home countries and planning to travel to Poland for work.
  • International human trafficking film festival “18/18 – 18 stories on 18 October 2012” (October 2012). The festival was directed at youth aged 13-20, parents of teenagers, professionals working with youth, students of social sciences and law, professionals working in the area of THB, NGO workers, LEA officers, decision-makers and high rank civil servants. 3660 people took part in the event.

Assistance and support provided to victims

The system of support and protection for victims of trafficking in human beings in Poland came into existence at the beginning of 2006. Since that time the system has been thoroughly improved and developed both in the legal and practical fields. The main objective of the system is to identify victims and to refer them to the proper institutions for assistance and support.

National Consulting and Intervention Centre for Victims of Trafficking (KCIK) is the core of polish victim support system. It was established in April 2009 in order to improve the standards of assistance offered to victims and to make the assistance more available.

KCIK is fully financed from the State’s budget as a public task commissioned by the Minister of the Interior to non-governmental organizations. Currently the task is carried out jointly by two NGOs – La Strada Foundation against Trafficking and Slavery and Association Po MOC. The Centre is addressed to victims identified by law enforcement agencies, but also to potential victims who have not been officially identified yet may suffer from the threat of being re-victimised. The KCIK is also dedicated to all institutions and organizations assisting victims of trafficking. The assistance offered by the Centre is unconditional and irrespective of the victims’ cooperation with law enforcement agencies.

KCIK provides:

  • a 24-hour helpline,
  • intervention assistance such as safe accommodation, food, psychological support, medical aid,
  • two shelters dedicated to female victims of trafficking,
  • translation services and the presence of an interpreter if needed,
  • legal consultations.

Total number of persons receiving support from KCIK:

Year

Victims, supported by KCIK in 2011 –  2013

2011

133 persons (81 Polish citizens, 52 foreigners)

2012

198 persons (89 Polish citizens, 109 foreigners)

2013

222 persons (103 Polish citizens, 119 foreigners)

In total

553 persons (273 Polish citizens, 280 foreigners)

 

 

Programme for the Support and Protection of Victims/Witnesses of Trafficking in human beings is a programme addressed exclusively to foreign victims of trafficking in human beings (both to third-country nationals and the EU-citizens). It is conducted within the framework of KCIK. a foreign victim is entitled to participate in the Programme providing the following conditions are fulfilled:

  • the victim has contacted law enforcement bodies (however, the victim is not obliged to immediately submit a notice of a crime),
  • there is a reasonable consideration taken by the law enforcement agency that the foreigner is a victim,
  • the victim has declared to terminate all relations with perpetrators.

Persons entering the Programme for the support and Protection of Victims/Witnesses of Trafficking in human beings:

Year

Number of persons

Women (18+)

Men (18+)

Children (under 18)

2011

25

16

6

3

2012

57

30

23

4

2013

56

27

20

9

2014

62

46

8

8

Total

200

119

57

24

 

The Programme of voluntary returns of victims of trafficking in human beings is carried out by the International Organisation for Migration on the basis of Agreement between the MoI and the IOM on the co-operation in the field of voluntary returns of foreigners leaving the territory of Poland. Owing to the amendment to the agreement which was implemented in 2011 all foreigners (including the EU-citizens) who are officially identified as victims of trafficking by Polish law enforcement agencies are entitled to a voluntary return organised by the IOM.

Special protective measures for children

Amendments to the Code of Penal Procedure were introduced June 2013 (came into force January 2014). According to the new provisions (article 185a of CPP) in the case of few listed crimes (including the trafficking in human beings), the victim who at the time of the hearing has not reached the age of 15, shall be questioned as a witness provided its testimony may have a relevant input for the case, and only once, unless there will be more evidence require re-hearing.  It means that victims under 15 generally shall not be interrogated unless it is a must. However, if it happens the number of hearings must be distinctly limited. What is also important, the hearing of a minor shall be performed directly by the court and the presence of a psychologist needs to be guaranteed.

As for minors over 15, in accordance with further regulations, they shall be interrogated under the same conditions as specified above whenever there is a justified fear that the hearing in other circumstances could have a negative impact on the minor’s mental state.

With respect to the system of support and protection of minor victims of human trafficking there is no shelters dedicated specifically to identified underage victims. In case of emergency, victims who are under 18 years of age are placed in foster care facilities having jurisdiction over the territory where the child was identified.

Investigation and prosecution

Latest number of prosecutions and convictions

According to the data from the Prosecution General the number of instituted preparatory proceedings related to THB cases amounted to 174 in the period of 2011-2013 – 52 in 2011, 65 in 2014 and 57 in 2013. In the same period 196 proceedings were completed – 52 in 2011, 68 in 2012 and 76 in 2013. Out of all the completed proceedings 60 (31%) were completed with an indictment and 101 persons was accused.

Results of preparatory proceedings in cases of THB in 2011-2013

/ Prosecution General data/

Year

Preparatory proceedings instituted [1]

Proceedings completed

Cases completed with indictment

Cases completed with remission

Persons

Accused

Victims

2011

52

52

11

24

22

590

2012

65

68

23

20

32

230

2013

57

76

26

23

47

135

 

 

From those accused 45 persons in total were sentenced.

Established multidisciplinary groups, special units and police groups etc.

The Police established special anti-trafficking structures both at the central and regional levels. In the period of 2011-2013 at the level of the National Police Headquarters the Central Unit for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings was established. Furthermore, permanent teams for combating trafficking in human beings were established within criminal divisions of regional (voivodeship) Police headquarters.

Trafficking in human beings /Police data/

 

Crimes Detected

Persons Suspected

Victims

Victims

– Polish citizens

Victims

– Foreigners

2011

427

13

166

165

1

2012

61

23

18

16

2

2013

186

23

141

133

8

In total

674

59

325

314

11

 

 

The Border Guard, similarly to the Police structures, comprises the THB coordinator at the level of the National Border Guard Headquarters and at the regional levels (at each division of the BG). The regional BG coordinators are in charge of official identification of victims of trafficking and of referral them to the assistance institutions.

Proceedings conducted by the Border Guard

Year

Proceedings

Victims

2011

5

11

2012

7

31

2013

9

54

In total

21

96

 

 

In 2011-2013 the Police and Border Guard officers were equipped with a document titled  Algorithm of Conduct of Law Enforcement Officers in Case of Revealing a Crime Consisting in Trafficking in Human Beings which comprises a set of instructions concerning the process of identification. The main aim of the document is to improve the standards of victims’ treatment and assistance after identification. Apart from the Algorithm, in 2013 a set of Indicators for identification of victims of trafficking was developed and distributed to the Border Guard officers.

Prosecutors performing the role of consultants for trafficking in human beings were appointed in 2011-2013 in a few public prosecutors’ offices of appeal.

To improve the prosecutors’ activities concerning victims, a document titled Methodological guidelines for prosecutors carrying out or supervising criminal procedures dealing with trafficking in human beings has been prepared and distributed. This document mainly emphasizes the specific situation of victims of trafficking in human beings and possible ways of providing them with help and preventing their re-victimisation. The guidelines include i.a. the issue of resignation from the prosecution of illegal acts committed by victims by means of existing legal measures (i.e. discontinuance of penal proceedings, a refusal to institute proceedings or an extraordinary mitigation of the penalty).

The National Labour Inspectorate possesses the competence of control over the legality of employment including foreigners employed in Poland and Polish citizens employed by the foreign employers abroad. Based on the mutual agreement the labour inspectors together with the Border Guard officers are entitled to carry out joint controls and exchange information about an infringement of provisions concerning the conditions of work and possible violation of employees’ rights.

Other latest initiatives/activities

  • A new Act on foreigners giving third country nationals that are THB victims a set of rights concerning assistance and legal stay in Poland was adopted in December 2013 and entered into force in May 2014. The act granted foreign THB victims with the possibility to legalise their stay for the reflection period of three months (4 in case of minors) based on a certificate issued instantly by the LEA who identified the victim.
  • The Unit against THB of the MoI has initiated the establishment of regional teams against THB that are to serve as a platform of cooperation, exchanging information and facilitating carrying out joint preventive actions. Five regional teams have been established by the end of 2014.
  • Border Guards officers were granted the right to carry out investigations of cases concerning THB and use special investigation methods/activities related to anti-trafficking policy.
  • The IOM in partnership with the MoI and General Labour Inspectorate have undertaken the implementation of a second edition of the “Migrants’ rights in practice” project. The project is to be completed by mid-2015. The main actions are: an information campaign directed at migrants planning a trip to Poland or came recently, carried out in Poland, Belarus, Ukraine and Vietnam, crisis intervention in the form of legal advice and mediations with the employer, anti-discrimination trainings for labour inspectors, Border Guard officers, representatives of employers organisations and organisations providing support to migrants.
  • MoI is preparing to implement a project aiming at raising awareness of human beings in Poland, co-financed from Norway Grants. The main actions of the projects are: conducting an opinion poll on trafficking in human beings, awareness raising campaign directed at vulnerable groups in chosen regions of Poland, research on demand reduction concerning all types of exploitation. The project is carried out in partnership with the Council of Europe and it is to be completed by April 2016.
  • MoI has launched a second edition of the awareness raising competition for the best graduation thesis.

National Referral Mechanism

The Ministry of the Interior (MoI) through the Unit Against Trafficking in Human Beings is responsible for monitoring and ongoing assessment of the National Referral Mechanism. The Unit steers the work of the expert group for supporting and protecting victims of trafficking that serves as a platform of exchanging up to date information about the identified/resumed victims and  beneficiaries of KCIK. The expert group is comprised of experts of THB from the General Police Headquarter, the General Headquarter of Border Guard, the General Public Prosecutor’s Office as well as from the non-governmental organisations conducting the National Consulting and Intervention Centre for Victims of Trafficking task (i.e. La Strada Foundation and Po-MOC Association). Since 2013 the group has been gathering systematically once per month.

The victims may be formally identified by competent Law Enforcement Agencies: the Police, Borger Guard and prosecutors.

 

[1] number of preparatory proceedings instituted in the calendar year.   

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

 

Prevention

Main projects and activities:

  • Distribution of informative materials within the perspective of origin countries;
  • Definition of a Best Practice procedures to be adopted by the tourism operators;
  • Promotion of the involvement of local authorities (municipalities) in the framework of the Municipalities Gender Equality Action Plans’.
  • National website dedicated to THB – www.otsh.mai.gov.pt (Portuguese and English version)
  • Several training sessions to professionals, namely labour inspectors, Law Enforcement Agencies, Prosecutors Office, and NGO’s. The main objective is to improve their professional skills in relation to the detection of possible cases of exploitation and how to support victims.
  • Awareness-raising campaigns/activities, such as:
    • “Wake up to Reality: Don’t Ignore It – Report It”.
    • "You’re not for sale" - Launched by Immigration and Border Control Service in order to alert students and hospital staff all over the country to the problem of human trafficking.
    • Blue Heart Campaign (2012) - The Blue Heart Campaign was launched in Portugal by the Secretary of State for Parliamentary Affairs and Equality and by the Portuguese National Rapporteur for Human Trafficking, and Mr. Pierre Lapaque, Chief of the UNODC Organized Crime Unit. The campaign aims to raise awareness about human trafficking among decision makers, civil society, the media and the general public in order to garner support for combating this crime.
    • “Don’t Let the Trafficking write your destiny – Protect yourself and denounce”, campaign 2013
    • Campaigns have also been organised by civil society actors, including the “Mercadoria Humana” (“Human Merchandise”) campaign conducted by the NGO “Saúde em Português” in collaboration with town halls, health centers, schools, universities, etc. The campaign was aimed at the general public, victims and potential victims. Various media and outreach strategies were used in implementing this campaign, including posters, flyers, radio commercials, newspaper advertisements, publicity through social networks, the Internet, exhibitions of photography and visual arts, and theatre. The Women’s Democratic Movement (MDM) has also been active in raising awareness about THB, with its project “Breaking the silence”(source: GRETA Report on Portugal, page 24).
    • “Flagging Card” - Between 2011-2012, and after the one produced for law enforcement agencies, the Observatory on Trafficking in Human Beings coordinated a multidisciplinary team and produced a flagging card to be used by NGO’s and another by the Labour Inspectors. The objective is to enhance the professional skills on the identification of potential VoT. Each one of these cards has a set of specific questions and observation indicators to assess the existence of potential victims as well as relevant contacts to victim’s referral support centers and hotlines. A special attention was given to child trafficking as far as the observation indicators. These cards dissemination is an ongoing activity.
    • “Inhuman Trafficking – Itinerant Exhibition” (2010 – 2012) - It comprised various information panels on trafficking, some aimed more particularly at children, others at potential victims and professionals active in the field of anti-trafficking. In co-operation with the local authorities, during 2010 and 2012 the Exhibition was held in 13 municipalities and in 3 schools where conferences with students took place. The Observatory on Trafficking in Human Beings also promoted the signature of the Declaration on the Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings (Council of Europe/Congress of Local and Regional Authorities) in 16 municipalities.
    • Booklet and Manual on Forced Begging – Coordinated by the Observatory on Trafficking in Human Beings and with the participation of the Institute for Child Support (IAC), Cáritas, National Commission for Protection of Children and Youngsters at Risk, Institute of Social Security, Portuguese Association for Victims Support, Commission for Citizenship and Gender Equality, National Republican Guard, Public Security Police, Judiciary Police, Border and Migration Police, UNICEF and Prosecutors Office. These products were the output of the International Conference “Domestic Servitude and Forced Begging: Invisible Forms of Trafficking for Labour Exploitation”. The objective is to inform professionals and society at large on:
      • What is trafficking in persons;
      • What is the relation between trafficking and forced begging;
      • The case of child begging;
      • Indicators;
      • How to support victims;
      • List of national organization – from law enforcement agencies to NGO’s.

The dissemination is an ongoing activity.

  • Organization of the International Conference “Domestic Servitude and Forced Begging: Invisible Forms of Trafficking for Labour Exploitation” – THB is a severe violation of Human Rights that affects populations and groups in different ways. The complexity of the victim’s flagging and identification is aggravated by those forms of exploitation that, on account of its space of occurrence or victim’s profile, reinforces THB as a diffuse and opaque phenomenon, increasing the difficulty in the victim’s identification, assistance and support. In order to debate this invisibility and to exchange Best Practices aimed to its combat, the Observatory on Trafficking in Human Beings from the Ministry of Internal Affairs (OTSH/MAI), with the support of the Committee on Constitutional Affairs, Rights, Freedoms and Guarantees (Portuguese Assembly of the Republic), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the International Organization for Migrations (OIM) and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), organized this International Conference with renowned national and international speakers (e.g. from OSCE, Anti-Slavery International, Council of the Baltic Sea States, ECPAT – UK and the Austrian National Coordinator on Combating Human Trafficking).
  • Organization of a Training week for Criminal Justice practitioners from Portuguese Speaking countries (Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and East Timor) 2012 - With the support of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) and based on the project started in 2009, UNODC Anti-Human Trafficking Manual for Criminal Justice Practitioners – translation, adaptation and dissemination to all Portuguese speaking countries of the 25 modules (public and reserved) the OTSH coordinated the training for more than 30 participants. The main goal was to provide these professionals with training skills in order to replicate the training in their own organizations. All trainers were Portuguese and previously trained by UNODC/Vienna.
  • Via the National Trafficking Victims Support and Protection Network (RAPVT) several products were adapted to the Portuguese reality namely:
  • Guidelines for The first level Identification of victims of trafficking in Europe:
    • Practical Tool – for the first level identification of victims of human trafficking – For Labour Exploitation
    • Practical Tool – for the first level identification of victims of human trafficking – For Sexual Exploitation
    • Practical Tool – for the first level identification of victims of human trafficking – For Forced Begging and Illicit Activities
  • From United Nations:
    • Model Law against Trafficking in Persons
    • First Aid Kit for use by Law Enforcement Responders in addressing Human Trafficking
    • International Framework for Action to Implement the Trafficking in Persons Protocol

Assistance and support provided to victims

A number of government-funded non-governmental organisations provide assistance to trafficking victims. A temporary shelter was created specifically for women victims of trafficking and their minor children, called CAP in June 2008 following signature of a protocol between the main public institutions concerned (Ministry of Justice, Ministry of the Interior, police forces, Social Security Institute, Prime Minister’s office) and the Family Planning Association (APF) which runs the shelter. All measures regarding protection, health care, legal assistance, translation and psychological support were undertaken by the shelter. Since March 2014, a new shelter’s for women’s and their children was setup.

The Portuguese NGO UMAR (União de Mulheres Alternativa e Resposta) and the Border and Migration Service (SEF) have an informal partnership two years ago, with a view to providing emergency accommodation for women victims of trafficking.

In 2013, the NGO “Saúde em Português” created a Shelter for Men Victims of Trafficking and the Portuguese Association for Victim’s Support created the 2nd shelter for women victims of trafficking and their minor children

The government also works closely with the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) to ensure that victims return safely to their country of origin.

Residence permit

According to the Portuguese Immigration Law, victims of trafficking are granted a reflection period of a minimum of 30 and a maximum of 60 days. During this period the victim is accommodated in the state reception center and has to decide whether s/he wants to cooperate with the Portuguese authorities.

Residence permits are granted on a case by case basis for a period of one year, and are renewable under specific conditions.

Other latest initiatives/activities related to anti trafficking policy

In 2015, the Ministry of Internal Administration in the context of the XVI Conference of Ministries of Interior of the Western Mediterranean (Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Malta, Morocco, Mauritania, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya), which marked the beginning of the Portuguese Presidency of this enhanced cooperation group, inserted into the 5 + 5 Dialogue Process (Western Mediterranean Cooperation), reinforced the cooperation against terrorism and Trafficking in Persons.

During the Conference, it was adopted the ‘Lisbon Declaration’ that invokes the founding objectives of the Conference of Ministers of the Interior, namely the cooperation to prevent and fight against organized crime and all kinds of trafficking, and the fight against irregular migration and trafficking in human beings, organs, cells and tissues.

In the field of prevention and fight against organized crime and all kinds of associated trafficking, the Ministers decided to intensify the forms of detection of organized crime networks; establish a common matrix of various types of criminal networks; and identify the links between organized crime and the networks of all known types of trafficking, as well as identify new forms of trafficking. The aim is to develop prevention efforts and a more effective response, being fundamental the sharing of information between the competent authorities and the awareness of civil society.

Moreover, the Ministers have also decided that in the context of the fight against irregular migration and respect for human rights and promotion of people movement to conduct a thorough mapping and characterization of this type of phenomenon, and its forms of combat, in each country; encourage legislative measures to penalize employers making use of undocumented workers; and greater sharing of information between the authorities responsible for monitoring and control of air borders, land and sea.

In the framework of the of “G4” – quadripartite meeting between Portugal, Spain, France and Morocco / reinforced regional cooperation mechanism between the Ministries of Interior – last April 2015, in Lisbon, occurred the 3rd Meeting of the G4, under the Portuguese Presidency. In this context, it was adopted the ‘Lisbon Conclusions’ aimed to strengthen bilateral and multilateral cooperation between the 4 States that share common concerns, such as THB.

At the background of the XII Portuguese-Moroccan Summit (Lisbon, April 2015) the Portuguese government and the Kingdom of Morocco signed a Cooperation Agreement on matters of Internal Security. This Cooperation Agreement seeks to enhance technical cooperation in key areas such as preventing and combating crime, flow management migration and combating irregular migration and THB.

Portugal participates in the Steering Committee of the Rabat Process – Euro/African Dialogue on Migration and Development. One of its thematic area (approved in Rome, 2015, in the IV Conference ‘Rome Declaration’), is the prevention of and fight against smuggling and THB, where the cooperation in border management control, admission and return are a key elements.

In the framework of the Portugal-Spain Summit (last one- the 28th Summit - in June 2015), THB is on the agenda as far as the bilateral cooperation between the 2 ministries of the Internal Administration.

In the framework of Frontex:

-       2015: the National Republican Guard (Law Enforcement Agency) is developing the following joint operations related to smuggling and THB detection:

o   “Poseidon SEA 2015” – since June 1 (Greece). 1 high speed boat; 9 militaries and 1 Liaison Officer at the International Coordination Centre in Athens;

o   “Flexible Operational Activities” – since May, 27 (Bulgaria). 4 militaries and 1 car with night vision means;

o   “Flexible Operational Activities” – since June, 24 (Hungary). 2 militaries and 1 car.

 

The participation in Frontex operations is also foreseen in the Strategic Plan for Migration (2015-2020). In this Plan, the participation is cited in Measure 73 and aims at the prevention, detection and fighting of smuggling and THB.

The Observatory on Trafficking in Human Beings with the General-Secretariat of Internal Administration (Ministry of Internal Affairs) coordinated the European Project “Towards a Pan-European Monitoring of Trafficking in Human Beings”.

Co-funded by the Prevention of and Fight against Crime (ISEC) Programme, it had the participation of the Ministries of Interior of Portugal, Austria, Bulgaria and Cyprus and with an Advisory Board with representatives of OSCE, Europol, Frontex, ICPMD, IOM/Lisbon, amongst others.

The project main objective was to provide countries with an efficient monitoring system on THB. This was achieved through the execution of 3 operational objectives:

- To deliver a customized monitoring system and improve the partner’s capacity to collect THB data, building up their national system and network of data providers and support them to analyse the data in a collaborative network environment;

- To develop a common system to support partners to analyse data at a transnational level, namely by sharing geo-statistical data among them by using the same indicators;

- To extend the project to other relevant countries of origin, transit and destination in the EU and neighbouring countries by presenting its outputs as Good Practices to be adopted.

As a result, countries will be able to produce national information and knowledge on THB, while guaranteeing compatibility and compliance with a common European THB monitoring system.

 

On both levels (national and European) it is possible to produce standard automatic statistical reports (based on minimum data set) and territorial base statistics that will bring to light a still absent dimension of THB knowledge: the territories where THB is more, or less, reported and the routes being used.

 

The Pan-EU MoSy is structured in three operational levels each one with different purposes:

- Local level supports the effective collection of the micro-data required by the aggregated statistics – data providers;

- National level supports the integration of consistent data and the production of harmonized national statistics – national focal points;

- European level supports the sharing of consistent and harmonized aggregated statistics on THB between countries – sharing of a subset of attributes collected nationally, with no further need for republishing or data replication or other unreliable workflows for generating harmonized information both at national as well as EU level.

 

The idea and overall alignment of the Pan-EU MoSy is closely embedded in previous projects, resulting from Best Practices and methodologies developed for THB monitoring and cooperation between entities. As examples, the 2009 “Guidelines for the Collection of Data on Trafficking in Human Beings, including comparable indicators”4 from the International Organization for Migration and the Austrian Federal Ministry of Interior (all partners in the Pan-EU MoSy). In recent times, the projects “Tools for the validation and utilization of EU statistics on human trafficking”, and “Prevention and Extended Harmonized Data Collection System of Trafficking in Human Beings” made valuable contributions to the positive outcome of the Pan-EU MoSy.

Also of relevance – at an international and European level – are the following documents that, in one way or another, refer to the importance of monitoring systems as a feedback instrument:

  • Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings responsible for monitoring the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by the Parties (GRETA);
  • UNODC Global Reports on THB, developed in the framework of the United Nations Global Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons7;
  • Eurostat/European Commission THB indicators developed in consultation with the Eurostat Working Group on Crime Statistics, the DG Home Affairs Group of Experts on the Policy Needs of Data on Crime and Criminal Justice and the Informal Network of National Rapporteurs or Equivalent Mechanisms;
  • Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on preventing and combating THB and protecting its victims urging Member States not only to work on methodologies and data collection methods to produce comparable statistics, but also to cooperate with civil society organisations, including monitoring and evaluating the impact of anti-trafficking measures.

The Pan-EU MoSy also reinforces European guidelines concerning the development of a comprehensive system to support the production of crime statistics.

For overall reading, please find in attachment the Pan-EU MoSy Handbook.

Besides this handbook, and on a more technical note, the project also produced the following documents:

  • Pan-EU MoSy – A Guide for Data Providers - Local Level Organizations
  • Pan-EU MoSy – A Guide for Data Collectors - National Focal Points
  • Pan-EU MoSy – National Focal Point BackOffice – A Guide for Security and Data Manager
  • Pan-EU MoSy – Guidelines for European Focal Point
  • Pan-EU MoSy – European Focal Point BackOffice – A Guide for Security and Data Manager
  • Pan-EU MoSy Installation Guide

For additional information, please contact:

rpenedo@otsh.mai.gov.pt  

National Referral Mechanism

A model of Signalization-Identification-Integration of victims of trafficking is at present being applied. This model encompasses an integrated, comprehensive and continuous support for Victims of Trafficking. This is possible due to structured approaches creating empathy with the victims, providing a shelter for their safety and promoting their reintegration in society and in the labour markets. The principal objectives of this model are:

  • to make available a network response based on research about fighting trafficking and its victims support;
  • to give special support to the victims, coordinated with different levels of intervention (legal, psychological, medical, social, training, among others);
  • to promote the victims personal development (knowledge, abilities, competences), to prevent them to fall again into victimization.

The most important challenge at the present moment is to consolidate the National Referral Mechanism, improving channels of communication between public entities and also with NGOs, and to adequate the responses (because it is an area in constant change) with the data collection (monitoring system) that Portugal has implemented.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

According with its mandate, National Agency against Trafficking in Persons is responsible for drafting anti-trafficking public policies as well for the monitoring of the implementation of the National Strategy against Trafficking in Persons and its subsequent National Action Plan.

            Prevention

                The prevention of trafficking in persons has represented a continuous priority increasing in the volume, diversity and strength of the message in the last 5 years. The concept of prevention, as represented by the social actors involved in the prevention of trafficking in persons and victims’ securing – authorities and civil society – has evolved in the same time with the tendencies, less explicit, more or less traceable and visible of the entire process, from the recruitment to the exploitation of victims.

Therefore, the most relevant instrument used within the limits of the general and national concept of prevention of vulnerable persons’ victimization, has been the public campaigns, which were developed at local, national and European/ international level, by public institutions, organizations of the civil society and the business environment, almost every time in a governmental-nongovernmental partnership. More than that, preventive targeted activities have taken place, inter-institutional plans - elaborated and implemented at the local level, projects with objectives and activities with preventive character have been implemented.

All the prevention campaigns aimed to increase the level of education and to inform a specific part of urban and rural population, consisting in the project terms and framework programmes, particular target groups (selected using the criteria of high rate for specific vulnerability).

The content of the public message aimed the most common forms of exploitation, as they appear in the statistics and media in the year 2013: the sexual exploitation, labour exploitation and forced begging.

Perhaps the most important benefit is given by the fact that all the campaigns have been designed, planned and implemented within local, national and international partnerships, adjusted to the local, regional and international context, taking into consideration the target groups of the anti-traffic message.

From the perspective of the social, educational, moral, psychological and media benefits, the programmes, projects and prevention campaigns implemented in the year 2013 have the following references:

- the national and transnational/ European character,

- were implemented, mostly, within formal partnerships, but also, within informal cooperation between authorities, civil society, business environment.

 

During the year 2012, 42 campaigns were implemented (6 nationals and regionals and 36 local campaigns) and 7 THB preventing action plans, all of these focusing on identification of the causes of the phenomenon and its main exploitation forms. There have been about 100,000 direct beneficiaries and around 1,000,000 tangential beneficiaries (for example Bucharest public transport users).

In 2013, within the 55 implemented projects/campaigns (6 at national level and 49 at local level), 1,800 prevention activities were developed with more than 150,000 beneficiaries. There were also registered more than 2,000,000 beneficiaries of online messages and recommendations.

Within the first semester of 2014, 23 national and local campaigns were implemented with almost 70,000 materials (posters, leaflets and brochures) being disseminated.  In the same period, 600 informative prevention measures were developed, with more than 30,000 beneficiaries.

 

Within the project „Integrated approach for prevention of labour exploitation in origin and destination countries" co-financed by the European Commission, the transnational campaign for preventing trafficking in persons „To work is a right! To exploit the work is a crime!" was simultaneously implemented in 6 states (Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Cyprus, FYROM and Hungary), focusing on preventing labour exploitation.

The target group was the public aged between 18 and 40 and competent decision makers in the field of prevention and countering the labour exploitation.

During approximately 300 direct meetings held within the implementation of the campaign in Romania with target group representatives, useful information regarding THB was disseminated to a number of almost 13,500 direct beneficiaries. The anti-trafficking message was transmitted to the large public through TV and radio spots totaling around 22,000 broadcasts. According to data collected by the campaign’s evaluator, the information transmitted within this activity, reached approximately 5,000,000 persons.

 

The partnership between the National Agency against Trafficking in Persons and AIDRom – Ecumenical Association of Churches in Romania, materialized in a THB campaign called ,,The right to work is yours ! Do not sell it to the traffickers!”

The campaign’s objective was increasing awareness of Romanian citizens who want to work abroad on the risks associated to human trafficking through labour exploitation. The dissemination of campaign materials was supported by the General Inspectorate of the Border Police, posters being displayed in all international airports and crossing border points

 

One of the campaigns intended to prevent child victimization in within the  trafficking in human beings, was called „Where the begging starts, the childhood ends”, being implemented by the National Agency Against Trafficking in Persons, the Child Helpline Association and the Institute for Research and Prevention of Criminality within the General Inspectorate of Romanian Police. This project was also financed by the France Embassy in Bucharest.

The campaign aimed to ensure the raising awareness among children, parents and authorities from rural areas about the negative effects of the phenomenon of begging.

The project was implemented in rural areas of 5 counties facing this issue and its target group consisted in children aged between 8 and 14, local authorities’ representatives (police officers, mayors, counselors, school inspectors, social workers and informal leaders).

 

 „THE NO PROJECT” represents a public awareness campaign that addresses teenagers in order to increase their level of awareness on the phenomenon of trafficking in human beings through art, sport, music, dance, movie, educational activities and social media.

Thus, the campaign had the role of informing, inspiring and motivating teenagers to act/ respond proactively against modern slavery – putting at disposal their talent, passion and energy in order to raise public’s awareness.

The project was implemented based on a public-private partnership that reunited state institutions (National Agency against Trafficking in Persons), private companies (Bancpost) and nongovernmental organizations (ADPARE, e-Liberare).

 

The project „Combating trafficking in persons and sex tourism – ETTS” was co-financed by the European Commission and implemented in 4 states from Europe  (Italy, Romania, Spain) and Latin America  (Brasil), being under the coordination of the Municipality from Genoa, Italy.

The main objective of the prevention campaign of trafficking in persons and sex tourism „Indifference makes us accomplices” was to increase European public opinion consciousness on human rights violence, this being a consequence of sexual exploitation and sexual tourism.

In Romania the target group of the prevention campaign was represented by the following categories: teenagers from educational system, including the entire school community (teachers and parents); governmental and nongovernmental actors that act at local level; public at large.

 

Assistance and support provided to victims

Studied from sociological perspective that takes into account the dynamics of identified victims, human trafficking enrolls on a downward curve.

Cautiously observing dynamic victim-trafficker relationship, we find that, to a large extent as in previous years, the premises that induced vulnerability of victims, as indicated by victimological analyses and criminal investigations, have connection with variable, such as: quality of life, searching for better living opportunities, inconsistent formal and informal education, limited access and low concern for information, lack of opportunities in the labour market, unemployment, lack of relevant life experience, limited cognitive development and emotional immaturity, attitudes and naive judgments such as „To me? This cannot be happening!”, the origin of victims from broken families, the desire of victims to escape from an abusive or careless environment, the predilection to meet the needs by any means, lawful or unlawful, special vulnerability (sensory, motor, mental or other disability), lack of interest or people’s ignorance to be informed about the risks that may be exposed to situations of labor migration.

Forced into prostitution, pornographic or other forms of sexual exploitation are the main purpose for which victims end up being trafficked. Further, the dimension of Romanian victims exploitation, is high, most victims being trafficked in state such as Greece, Germany, Italy, Spain, Turkey, UK, Austria, Portugal, France, Netherlands and others.

            Vulnerability to exploitation is closely linked to gender affiliation (most victims are women) and other socio-demographic indicators such as age and area of ​​origin, variables that are operated by criminals in recruiting future victims and also characteristics that increased vulnerability of victimization.

 

Special protective measure for children

            Combating, preventing, assistance and protection of child victims of trafficking in human beings are specifics objective of the National Strategy against Trafficking in Human Beings. Also, the main framework is Government Decision no. 49/2011 approving the framework methodology on prevention and intervention in a multidisciplinary team and network in cases of violence against children and violence in the family and multidisciplinary and inter-institutional intervention methodology for children exploited and are at risk of child labor, children victims of human trafficking and migrant Romanian children, victims of other forms of violence in other states which gather all the stakeholders involved in the fight against this phenomenon.

 

Investigation and prosecution

The structural model of law enforcement anti-trafficking system consist of 15 regional units and 27 county units, supervised by Trafficking in Persons Unit from the Directorate for Countering Organized Criminality - Romanian Police, with approximately 250 specialized police investigators performing under direct co-ordination of also specialized prosecutors. Making use of a wide range of tactical and technical instruments, frequently proactively approaching investigations, law enforcement and judicial is providing a resolute response to trafficking in persons.

Over the last number of years, the specialized police officers and prosecutors investigated an average of 750 new cases every year. Approximately 150 indictments were issued with almost 450 suspects send to court for trial. During the same interval, the number of convictions passed by the Romanian courts recorded a constant upward trend, reaching a peak in 2012, when 427 persons were convicted for instances of human trafficking. Sever imprisonment penalties provided by the law are also applied with harshness, the average penalty being se around 5 years:

- 20% of those convicted were sentenced to prison between 5-10 years.

- 13% of those convicted were sentenced to prison between 10-15 years.

- 16% of those convicted were sentenced to prison between 1-5 years.

For the first time, three legal persons were finally convicted for the crime of trafficking in minors. The percentage of persons convicted of trafficking in minors is high, being in the last two years about 60% of the total.

Future path of interest for law enforcement and judiciary has as main objectives in the medium term the consolidation of cooperation with relevant law enforcement partners in destination countries, as well as reinforcing and consolidating the confidence of potential victims and witnesses in the capacities of the Romanian Authorities to efficiently counter human trafficking.

 

Latest initiative/ activities related to anti-trafficking policy

One of the latest initiatives is related to updating the Romanian criminal policy which entered into force at 1st of February 2014. In the New Criminal Code, the involvement of an official to trafficking in human beings crime committed by public employees in fulfilling their duties was included as aggravating circumstance.

The same chapter is also incriminating child trafficking (as more severely punished distinct crime), forced labour, pimping, exploitation of begging, using a minor for begging, the use of services which are the object of exploitation.

Regarding the sexual exploitation o a person and the punishment for such act, we can specify that the New Criminal Code is no longer incriminating prostitution, but is still incriminating acts triggering the expansion of this phenomenon, such as pimping, trafficking in human beings, the use of services which are the object of exploitation. In most cases these are forms of manifestation of organized crime, and the person offering this type of sexual services, is no more than a victim of the trafficking in human beings or sexual exploitation phenomenon.

The transfer of the public disapproval from the recruited person to the one recruiting the victim will help punishing the real criminals responsible for the extension of the prostitution phenomenon and other related phenomena reflecting a higher social threat, such as trafficking in persons.

The new Criminal Code is no longer incriminating begging, as it was described in the previous Criminal Code, punishing two new crimes, related to begging, ment to keep up with recent specific situations.

These would be the act of begging, committed by a child or a person with disabilities and using a minor by a adult person able to work, with the purpose of receiving a benefit from the public.

An example for this latter situation would be a woman bagging holding a baby in her arms to increase the public’s mercy, will represent a relevant threat, not only because she is injuring the baby’s human dignity, but she is also threatening the minor’s health and even life, taking in consideration the poor conditions that the baby might be subject to, during the adult’s criminal activity (low/high temperatures, rain, snow etc).

In terms of strategic actions is to be mentioned that, starting with the next year, a new National Action Plan will be issued for the period 2015-2016. This policy document, capitalizing on the results already obtained, will provide the policy framework to resume and continue activities related to some of most important objectives of the National Anti-trafficking Strategy, naming “The reconfiguration of Social assistance system for VoT” and strengthening law enforcement and judicial capacity for response on the issue of extended confiscation of the proceeds of trafficking crime.

From another perspective, one ongoing activity will be the study on the compensation of victims conducted with Norwegian Funds and CoE support, with the aim of improving trafficking survivors’ access to such measures.

 

National Referral Mechanism

The National Referral Mechanism was approved through Order 335 from 29 October 2007 and entered into force at 17 December 2008.  

            The mechanism aims to adopt a unitary and coordinated response of all anti-trafficking institutions and organizations which shall lead to the improvement of the early identification of a victim, the capacity and provision of protection and assistance to victims of trafficking, regardless of the institution or organization the victim initially gets in contact with.

The document represents a set of norms designed to identify and refer victims of trafficking with the purpose of ensuring support services. The mechanism contains the fundamental principles and legal framework of actions and measures undertaken by institutional partners of the mechanism, concrete identification methods and referral procedures.

The annex of the document includes the list of indicators that can be used for the primary evaluation of a possible situation of trafficking in persons or for identification of an alleged victim of this crime.

Problems:

  • The low level of resources leading to limited involvement of anti-trafficking institutions and organizations;
  • The need for continuous training of professionals working with the identification and referral mechanism.

Also, by signing the partnership declaration of the project "Development of guidelines and procedures for identifying trafficking victims guiding people-EuroTrafGuid, Romania engaged in the development of common procedures to identify victims of persons with France Expertise Internationale Organization, National Commission for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings in Bulgaria, Directorate General for International Cooperation Development in Greece, the Ministry of Security and Justice in the Netherlands delegation government to gender violence in Spain, ICMPD, the Council of Europe.

The overall objective was to develop and harmonize the methods and procedures for identifying trafficking victims in the Member States participating in the project through the development of common guidelines.

Taking this into consideration, Romania is considering drafting a new National Referral Mechanism having as starting point the results of the project and adapts them to the national realities.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

National Program (National Strategy/National Action Plan)

On 16 February 2011, the Slovak Government approved its third National Program to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings for the years 2011 – 2014 (hereinafter referred to as “National Program”). The National Program is divided into two parts. The first is National Strategy and the second is the National action plan of the fight against Human Trafficking for the years 2011 – 2014.

The aim of the National Program is to secure a complex and effective national strategy for  the fight against human trafficking (hereinafter referred to as “national strategy”) supporting the establishment of mutual understanding and coordination of the activities of all participating entities as part of eliminating risks and preventing criminal activities involving human trafficking, as well as creating conditions for providing support and help to victims of human trafficking and ensuring protection of their human rights and dignity.  The National Strategy has been completed by upholding the principles of active participation on the part of the government and civil society, respect for human rights, interdepartmental cooperation and sustainability.

 

The National Program covers the following four areas:

  1. Supporting framework (including coordinating structures, legislative framework, coordinated work with information and research, ensuring a budget and funding, monitoring, evaluation and updates;
  2. Prevention (including public awareness, education, minimizing risks and administrative control instruments);
  3. Support and protection of victims (including identification of victims, recovery period, comprehensive care for victims, protection of victims – witnesses and part about reintegration of victims into society and return to the country of origin);
  4. Criminal proceeding (including investigation, international cooperation of law enforcement bodies, criminal proceedings, compensation for victims, communication of law enforcement bodies and court with victims and anti-corruption measures).

 

Prevention

The Slovak Republic has focused its preventive efforts on information campaigns to inform potential victims about human trafficking and raise public awareness.

In 2008, the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic in cooperation with the International Organisation for Migration in Bratislava concluded an agreement on the establishment of the free National Helpline for Victims of Human Trafficking (phone number 0800 800 818) with Slovak Telekom a.s.. The National Helpline for Victims of Human Trafficking was established                  as of 1 July 2008 and it is primarily aimed at providing preventive information prior to travelling abroad, as well as for making first contact with potential victims of human trafficking and at mediating relevant help. As part of an information campaign, the public was informed about the existence of the National Helpline for the Victims of Human Trafficking through mass media and the website, as well as through the “Info-mobile” project and posters in A2 and A4 format that were displayed in public transport in all regions except the Bratislava region, on information boards and buildings of selected departments of the Police Corps, in residential camps of the Migration Office of the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic as well as in other selected departments, the Detention Centre in Humenné and the Integration Centre in Zvolen as well as Embassies of the Slovak Republic abroad. These posters are also distributed to participants of trainings organised by the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic focusing on the issue of identifying victims of human trafficking.

 

The Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic within the implementation of the Project “Prevention and expanded, harmonised data collection system on trafficking with human beings”, aimed activities also to communication campaign “Without information you are becoming a Slave“.

The first phase of the communication campaign was running through three-months broadcasting of TV and radio spot named “Without information you are becoming a Slave“. The TV and radio spot was broadcasted in the Slovak Radio and in regional stations of the Radio Regina, in the Slovak Television (STV 1 and STV 2), Radio Expres, TV JOJ and TV Markíza during the months of October, November and December 2011. At the beginning of the first phase, the TV spot was published on the www.youtube.comwww.twitter.com Internet page.

The second phase of the communication campaign was running during April, May and June 2012. The TV spot promoting The National helpline for the victims of trafficking with human beings 0800 800 818 (hereinafter referred to as “National helpline“) was uploaded to the server of The Association of local television stations of the Slovak Republic, from where it was broadcasted free of charge in individual regions of Slovakia.

The visual image of the campaign was published in the banners of internet pages www.mail.zoznam.sk, www.sportky.sk and www.topky.sk.

As the part of this information campaign about the existence of the National helpline and about new forms of trafficking with human beings with a focus on forced labour, the workers of the Information centre for combating the trafficking with human beings and crime prevention distributed posters in A4 and A3 format created within the campaign and containing its visual image to Offices of labour, social affairs and family through the territory of the Slovak Republic, to air ports, railway stations, Slovakia bus lines premises and premises of public transport in Košice. At the same time, there was the CD label with the TV spot created, distributed and continually broadcasted via internal TV circuits of Offices of labour, social affairs and family within Slovakia, airport halls and railway stations halls having suitable premises for broadcasting.

Based on the cooperation with the administration of the city of Košice and European Culture Capital City Košice 2013 (hereinafter referred to as “EHMK“), there were articles on issue of trafficking with human beings published on the municipal and EHMK Internet website. There is also TV spot “Without information you are becoming a slave” available in the electronic form.

There was the after-pool carried out in August 2012 evaluating objectively the success of the campaign. The pool was carried out on the sample of 1,083 respondents in the age of 15 and more and was focused on five areas of questions:

  • Associations with the phrase trafficking/trafficking with human beings,
  • Identification of a phone number 0800 800 818,
  • Associations with the slogan “Without information you are becoming a Slave”,
  • Registering the media campaign,
  • Experience with work abroad in the last four years.

 

Trainings focused to the identification of trafficking with human beings

In accordance with National Program, the Ministry of Interior by the Information Centre is organizing trainings focused to the identification of human trafficking for different stakeholders.

The training module was used to train, in the period from 2008 to 2014 (till the end of the March), the following workers who could come into contact with potential victims of trafficking in human beings: members of the police, staff od Migration Office, members of NGO´s, employees of foster homes, employees of the Offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family, National Labour Inspectorate, judges, prosecutors and other groups, etc.

The introductory part of the training always focuses on the definition of trafficking in human beings and its application in the identification process, the differences compared to other crimes on the basis of case studies and identification interviews. The participants learn about the indicators for the detection/identification of victims of human trafficking and about questions to be asked during the identification of potential victims. The training also includes information on current trends in human trafficking and on specific cases recorded by actors involved in the referral system of assistance to victims under the Program (gender, national, geographic features and new trends in the purposes of human trafficking). During training, the need to apply a sensitive approach is highlighted with regard to the purpose for which the victim was exploited and the victim´s gender.

No particular manual exists for the profiling of potential victims on the basis of certain factors, such as country of origin, social status, detained group of people and other.

The Ministry of Interior by the Information Centre to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings and Crime Prevention organizes minimum 10 trainings for 25 people every year. In 2014 are planned 9 trainings, where assuming number of trained person is 285.

 

The Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic prepared training activities to identification of trafficking with human being focused on forced labour as the part of the implementation of the Project “Prevention and enlarged, harmonised data collection system on trafficking with human beings“.

There were trainings running during May – June, 2012 for the target groups of the Police Forces members, workers of Offices of labour, social affairs and family, labour inspectors and field social workers. In total, there were 123 persons trained in 6 trainings. Within the training, the Guide named “Aspects of forced labour in the Slovak Republic” was presented, used and distributed. The main goal of the Guide is to expand the knowledge horizon of experts entering into contact with victims or delinquents of the crime of trafficking with human beings. Especially it is intended for policemen, labour inspectors, government officers, NGOs and others being confronted with the forced labour phenomenon during its work. The aim is to eliminate the phenomena decreasing the human dignity.

 

Campaign “Do you know what your child is doing right now?”

The Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic though its facility, The Information Centre for Combating the Trafficking with Human Beings and Crime Prevention, has prepared campaign called “Do you know what your child is doing right now?“, focused on young people and parents. In shopping centres Aupark in Košice, Eurovea in Bratislava and the hotel Kultúra in Ružomberok, there were presented posters of students of secondary schools of Applied Arts thematically inspired by risky phenomena, such as drugs, alcohol, gambling, social networks and trafficking with human beings. Finally, the expert jury selected the theme showing a boy with candy, authored by Patrik Garay from Bratislava.

The visual image of the campaign was presented on 22 billboards throughout the Slovak Republic during May - July 2012. Artistic presentations of this issue acquired without using any funds are circulating in the Republic in the form of the cycle of 30 posters. We focus on hospitals and large shopping centres. There was the exhibition of posters installed in the foyer of the Children’s Faculty Hospital in Košice in April 2012. The management of the hospital proposed to conclude remuneration-free agreement on the cooperation covering a free of charge provisioning of advertising space in front of the hospital, where there is the visual image of the campaign presented on the billboard. The exposition of 30 artistic works was presented in newly opened gallery in the Caraff prison in Prešov as from 24th July, 2012 till 31st August, 2012. In this premises we also brought to live a simple publication, The Guide for Parents, for cases of children deciding to travel to work abroad or for cases of starting drug, alcohol or other addiction. Any of these addictions can stand for a risk factor and in such way affected personality can easily become the victim of trafficking with human beings. The brochure has been distributed to several places. Actually it is present in two hospitals in Košice, in the offices of the first contact and in the information centres in the cities of Košice and Prešov. At the same time, we have distributed the publication to selected secondary schools of applied arts, namely in Košice, Ružomberok and Bratislava. We will continue to distribute the publication also within the scope of trainings, workshops, as the supporting publication for touring exhibitions in large shopping centres, as well as during various activities of the Information Centre for combating the trafficking with human beings and crime prevention among the adult population.

There is a gradual installation of the exhibition ongoing in cooperation with the company Tesco Stores, a.s. since September, 2012 till August 2013. In accordance with the schedule of the activities of the campaign, the exposition of 30 posters tours in the net of the company Tesco Stores a.s., namely in the cities of Prešov, Košice, Poprad, Zvolen, Žilina, Trenčín, Trnava, Bratislava and Nitra.

 

Assistance and support provided to victims

The Ministry of Interior is provided assistance and support to victims thru non-governmental organizations and international organization with funding them to implement the Programme of Support and Protection of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings. The procedure for identifying victims of human trafficking in the Slovak Republic and potential victims including in the Program of Support and Protection for Victims of Human Trafficking is defined in the National Reference Framework. This material contains the structure of cooperating entities through which the governmental authorities fulfil their obligations in terms of protection and enforcement of human rights for individuals who became victims of human trafficking, while coordinating their efforts as part of strategic partnership with civil society. Its main aim is to ensure respect for the human rights of victims of human trafficking and provide them with effective and accessible services. Secondarily, the national reference mechanism can help to develop national policies and procedures regarding victims of human trafficking, such as legal provision in the area of legalisation of their stay and resettlement, compensation and protection.

Any entity within the environment of governmental authorities and non-governmental organisations, as well as those from abroad can identify a potential victim of human trafficking. Thus, members of various services of the Police Corps, Prosecution Office, employees of the Migration Office, employees of Offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family, healthcare staff, employees of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic, social workers in the field, employees of consular offices of the Slovak Republic abroad, non-governmental and international organisations working in Slovakia or abroad, as well as the victims of human trafficking themselves or their family members can initiate identification of victims of human trafficking through the National Helpline for Victims of Human Trafficking at 0800 800 818. Detected potential victims of human trafficking in the territory of the Slovak Republic or abroad are referred to the care of non-governmental organisations or of the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) in Slovakia that initiate the procedure for identifying potential victims of human trafficking based on the above-mentioned impulses through the identification questionnaire, personal record of the client based on the definition of human trafficking from the Palermo protocols.

 

Victim care

The scope and quality of services provided to domestic and international victims of human trafficking are set by the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic Decree No. 180/2013 on Ensuring the Program of Support and Protection for Victims of Human Trafficking governing the functioning of the Program of Support and Protection for Victims of Human Trafficking.  Both categories of victims pursuant to the principles of equality and non-discrimination are provided services according to their individual needs on the same level, while care for international victims considers more measures in terms of language barriers, legalisation of the stay of an alien and voluntary return to country of origin.

Comprehensive care is provided to victims of human trafficking – citizens of the Slovak Republic as well as foreign nationals during the period of necessary crisis care and crisis period lasting 90 days. Following this period, comprehensive care is provided during the full duration of a criminal case if the victim decides to cooperate with authorities involved in a criminal case. After the end of the criminal case, care is provided as needed during the period of reintegration lasting 90 days. In case that the victim decides not to cooperate with authorities involved in a criminal case, comprehensive care is provided to a victim who is a citizen of the Slovak Republic during the period of reintegration or integration lasting 90 days and victim of human trafficking – foreign national during the period of preparing return to the country of origin.

Comprehensive care for victim of human trafficking provided as part of the Program of Support and Protection for Victims of Human Trafficking for a victim who is a citizen of the Slovak Republic includes:

  • separation from the criminal environment;
  • help with voluntary return to the Slovak Republic;
  • possibility of anonymous accommodation, if the victim requests it;
  • 90-day period of necessary crisis care and crisis period; in case that the victim decides to cooperate with authorities involved in criminal cases as well as comprehensive care is provided during the whole period of criminal case;
  • financial support, social support, psychological and social counselling, psychotherapeutic services, legal counselling, healthcare;
  • requalification courses;
  • 90-day period of reintegration or integration;
  • possibility of being included in the Witness Protection Program according to Act No. 256/1998 Coll. on Witness Protection as amended;
  • possibility for financial compensation according to Act No. 215/2006 Coll. on the Compensation of Victims of Violent Crimes pursuant to Act No. 79/2008 Coll.

The Program for a Victim who is a foreign national includes those services shown above and legalisation of the stay in the Slovak Republic, interpreting, comprehensive care provided during the period of preparing the victim for return to the country of origin, if the victim is interested in a voluntary return, as well as the possibility to be granted permanent residency permit.  Victims of human trafficking have the possibility to return to the country of origin or another third country in the form of voluntary return. The possibility of voluntary return for victims corresponds with Article 16 paragraph 5 of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings.

 

Special protective measures for children

When fulfilling provisions of social and legal protection of victims of human trafficking, the Social and Legal Protection Authority and social guardianship (hereinafter only “Social and Legal Protection Authority”) follows Act No. 305/2005 Coll. on Social and Legal Protection of Children and Social Guardianship and on amending and supplementing certain acts (hereinafter referred to as “Act on Social and Legal Protection”), Act No. 36/2005 Coll. on Family and other valid legal regulations, as well as international agreements entered into by the Slovak Republic.

Measures of social and legal protection of children and social guardianship are carried out in line with Article 3 Paragraph 1 of the Act on Social Protection concerning children, adult physical entity, family, group and community mainly through social work, methods, techniques and procedures corresponding with the knowledge of social sciences and of the status and development of social and pathological phenomena in the society.

When fulfilling local government roles, municipalities organise programs to help at-risk children and adult individuals and families, persons threatened by behaviour of a family member, members of a family or the behaviour of other persons. They provide help to children in emergencies, in particular if life, health or sound psychological development, physical development and social development are endangered or if children are endangered by the behaviour of a family member, family members or other individuals.

The authority charged with providing social and legal protection and social guardianship to children whose parents cannot or do not want to fulfil their parental rights and responsibilities properly and who are physically or psychologically abused, neglected or sexually abused by their parents is the Social and Legal Protection Authority.   The Social and Legal Protection Authority takes the necessary administrative, social and educational measures to protect children against any physical or psychological violence, harm or abuse, including sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, torture or exploitation during the time when they are in the care of one or both parents, legal guardians or any other individuals caring for the child.

If the Social and Legal Protection Authority determines via performed measures that a child, parent or individual personally taking care of a child needs help because they are unable to deal with problems in the family and conflicts in the family, to cope with a new situation in the family or if a family with specific problems is involved and the municipality cannot take measures, it will propose measure to ensure:  

a)   Mediation as a professional method facilitating conflict resolution in a family;

b)  Professional working methods in order to adjust to a new situation in the family or substitute environment;

c)  Professional methods to help children or adult individuals that became victims of human trafficking or

d) Psychological counselling to help families with specific problems and in crisis situations.

 

If the Social and Legal Protection Authority is notified about the use of harsh or derogative forms of treatment and child’s punishment or if, when taking measures in line with this Act, it detects their use by parents or an individual personally taking care of the child, it is obliged to apply one of measures according to the Act on Social and Legal Protection depending on their nature and severity.

When taking measures in case of justified suspicion of human trafficking, the Social and Legal Protection Authority:

  • Provides social counselling and information about authorities and organisations working in the given area (access to healthcare, social services or other help to ensure proper and prompt protection and help); Informs the child (appropriately considering age and mental capacity) or the adult individual, group and community about possible protection of their rights and their interests protected by law in line with valid legal regulations of the Slovak Republic;
  • Cooperates with bodies active in criminal cases, represents minors and fulfils the role of a caregiver in such proceedings, provides support during criminal cases and court trial;
  • Pays attention to groups at risk and risky life situations as part of the preventive and investigative activity;
  • Cooperates with professional and non-governmental organisations working in the relevant area (such as courts, police, prosecution office, schools, school facilities, municipalities, higher regional units, accredited entities, as well as other legal entities and individuals);
  • Mediates participation in programs aimed at helping victims of illegal trade; 

 If necessary, the Social and Legal Protection Authority performs measures and ensures the performance of measures in cooperation with entities working in the given field specifically dealing with the protection and help for victims of human trafficking or ensuring that activities enforcing court rulings based on granted accreditation are taken or performs measures in cooperation with an accredited entity fulfilling the role of coordinator (Article 73 Paragraph 3 of the Act on Social and Legal Protection of Children and Social Guardianship).

An important role is played also by cooperation between the Social and Legal Protection Authority and the office of psychological counselling services (Article 73 Paragraph 2 Letter b/10 of the Act on Social and Legal Protection) providing professional counselling and psychological help, prevention of social pathological phenomena in a scope of activities which explicitly includes psychological counselling provided to victims of violence.  Their cooperation secures the link between counselling and social work in this field as well as psychological help when healing a biological family.

For the needs of crisis intervention, non-stop 24-hour accessibility of staff from appropriate Offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family, departments of social protection for children and social guardianship is ensured.

The Slovak Republic also implemented provisions about children which established Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA;

 

Investigation and prosecution

According to the US TIP report 2013 the Government of Slovakia continued efforts to prosecute human trafficking offenses and convict trafficking offenders during the reporting period. The Slovak Republic prohibits all forms of trafficking through Sections 179 of its Criminal Act which prescribe penalties between four years’ and life imprisonment for trafficking offenses. These penalties are sufficiently stringent and are commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. According to the Prosecution Service, in 2012 Slovak officials initiated the prosecutions of 19 trafficking offenders, compared with prosecutions initiated of 14 offenders in 2011. The Ministry of Justice reported that 11 trafficking offenders were convicted in 2012, an increase from nine in 2011 under Section 179 and Section 246 of the previous criminal code. Short sentences given to convicted offenders remained a weakness of Slovak courts. Seven out of the 11 offenders convicted in 2012 received prison sentences which ranged from two years’ to eight years’ imprisonment. In 2011, three out of the nine trafficking offenders were sentenced to time in jail. The investigation of a high-profile case cited in the 2011 TIP Report involving approximately 340 forced laborers from Ukraine and Romania stalled during the year without prosecution. The Slovak Judicial Academy continued to incorporate trafficking in persons in its non-compulsory curriculum of basic prosecutorial and judicial training programs. The Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic also continued to prepare training activities to identification of trafficking with human being not only for Police officers, but also for other stakeholders.

 

Latest initiatives/activities related to anti-trafficking policy

In 2008, the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic in cooperation with the International Organisation for Migration in Bratislava concluded an agreement on the establishment of the free National Helpline for Victims of Human Trafficking (phone number 0800 800 818) with Slovak Telekom a.s..

Every year since 2001 U.S. Government´s prepare the Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report. Countries that have a "significant number" of victims are placed into one of the three tiers based upon these countries governments’ efforts to combat trafficking. In the TIP Report 2010 the Slovak Republic was in tier 2. By the TIP Report 2011 is the Slovak republic replaced to the tier 1.

The Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic, on the basis of the call for submitting the proposals for projects named “Action Grants” within the framework of the „Prevention and combating the crimes 2007 – 2013“ program, submitted the Application for the Grant to the European Commission in 2010 for the realization of the Project “Prevention and extended harmonized system for collecting data about trafficking with human beings”, focused to establish conditions permitting a systematic, coordinated and harmonized data collection about trafficking with human beings in the Slovak Republic and to increase the awareness of general public as well as representatives of particular professional state and non-state authorities in the area of trafficking with human beings, considering new forms of trafficking with human beings, especially forced labour. The Application for the Grant was approved for the Slovak Republic in 2011 and the Grant Agreement entered into force in April 2011, thus starting the implementation of project activities. This project is the continuation of the pilot project „Trafficking with human beings: Data Collection and Harmonised Data Collection System Management“ implemented in 2009 by the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic in partnership with the International Centre for Migration Policy Development ICMPD, Czech Republic, Portugal and Poland bringing the set of harmonized indicators about victims and delinquents of trafficking with human beings summarised in the Guided named “Data collection and information management in the fight against trafficking with human beings in the European Union“. Considering persisting needs to establish a harmonized data collection system about trafficking with human beings in terms of both, national and international importance, the necessity arose to create a working group and an arbitration council in order to build the information system on trafficking with human beings. The working group consists of representatives of corresponding departments of the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic and technical and development issues are solved by the relevant section of the Ministry. With the purpose to build an information system, there was a basic document created for establishing the information system “Specification of requirements for the information system on trafficking with human beings“, (hereinafter referred to as “Specification“). The specification, in its version 1.2., was approved by members of working group and arbitration council in June 2012. The information system has been tested by competent bodies since December 2012.

The Coordinator of the information system is the facility of the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic, the Information Centre to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings and Crime Prevention, primarily involved in issues of trafficking with human beings. According to the assigned access privileges, the Information system permits the authorised persons to use mainly following functions:

  • Registration of data about victims.
  • Registration of data about delinquents.
  • Registration of data about the case.
  • Data collection.
  • Connecting victims and delinquents into cases.
  • Screening of victims, delinquents and cases.
  • Outputs and print reports.
  • Reports on victims, delinquents and cases.

Data set that can be entered into the information system comes from the results of the Pilot Project “Trafficking with human beings: Data collection and harmonized information System management“, adapted to conditions of the Slovak Republic. The technical prerequisites for sharing data on the level of interdepartmental connection of statistical and information systems in Slovak Republic or internationally were established as a part of the information system. The information system has three-layers and thin-client architecture. The application is operated as a central application in the data centre of the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic. Clients connect via Intranet of the Ministry of Interior. From the perspective of the client, only the web browser is needed to run the application. From a technological point of view, the application runs on the technology with high availability, namely 24 hours, 7 days a week.

 

In the end of 2009, the Government of Slovakia established the Information Centre to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings and Crime Prevention, which is designed to improve information collection and strategic analysis on trafficking in persons.

 

As a part of efforts aimed at identifying victims of trafficking, foreigners in the Slovak Republic, was established a specific group, comprising a representatives from the Border and Aliens Police and a representative of the National Labour Inspectorate. Their activities are the control of businesses allowing illegal work in order to ensure control and monitoring of business areas, in which may be affected a human trafficking for the purpose of forced labour. Controls are at certain regular intervals at a quarterly frequency, and also at irregular intervals after a prior agreement between the individual components in the light of operational information of the Border and Aliens Police. Inspections are conducted in the companies of selected primary by labour inspectorates based on the suggestions for the performance of labour inspection. If during a specified period Labour Inspectorate don´t receives complaint on this issue, the selection of companies will be based on previous inspection experience. The first inspection was scheduled on March of 2012.

 

Under the program named „Prevention of and fight against crime“ European Commission adopted a proposal of project entitled „Strengthening of Joint Measures for the Prevention of Forced Labour of Roma Communities and the Development of Referral Mechanism“ (duration 01/2013 – 12/2014).

The main ideological purpose of the project proposal is to strengthen and build existing national reference mechanism, provide the most vulnerable groups of population, especially marginalized Roma communities with targeted prevention against exploitation mainly for forced labour and other forms of exploitation. Individual project activities should be directed to create new tools of targeted prevention or their extended implementation on horizontal level by inclusion of new subjects and sharing experience on national and international levels as well. Wide-spectrum nature of project activities stems from the need to reduce vulnerability of potential victims coming from Roma communities by means of a film and other promotional materials distributed not only in the territory of the Slovak Republic but also in Great Britain which, based on the current experience of the Slovak Republic, has been assessed as the most frequent destination of victims of trafficking in human beings. As the second objective in the field of prevention, precautionary guide for employers in different job sectors will be created in order to increase employers' awareness of trafficking in human being. Targeted nature of precautionary measures above should be achieved by implementation of the research aimed at case analysis of victims coming from Roma communities of selected Slovak regions in the Great Britain. 

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

Prevention

The field of prevention is strictly defined in National Action Plans, prepared by the IWG and approved by the Government.  Efforts to prevent human trafficking include projects and awareness-raising campaigns. Prevention goals include raising public awareness, raising target population awareness, and the education and training of experts in the field. In the recent years, a special emphasis has been made on education and training of prosecutors, judges, consular staff and providing information for and raising awareness of officers at the Employment Service of Slovenia about forms of trafficking in human beings with the purpose of their early detection in procedures for issuing work permits.

More about the field of prevention can be found in National Action Plans at the following link: http://www.vlada.si/en/projects/fight_against_trafficking_in_persons/

Assistance and support provided to victims

Several projects have been undertaken in recent years to assist victims of human trafficking. During 2013 the Government provided about EUR 90,000 to two non-governmental organisations- an Association of 3 NGOs (Association Ključ, Association for Non-Verbal Communication and SOS telephone line) and Caritas Slovenia - to provide both short-term and extended victim assistance including shelter, rehabilitative counselling, medical assistance, vocational training, and legal assistance.

More about the field of Assistance and support provided to victims can be found in Annual Reports by the IWG at the following link: http://www.vlada.si/en/projects/fight_against_trafficking_in_persons/

Residence permit

Identified foreign victims are granted a 90 day reflection period. Victims are encouraged to participate in trafficking investigations and assist with the prosecutions of trafficking offenders. Foreign victims who assist law enforcement can apply for a temporary residence permit and remain in Slovenia for the duration of the trial. The victim may choose to stay longer if they are working or studying.

Special protective measures for children

The Slovenian government has given high priority to combat child pornography and illegal migration, which are two issues closely related to human trafficking. In the Penal Code, the presentation, production, holding and forwarding of child pornography on the Internet is defined as a criminal offence under Article 187(2) and (3) of the Criminal Code.

Investigation and prosecution

Offences related to trafficking in human beings and sexual exploitation is investigated by anti-organised crime units within the police force. About fifteen officers are assigned full time to the policing of human trafficking. Moreover, at least one investigator at each of the 11 regional police directorates is responsible for the coordination of activities related to human trafficking and exploitation through prostitution.

Prosecution of trafficking in human beings cases falls within the competence of the Specialised Office of State Prosecutor of the Republic of Slovenia which deals with organised crime, terrorism, corruption and other crimes requiring special competences. There are 11 prosecutors within this Specialised Service, two of whom deal with THB offences.

The statistics and the trends about the field of investigation and prosecution can be found in Annual Reports by the IWG at the following link: http://www.vlada.si/en/projects/fight_against_trafficking_in_persons/

Latest Initiaves/activities related to anti-trafficking policy

In 2012 the Slovenian Ministry of the Interior, in cooperation with Bulgarian partners,  prepared the proposal for a sequel of the previously concluded  project "The introduction of the requirements for establishing Joint Investigation Teams (JIT) to fight trafficking in human beings in the South-eastern Europe" (JIT THB), under ISEC funding. The title of the new project is "Use of Joint Investigation Teams (JIT) to fight Trafficking in Human Beings in the Western Balkans at the local level" (JIT THB WB). The project, which was approved by the European Commission, brings together representatives of the prosecution and the police in order to promote and encourage them to use JITs as an operational tool in investigating and prosecuting cases of trafficking in human beings. As JITs are a tool rarely used by countries of the South-eastern Europe, knowledge and understanding of this tool at local, operational level is a precondition for it's practical use. The first event that took place was the Kick-off Conference in Sofia in October 2013, followed by workshops in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Albania. A description of the project as well as all other relevant information can be found at the official website of the JIT THB WB website at the following link: http://jit-thb.pccseesecretariat.si/index.php?page=static&item=33.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

Prevention

  • A Data Collection Strategy was developed in 2009 for the purpose of understanding the nature and extent of human trafficking in Ireland.   An annual data report has issued for the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012. 
  • Administrative Immigration Arrangements provide protections for persons with no legal basis to remain in the State i.e. 60 day recovery and reflection period and/or a 6 month renewable temporary residence permission where the person wishes to assist with an investigation or prosecution.  These arrangements also contain a procedure to allow a person make an application to change to a longer term permission to remain in the State after 3 years of Temporary Residency Permissions or when the investigation/prosecution is complete (whichever is the shorter).
  • The State provides the following support services to victims of human trafficking – accommodation; medical care and planning; psychological assistance; material assistance; legal aid and advice; access to the labour market – vocational training and education; police services – crime prevention; repatriation; compensation; translation and interpretation services; etc.
  • The Anti-Human Trafficking Team in the HSE develops individual Care Plans for all persons who are potentially victims of human trafficking.  These care plans include a range of issues including medical health, GP referral, counselling, psychological care, sexual health, material assistance, accommodation, training needs, education, etc.
  •   The State has conducted a number of awareness raising initiatives aimed at increasing public awareness of the issue of human trafficking.  The State has held specific awareness raising and training events to create awareness of human trafficking among those who could encounter potential victims of human trafficking in the course of their work e.g. labour inspectors and students at second and third level institutions.  Specific detailed training has been provided to members of An Garda Síochána, staff in both the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions and the Legal Aid Board.
  • Prevention and detection of human trafficking and the protection of its victims has been  a policing priority for An Garda Síochána since  2009 and it remains a priority in 2014.
  • The State undertakes a number of presentations to social science and law students in 3rd level institutions e.g. TCD, UCC, UCD, DCU and DIT .  The purpose of the presentations was to make students aware of the issues surrounding human trafficking as these students will be the workforce of the future.
  • In 2014, the State allocated funding to two NGOs for the purpose of assistance to victims of human trafficking.  A total of €172,000 was allocated to Ruhama and €4,000 to the Migrants Rights Centre of Ireland (the same as provided in 2013).
  • During the Irish Presidency of the EU between January and June, 2013 Ireland worked closely with the Commission to develop a handbook that outlines the rights of victims of trafficking in human beings under EU law.  The handbook, which was published in April 2014, sets out the rights of victims in simple language that should be understandable to practitioners on the ground and victims themselves. 
  • The Anti-Human Trafficking Unit in partnership with the NGO Ruhama has been successful in obtaining EU funding under a PROGRESS Grant Scheme related to Violence Against Women in the context of Human Trafficking.  The purpose of the project, which will take place over the next 2 years, is aimed at activities that promote zero tolerance of human trafficking as a form of violence against women.

The Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) amended to the Guidelines for Prosecutors in 2009 when considering trafficking cases. The document guides the prosecutor in examining which factors that should be considered in assessing whether to commence or continue with a prosecution, including a consideration as to whether the public interest is served by a prosecution of the suspect.  Furthermore, dedicated personnel within the Office of the DPP are assigned to cases involving human trafficking.

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

Prevention
 
Efforts to prevent human trafficking in Malta have mainly focused on awareness-raising campaigns and training activities.
LIMES Project
The LIMES (Launching Initiatives Supporting Malta’s Efforts to Suppress Trafficking) is a project whereby the Ministry for Home Affairs and National Security contracted IOM to support Malta’s efforts in combating trafficking in human beings, originally within the framework of Malta’s First National Action Plan.
 
Training for bridging the gaps and strengthening the system
As envisaged in the framework of the Launching Initiatives supporting Malta’s Efforts to Suppress trafficking (LIMES) project Training provided by IOM international experts, aimed at bridging the gaps and weaknesses found in the Maltese anti-trafficking system. Training was related to the prevention of the phenomenon, the prosecution of the cases and the protection and assistance of victims. The overall objective were to draft a comprehensive and shared referral system endorsed by all the stakeholders involved at various levels in counteracting trafficking in persons.
 
In order to pursue the above described goals the Maltese stakeholders were involved in a learning and team-building process aimed at improving the efficacy and efficiency of the respective roles and capacities, individually and as part of an integrated strategy.
 
Given the number of different individual patterns characterizing each potential Victim of Trafficking that often can jeopardize the process of identification and the consequent prosecution of perpetrators, and considering the concurrent presence of different practitioners with different perspective, tasks and competences during a collective training event, the participants were involved in a highly participatory process in a mix of theoretical and practical sessions.
 
This learning and team building oriented process, provided a shared framework of the phenomenon and a better understanding of the work performed by the others This was aimed to lead to them empowerment of the beneficiaries’ trustfulness in the respective capacities and roles as counter-trafficking players and encourage a better sense of ownership among different stakeholders.
 
In July 2012, a follow-up 4 day workshop, was held for the Maltese stakeholders on identifying the victims and improve the techniques of assistance. This training event resulted from the previous training session carried out in March 2012. The training aimed at improving the capacities, the efficacy and the collaboration of the Maltese stakeholders, who have joined in the recently established referral system, in the process of identification and assistance of trafficking cases.
 
The overall objective was to further contribute in strengthening the Maltese anti-trafficking system related to the prevention of the phenomenon, the prosecution of the cases as well as the protection and assistance of victims.
 
National Indicators
A list of National Indicators for identifying victims of human trafficking has been developed. The list of National Indicators was disseminated amongst local stakeholders who are considered as working in areas where they may encounter potential victims or victims of human trafficking for adoption. These are the Police (Vice Squad, Immigration and Border Control), Appoġġ Agency, Health, and the Agency for the Welfare of Asylum Seekers (AWAS), the office of the Commissioner for Refugees, the Employment and Training Corporation (ETC) and the Jesuit Refugee Services (JRS) and Caritas Malta, amongst others.
 
The list of National Indicators was also disseminated amongst professionals who are considered as front-liners, including NGOs who work in the detention and open centers, the Case Workers of the Officer of the Refugee Commissioner and the Case Workers of the Agency for the Welfare of Asylum Seekers. All these professionals have undertaken training in this regard and involved in drawing up of the Indicators. Furthermore a Victim Referral Mechanism was mapped out for victim referral. In order to consolidate this mechanism and streamline operations between the stakeholders Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) have been developed.
 
Standard Operating Procedures
The Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) have been officially formalized by the Anti-Human Trafficking Monitoring Committee. The SOPs shall partly transpose and implementation the administrative procedures emanating of Directive 2011/36/EU on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims. Additionally implementing the SOPs will be another objective put in place as envisaged by the National Action Plan January 2013 – December 2014.
 
Targeted Training
Furthermore, the Ministry for Home Affairs and National Security contracted the services of a former IOM expert for a period of nine months running from November 2012 till July 2013. He was assigned several tasks, including the provision of on-the-ground training for stakeholders in the sector and mentoring of professionals like social workers, psychologists and care workers, working with vulnerable persons, including victim identification and assistance thereby 
Ministry for Home Affairs and National Security 2014
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addressing also administrative capacity requirements. It is considered that such action is an investment in the human resources of the entities concerned. On-site visits were conducted whereby meetings were held with the officials of each entity to identify the training needs and resultantly targeted training events were held. Amongst other, training has been held with the management and personnel of Aġenzija Appoġġ, the Agency for the Welfare of Asylum Seekers (AWAS), Caritas and the Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS). Other training events targeted officials working in One-Stop-Shop Community Centers. Over 150 professionals have undertaken this training and it is considered that this would benefit victims of sexual exploitation, as well as victims of other forms of exploitation. The training events were spread over 5 months from January till April. This training was Government funded under the budget allocated to the Ministry for Home Affairs and National Security.
 
Local Research
Another action taken in respect of tasks foreseen by the contract with the foreign expert was the conducting of a research on human trafficking scenario. The agreed title for the study was ‘Assessing the presence of persons having experienced human trafficking before their arrival in Malta or vulnerable to trafficking in the future, among the population of undocumented immigrants arriving in Malta by sea’. Meetings were held between the researcher and the relevant authorities in connection with data collection and analysis prior to the commencement of study.
 
This first local study on human trafficking primarily aimed to determine the needs of victims of human trafficking in Malta, based on scrutiny of available data and secondary sources, as well as qualitative interviews conducted with service providers. Furthermore, the study assessed past cases of human trafficking found in Malta and the support which was offered to the victims. Qualitative data was obtained by means of a self administered questionnaire with persons deemed to pertain to categories at risk.
 
Conclusions from the study reveal that most migrants did not experience forced or deceitful recruitment and conditions of dependence before they landed in Malta. Thus indicators of human trafficking do not subsist. However the second hypothesis tested reveals that since the migrants who arrive in Malta generally did not wish to come to Malta, many want to leave Malta as a matter of priority. This fact may make them vulnerable to exploitation.
 
The final report and the results of the research were presented to the Ministry at the end of the term of the contract and the Anti-Human Trafficking Monitoring Committee.
 
TV Spot
Ongoing efforts in this area led to the development and launching of a TV spot as part of the awareness raising campaign. Resultantly the video was screened on local TV on a daily basis at prime time to raise awareness in relation to human trafficking referring to sexual exploitation as well as labour exploitation and the need to curb it. The spot actively encourages any person who knows of such crime, or who suffered from it, to report it. This work being undertaken should therefore also contribute towards a reduction in the demand for such services by empowering potential victims as well as the public.
 
As part of the ongoing contract with the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) providing of awareness initiatives also amongst persons vulnerable to human trafficking 2 information cards were published. These cards are being placed primarily in venues, agencies and other entities whose service users can be potential victims.
 
Handbook for Professionals
Additionally, as part of the LIMES Project, IOM Malta together with IOM Belgium and Geneva drafted and published a booklet which contains necessary information on human trafficking, reference to Maltese laws as well as the Standard Operating Procedures for victim referral. This publication will serve as a support tool for professionals and service providers who may encounter potential/victims of trafficking in human beings since it also contains a print out of the Standard Operating Procedures on Identification and Referral of (potential) Victims of Trafficking. The booklets are being widely disseminated with as many relevant stakeholders as possible.
 
Assistance and support provided to victims
The Maltese authorities assist foreign victims through government-funded shelters that are used primarily for victims of domestic violence. The government provides legal protection, temporary residence permits, medical and psycho-social support and shelter to support victims who cooperate with the law enforcement authorities.
The authorities have developed a formal referral system for women who are apprehended by the police for alleged involvement in prostitution through referring them to government social workers. The Maltese authorities have also develop procedures for identifying victims among potential asylum seekers by involving immigration officers. They are also assisting in their repatriation if they are not eligible for a temporary residence permit.
 
Residence permits
Victims of trafficking are offered a two-month reflection period during which they may decide whether to cooperate with the Maltese authorities in relation to criminal proceedings. Victims of trafficking who cooperate with the Maltese authorities are granted temporary residence permits valid for a period of six months. The temporary residence permit may be renewed if requiredin accordance with the Permission to Reside for Victims of trafficking or Illegal Immigration who Cooperate with the Maltese Authorities Regulations(S.L. 217/07).On a case-by-case basis, the Maltese authorities can offer legal alternatives to the removal of identified foreign trafficking victims to countries where they may face hardship or retribution.
A victim of trafficking may also benefit from the Witness Protection Programme as established by Article 75 of the Police Act (Cap. 164). This programme may be utilised by any victim of trafficking in persons who accepts and “declares that he will testify during any trial of any participant in the crime and any benefit granted shall be forfeited if the witness refuses to so testify”. Benefits within the programme include the resettlement of victims in other countries under the protection of a new identity, protection of the life and property of a witness and his family, and payment of a subsistence allowance. The final decision ultimately rests with the Attorney General, who decides whether such a person will be admitted to the Witness Protection Programme, as requested by the Commissioner of Police.
 
Special protective measures for children
The Permission to Reside for Victims of trafficking or Illegal Immigration who Cooperate with the Maltese Authorities Regulations (S.L. 217.07) provide that victims of trafficking or of an action to facilitate illegal immigration who are either children or young persons in need of care will be assisted in terms of the Children and Young Persons (Care Order) Act (Cap 258).
In accordance with the Criminal Code (Cap 9) wherever the victim is a minor, the offence does not need to involve use of violence or threats, deceit or fraud, misuse of authority, influence or pressure, or the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of the person in order for the offence to exist. Wherever these means are used, they constitute an aggravation and the punishment is increased by one degree.
 
Investigation and prosecution
Special units
Within the Malta Police Force, trafficking in human beings falls under the responsibility of the Vice Squad. The Vice Squad is also responsible for sexual offences, domestic violence, child abuse, curbing of prostitution, missing persons, illegal gambling, clandestine lotto and pedophilia on the internet. With the aim to enhance capacity building in this regard, Police Vice Squad was split into three specialised units, one of which deals with Prostitution and Human Trafficking cases. The new organisational set-up allows for more specialisation, and therefore as envisaged enhanced capabilities in the identification of cases, in accordance with the objectives of the Action Plan.
 
Appoġġ Agency
The social welfare agency has appointed a liaison officer responsible for matters relating to human trafficking, who liaises with the Malta Police Force and other entities on pertinent cases. The Officer also liaises with other professionals within the social welfare agency itself, particularly with regard to the identification, assessment and support to victims of trafficking.
 
Non Government Organizations
The Jesuit Refugee Services have been involved in training as well as participate in the Stakeholders’ Task for on Human Trafficking. Professionals within these services work in close collaboration with both Appogg Agency and the Police when a potential victim is encountered by them. JRS are also a point of first contact for potential victims of human trafficking.
 
The most important challenges at national level
The fight against human trafficking is by no means an easy one. Victims are often reluctant to speak, as they would have been intimidated by their traffickers. Therefore identification of victims of human trafficking remains one of the major challenges posed by this crime, be it in Malta or elsewhere. It is for these reasons that Government has taken action with a view to ensure that efforts in this regard are properly coordinated and given due priority by the relevant stakeholders working in this area. Therefore training also sought to enhance existing contacts, as well as to establish new ones, between several public authorities, as well as to ensure adequate and reliable networking between different authorities for the provision of assistance to factions of society exposed or vulnerable to human trafficking activity.
 
As part of Government’s standing commitment to protect the vulnerable further amendments to the Criminal Code (Cap 9) of the Laws of Malta, introduce a penalty in respect of persons who knowingly make use of the services of a trafficked person. Seeking to deter clients of persons trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation among others.
 
The greatest challenge which is envisaged to be encountered in relation to the implementation of the above mentioned Directive relates to statistics and their comparability with the statistics of other Member States.
 
Latest initiatives/activities related to anti-trafficking policy
 
Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA)
 
The first report on the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings in Malta was adopted during the 10th meeting of the Committee of the Parties on February 15th 2013.
 
Generally speaking, the Malta report was positive, as the Committee welcomed the measures being taken by the Maltese authorities to combat trafficking in human beings. Nevertheless the Committee also put forward recommendations for further action in order to improve the implementation of the Convention by Malta. The authorities took note of the recommendations and took them into consideration in the implementation of the National Action plan as well as by any other action which would be taken in parallel with Action Plan. Malta has nominated a ‘contact person’ as envisaged by the Convention in order to liaison and support the GRETA Group when and as necessary.
 
Round Table Meeting 17 July 2014
Upon an invitation of the Committee of Parties concerning the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, a Round Table Meeting was held in Malta on July 17th 2014. The aim of this event was for the Maltese authorities to report on follow-up action taken to implement proposals made by the GRETA. Government entities including the Police, the Ministry for Home Affairs and National Security, the Health Ministry
and other agencies as well as Non Government Organisations discussed the way forward in this regard. Preliminary verbal feedback confirms that Malta is on the right track for implementation however a formal written report would be disseminated to the Maltese authorities in October 2014.
 
National Referral Mechanism
A Victim Referral System has been developed by means of the drawing up of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Draft SOPs were prepared and submitted to the members of the Stakeholders’ Task Force for consultation purposes. Following several consultation meetings the members of the Task Force came to an agreement on the finalised dossier during a meeting held on the 5th March 2013. The SOPs were subsequently submitted to the Monitoring Committee for approval and were duly approved. .

3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

Republic of Croatia makes continuous efforts to strengthen administrative and operational capacities in view of enhancing the fight against THB. This includes in particular training programmes provided for relevant professionals in the field of THB. Training provided to judges, prosecutors and other relevant professionals is considered an important tool in combating THB. Especially, in order to avoid confusion with other crimes containing similar elements. Appropriate high-quality training is essential in this view. In this sense, Croatia is implementing recommendation made by the Council of Europe (GRETA).  

Training is in particular provided for the border police officers, and is implemented within the border police training system (curricula). Continuous education on this topic added to achieving the goal of raising awareness of the border police on the issue of THB. Furthermore, the topic of THB is incorporated not only into specialized courses for border police, but also in basic police training.

Within the train-the-trainers programme, 21 multipliers-police officers have been trained with the aim of transferring further their knowledge. A number of programmes in this regard have been organized in collaboration with the European Commission.

In addition, each police station has an officer/s engaged in the field of illegal migration, which is also responsible for the implementation of continuous training on combating THB. These police officers have been entrusted in all the police administrations with the task of combating the problem of THB and have been directly participating in identifying perpetrators and victims of THB, as well as, in specific cases, in the immediate assistance provided for the protection of persons identified as THB victims. This is particularly important having in mind the accession of the Republic of Croatia to the EU and the newly adopted Migration policy of the Republic of Croatia for the period 2013-2015.

Regarding the new developments in the national framework in combating THB, in March 2012 the Government adopted the Decision on the Establishment of the National Committee (NC) for the suppression of THB. Members of the NC have been appointed by the Government on 29 November 2012. The constitutional session of the NC was held on 18 December 2012, and the second session was held in July 2013. The third session is scheduled for 18th October.

The NC is presided by the Croatian Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Social Policy and Youth (Milanka Opačić). The Members of the NC are representatives of the Ministry of Social Policy and Youth, Office for Human Rights and the Rights of National Minorities, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Science, Education and Sports, Ministry of Justice, Croatian Employment Service, Centre for Women War Victims/ROSA, Croatian Journalists' Association and the State Attorney's Office.

Meetings of the Operational Team are regularly held on the monthly basis within the Office for Human Rights and the Rights of National Minorities.  On its sessions members discus every particular trafficking case and the assistance and protection given to victims.

It should be emphasized that the new Criminal Code, in force as of 1 January 2013, divides criminal offences of THB and slavery in two articles, one relating to the establishment of slave relationship and transport of persons in slavery relationship, which arises from the request of the Slavery Convention and its Supplementary Convention, and the second article relating to the THB which arises from the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, along with the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, Council of Europe Convention on Action against THB and the Council Framework Decision of 19 July 2002 on combating THB 2002/629/JHA. Accordingly, the criminal offence of THB has been harmonized with the definition of THB in the Council of Europe Convention on THB, Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA and the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning the Transplantation of Organs and Tissues of Human Origin.

Regarding measures to prevent national THB, the Ministry of Interior implements activities in the area of identifying potential victims of internal trafficking, which particularly relates to potential victims exploited for sexual services during the tourism season. The Office for Human Rights and Rights of National minorities also conducts prevention campaigns. In 2013, on October 18th a public campaign targeting potential clients and aimed at reducing demand will be launched. 

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Austria takes an active role in multilateral fora, such as the UN, the OSCE, and the Council of Europe on the issue of THB, with a view to strengthening international cooperation in the area of THB and creating synergies between these bodies. For  example, Austria participated at the ministerial level at the High Level Meeting of the UN General Assembly on THB in New York in 2013, which Austria helped preparing as co-facilitator of the modalities resolution, and supports the UN Trust Fund for Victims of Trafficking (with former Austrian Foreign Minister and EU Commissioner Benita Ferrero-Waldner as the chair of the Board of Trustees). Austria regularly speaks at OSCE Workshops on the prevention of exploitation of domestic staff in diplomatic households. One of the main events during the Austrian Chairmanship of the Council of Ministers of the Council of Europe was dedicated to THB (conference “Not for Sale”, 17-18 February 2014, Vienna, in cooperation with OSCE).

A large number of international activities aim to improve the situation for victims in their countries of origin. In this context, South East Europe is one of the priority regions for the Austrian Development Cooperation. The activities of this agency include awareness-raising for the local population; measures to improve the socioeconomic situation of particularly high-risk groups; training of law enforcement officers; and support and assistance for the return of trafficked victims.
The Federal Ministry of the Interior uses Interpol for operational cooperation with third countries, and is engaged in several bilateral and multilateral projects and initiatives. Among others, the Federal Ministry of the Interior cooperates on a bilateral level to protect the family members of victims of trafficking in their home countries. The Ministry also undertakes the training of law enforcement officers to identify and protect possible victims of trafficking in third countries.
Furthermore, the government of Austria works closely with Austria-based foreign representations of countries of origin. In this context, the inclusion of the topic of human trafficking in consular staffs’ training curriculum and the dissemination of information folders in the respective national language at the Austrian
representations abroad contribute to raising awareness of human trafficking before issuing a visa to third country nationals.
 
Future plans in terms of implementation of the directive 2011/36/EU
Austria has implemented the provisions of Directive 2011/36/EU in domestic law.

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

  • Belgium’s efforts to combat human trafficking internationally have mainly focused on information campaigns conducted within countries of origin. The purpose of these campaigns is to inform people of these regions, mostly women and children, about the risks they might potentially incur.
  • Moreover, the Belgian Action Plan against Trafficking in Human Beings contains actions to be undertaken at the international level. These actions include active representation of Belgium in bilateral and multilateral negotiations in the field of anti-trafficking. The Belgian Police includes anti-trafficking initiatives in initiated police cooperation agreements with EU and third countries.
  • Belgium also contributes financially to various projects developed by international organisations such as the International Organisation for Migration or the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

um’s efforts to combat human trafficking internationally have mainly focused on information campaigns conducted within countries of origin. The purpose of these campaigns is to inform people of these regions, mostly women and children, about the risks they might potentially incur.

Moreover, the Belgian Action Plan against Trafficking in Human Beings contains actions to be undertaken at the international level. These actions include active representation of Belgium in bilateral and multilateral negotiations in the field of anti-trafficking. The Belgian Police includes anti-trafficking initiatives in initiated police cooperation agreements with EU and third countries.

Belgium also contributes financially to various projects developed by international organisations such as the International Organization for Migration or the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

The Cyprus Police cooperates with other EU Member States, and with third countries, on exchanging information and criminal intelligence and several bilateral agreements have been reached. These agreements provide for co-operation in combating and preventing organised crime, including trafficking in human beings. Moreover, a special chapter has been included in the new National Action Plan for strengthening cooperation with European and International Institutions as well as with countries of origin and transit.

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

The Czech Republic has undertaken many initiatives to combat human trafficking, both bilaterally and in cooperation with international and non-governmental organisations. The focus lies on co-operation with source countries for trafficking victims, particularly neighbouring countries such as Moldova and Ukraine.

La Strada (NGO) in partnership with the Security Policy Department of the MoI and the Judicial Academy jointly participated in the three-year project “Discovering Trafficking for the Purpose of Forced Labour and Labour Exploitation or Uncovering Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Labour Exploitation or Forced Labour” (you can find the publication here). This project was launched with the intention to increase awareness of people of the issue of THB and to improve access of victims of this crime to legal representation and other services provided by the state and guaranteed by the EU. The project is paid by the European Commission - DG Home Affairs and has been implemented since June 2010 lasted for 36 months. The project should, inter alia, map out experience pertaining to the criminal law approach to the issue of THB for the purpose of forced labour and other forms of exploitation abroad. One of the particular aims was to define the terms “forced labour” and “labour exploitation” on the basis of experience gathered in the Czech Republic as well as in other EU Member States and then enable active use of these definitions within the judicial system in the Czech Republic.

In May 2011 Prague hosted an international workshop - part of the second phase of this project - where international experts (namely from the Netherlands, Bulgaria, Spain and Belgium) gathered together with Czech police officers, state prosecutors, state officers and judges to discuss the application of certain problematic terms of the definition of trafficking such as abuse of distress, other forms of exploitation etc. Also other topics were discussed such as the severity of sentences, the impact of financial sanctions. The follow up of the two day seminar is an extended legal analysis of the legislative tools the Czech Republic has in fighting this phenomenon with a proposal for changes to be implemented.

The Czech Republic continues to provide anti-trafficking and victims’ identification training to consular officers abroad and will be providing a similar training programme for labour inspectors since the end of 2014. A specialised training for border guards based on the scheme of FRONTEX has been launched in September 2014 and it will continue regularly at the Police College and Secondary Police School of the Ministry of the Interior in Holešov. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs published on all websites of the representative offices of the Czech Republic abroad an informative section regarding trafficking in human beings. Moreover, recently the ministry of Interior published a manual for practitioners on trafficking in children – Recommendations for state administration authorities. The manual proved to be very useful especially for police officers dealing with vice criminality.

The national coordination body is planning several preventive campaigns and research activities aiming to uncover the dynamics of exploitation within vulnerable groups especially socially excluded communities. Of a major concern is also training of police officers, especially those fulfilling their duties in the streets.

Further examples of international cooperation include:

  • In 2008, a pilot 'Assistance System for the Employment of Ukrainian Nationals' was carried out under the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and the Ministry of the Interior. Information on legal labour migration and the risks of illegal labour migration to the Czech Republic was distributed to 2,000 employers and several thousand potential migrants from Ukraine, through seminars, leaflets, personal consultations, advertisements and mass media.

  • In 2007, the ‘Zero Project’ was launched, aiming to advance bilateral cooperation with Ukraine to enable the exchange of experience and preparation of joint action by the police forces of the two countries. The project is still ongoing, and is coordinated by IOM Kiev and financed by the Swedish government.

  • The Ministry of the Interior participates in the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) project 'Data Collection and Harmonized Information Systems'. The aim of the project is to develop common criteria for data and information collection in the area, and to establish an institutionalised system for collecting such data.

  • The project 'Supranational Referral Mechanism for Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings in Source and Target Countries' is also coordinated by the ICMPD. The aim of the project is to bring together existing national coordinating mechanisms for protecting and assisting victims of trafficking in human beings; to unify standards for services provided to victims; and to strengthen international and bilateral cooperation in the repatriation and reintegration of victims. The main output of this project will be establishing principles of care for victims of trafficking in human beings and facilitating their return to their country of origin.

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

In Estonia, international cooperation has included participation in projects with other Baltic and the Nordic countries. Estonia is a member of the Council of the Baltic Sea States Task Force against Trafficking in Human Beings and the Working Group on Children at Risk in the Baltic Sea Region.

 

Future plans in terms of implementation of the directive 2011/36/EU

Transposing the directive is done, legislation changes entered into force by 18.04.2013. 

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

France contributes to the supply of information for the Phoenix European criminal analytical work file on cross-border procuring.

In the strategies put in place, it should be noted:

  • Systematic development of research to identify and seize criminal assets;
  • Development and increased use of the tools of international cooperation, especially within the European Union;
  • Development of relations with associations for victims' protection to encourage victims to testify.

Implementation of Directive 2011/36/EU

To implement the Directive 2011-36 and meet the new challenges in this field, France took a series of measures at national level.

  • As part of the implementation of Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011, the Ministry of Justice has written a bill which amends Article 225-4-1 of the penal code to strengthen the protection of victims of trafficking, especially the victims of forced labor and domestic servitude. This bill was adopted on August 2013, the 5Th. Now, the Slavery, forced labour and servitude are offences criminalized in the Code, by articles 224-1 A, 224-1 B, 225-14-1 and 225-14-2.
  • An Interministerial Mission for the protection of women victims of violence and the fight against trafficking in human beings (MIPROF) was established by law on 3 January 2013. The MIPROF will provide a dual mission to combat violence against women, and to provide a national coordination of the fight against trafficking in human beings, in accordance with the recommendations of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. This mission will ensure a coordinated and agreed action with all national stakeholders in the fight against trafficking, as well as the European and international partners. In 2014 the Mission presented the first national action plan for the period 2014/2016 launched by the Minister of women’s rights on May 2014.

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Germany strives to base anti-trafficking efforts on the provisions enshrined in the Palermo Protocol in order to avoid duplication of measures and use a single agreed definition of the crime. Germany has signed numerous bilateral treaties in the area of organized crime with countries of origin, transit and destination of trafficking in persons, which as a rule include joint measures to combat trafficking in human beings.

German police liaison officers are deployed in every important country of origin for human trafficking victims and perpetrators, to ensure fast and comprehensive information sharing

In certain third countries, such as Russia and Ukraine, the Federal Criminal Police Office has carried out training and given presentations on combating human trafficking. On the operational level, regular meetings are held with representatives from Belarus.

A member of the Federal Working Group against Trafficking in Women represents Germany in the Council of the Baltic Sea States Task Force against Trafficking in Human Beings (CBSS-TF-THB) which focuses on trafficking in adults. Within the CBSS the Working Group on Children at Risk covers the area of child trafficking, where Germany is represented by an advisor from the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth.

 

Future plans in terms of implementations of the directive 2011/39/EU

"Full transposition of Directive 2011/36/EU on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims in German criminal law is still pending. In particular, the relevant criminal provisions must be extended to include human trafficking for the exploitation of criminal acts and begging. Human trafficking for the purposes of organ trading is also to be incorporated explicitly into the German Criminal Code. The Act to Combat Human Trafficking and Monitor Brothels (Gesetz zur Bekämpfung des Menschenhandels und Überwachung von Prostitutionsstätten), adopted by the German Bundestag on 28 June 2013 and designed to accommodate this need for a legislative response, can no longer enter into force because of the Bundesrat's convening of the Mediation Committee and the end of the parliamentary term. Full transposition of this Regulation is therefore reserved for the 18th legislative term."

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

The NR Office focuses on matters, such as policy planning, prioritization, training and exchange of information, data collection and research, monitoring and evaluation.

            Towards that direction, the NR Office submitted a proposal to ISF and the expected deliverables are:

  1. an Integrated Operational Action Plan (business plan)
  2. Comparative legislative research and best practices of the operation and efficiency of relevant institutions
  3. Mapping of relevant stakeholders and institutions for the development of a targeted network
  4. Provision of operational tools and relevant statistical data
  5. Organization of awareness raising workshops and events

Additionally, the NREM is currently launching a call for proposals for a project to improve the collection and processing of reliable and disaggregated statistics according to the EUROSTAT standards (National Data Base).

Coordinating Training Needs in a Multidisciplinary Context

It is widely accepted that the training mechanisms as well as targeted, specialized programs on trafficking in human beings must become more uniform and consistent. The NREM along with five EU counterparts (France, Bulgaria, Romania, Nederlands, Spain), participated actively in an EC/ISEC Project ‘EuroTrafGuide’ to harmonize the criteria & guidelines for first level victim identification & referral and support. This project has been instrumental as a best practice approach towards the operationalization of our respective National Referral Systems. The Project has already provided extensive training to EKKA and other State officials in view of  its ‘national ownership’ through a launching of a two year training project to train 250 law enforcement and other officials using the main deliverables of the Project, namely the Euro Guide - a manual with guidelines on first level identification - and three practical tools - for sexual exploitation, forced labor, and forced begging and exploitation in illegal activities -,  as our main training reference. 

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

  • The Ministry of Interior of Hungary submitted an application „Referral of and assistance for victims of human trafficking in Europe” (RAVOT-EUR) for Action Grants under the Programme “Prevention of and Fight against Crime” 2012 ISEC General Call for Proposals of the European Commission with the deadline 6 March 2013. The European Commission delivered a favourable opinion on the application, so that the 24 months project could be officially launched on 1 February 2014, and by 31 January 2016 RAVOT-EUR may provide comprehensive solutions to the challenges set by the hideous crime of trafficking in human beings. The project is implemented by the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice, the Belgian Payoke vzw. and the Hungarian Ministry of Interior.
  • „Operational cooperation for fighting sexual exploitation committed by Hungarian-based organized crime groups in Europe” project proposal was submitted for Action Grants under the Programme „Prevention of and Fight against Crime” 2012 ISEC General Call. The European Commission delivered a favourable opinion on the application. Aims of the operational cooperation are: increasing effectiveness of investigations against Hungarian organized crime groups, tracking asset deriving from illegal activities, detecting crime groups. Activities: setting up Joint Investigation Teams, operational cooperation, multilateral meetings, providing opportunity for experts to spend a period at Europol which coordinates human trafficking cases. Partners of the project: Hungarian Police, Dutch Police, Austrian Police, Europol. Beneficiary of the project: Hungarian Riot Police, National Bureau of Investigation.
  • In July 2013 Hungarian and Dutch Police signed Bilateral Operational Cooperation Action Plan in order to cooperate closer in the fight against human trafficking. It is realized in form of common investigations, sharing best practices and personal experiences. The aim of the cooperation is to clarify the competences, the legal and judicial system of the two countries. Guidelines will be provided by a practical, user friendly manual in Hungarian, English and Dutch language. The fast and efficient data transfer between Intelligence Services will be supported by the established signalling system. In the framework of the cooperation on 11 December 2013 conference was held.

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Efforts to combat trafficking in human beings focus on the cooperation among law enforcement agencies, in particular on a bilateral level, in the field of organised crime and irregular migration. In 2009, Italy signed agreements with third countries including Algeria, Nigeria and Libya. This cooperation included technical assistance, such as the provision of equipment and technology to combat illegal migration, the setting up of information exchange channels, and the involvement of police forces from third countries in sea patrol operations.

Re-admission agreements have also been signed with several countries of origin, including Albania (1997), Romania (1997) and Nigeria (2000). In compliance with these instruments, whenever a citizen from such countries is found to illegally stay in Italy, he/she may be immediately expelled.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs finances projects in several countries of origin to raise awareness of trafficking in human beings among the public and potential victims. The Programme of Action against trafficking in minors and young women from Nigeria to Italy for the purpose of sexual exploitation was carried out in 2002-2004. The project was implemented by the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) and, inter alia, the Associazione Tampep Onlus (Turin). Three awareness-raising campaigns on trafficking for sexual exploitation were carried out, in collaboration with a coalition of six Nigerian non-governmental organisations.

 

The fight against trafficking in human beings is one of Italy’s key priorities within the framework of the Italian Presidency of the Council of the European Union. Under the new strategy for the prevention of and fight against trafficking in human beings in 2012-2016, and bearing in mind the priorities set for the 2014-2017 policy cycle, the Italian Presidency stimulates the development of coherent action to combat trafficking in human beings and encourages the introduction of a mechanism linking the authorities involved in the fight against trafficking and the institutions responsible for the recognition of international protection. Another guiding line of the Italian Government’s action is the further development of dialogue with third countries of origin and transit of migratory flows aimed at enhancing the cooperation in combating illegal immigration, while improving asylum policies and effectively managing regular immigration channels. This dialogue’s main tools are the EU Mobility Partnerships with third countries, as well as regional dialogues and processes, such as the Rabat Process, a framework for regional dialogue between the EU and the countries of West and Central Africa. In this context, Italy will host the fourth Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development. The Conference, which will take place on 26-27 November 2014 in Rome, will represent an opportunity to discuss more in depth the issue of border management and the fight against illegal immigration. Based on the model of the Rabat Process and the Dialogue between the EU and Africa on migration and mobility, the Italian Presidency is also promoting the establishment of a structured dialogue between the EU and East Africa (the so-called “EU-Horn of Africa Migration Route Initiative”/EU-HoAMRI), which will be mainly focused on the fight against human trafficking. This initiative is aimed at strengthening the regional and Euro-African cooperation on combating this phenomenon by both effectively prosecuting criminal organisations and protecting victims. 

 

Future plans for the implementation of Directive 2011/36/EU

On 28 March 2014, Legislative Decree No 24 of 4 March 2014 establishing the “Implementation of Directive 2011/36/EU on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA” entered into force. It had been published in the Official Journal No 60 of 13 March 2014.

In line with the holistic approach adopted by the European Union including the aspects of prevention, protection and punishment, the Italian legislator amended articles 600 (Placing or holding a person in conditions of slavery or servitude) and 601 (Trafficking in persons) of the Italian Penal Code with the aim of strengthening the punishment of perpetrators by ensuring that all forms of trafficking in human beings are punished under the Criminal Code, and with a view to providing a comprehensive definition of such crimes in compliance with the European directive. As far as minors are concerned, the conduct is punished as trafficking in persons even if the crime is not committed by fraud, deceit, threat or by promising or giving money.

As for the protection of victims of human trafficking, in accordance with the European directive, the Legislative Decree also amended the Italian Code of Criminal Procedure in order to extend the existing protection already envisaged for child victims or mentally ill adult victims concerned with the hearing of evidence to all adult victims in particularly vulnerable conditions. More specifically, art. 1 of the Decree specifies the subjects that can be considered as vulnerable persons, namely minors, unaccompanied minors, elderly persons, disabled persons, women, especially if pregnant, single parents with underage children, persons with mental disorders, as well as persons who suffered rape or other serious forms of physical, psychological, sexual or gender-based violence. With the aim of further strengthening the protection of victims, the Legislative Decree provides for the obligation to adequately inform them, especially unaccompanied minors who are victims of human trafficking, of their rights and establishes that a further decree will be adopted to define specific mechanisms for the determination of their age and their identification. In addition, Legislative Decree No 24/2014 lays down that the training pathways provided by the competent Administrations shall include, for the concerned public officials, specific training modules on issues concerning trafficking in human beings.

One of the main innovations introduced by the Decree in compliance with Directive 2011/36/EU is the recognition of the victims’ right to compensation. Such a compensation, which amounts to 1,500 Euros for each victim, shall be paid in accordance with the terms established by the Decree under the Annual Fund for Anti-Trafficking Measures. The fund already exists and, according to the relevant law, it should be fed with the proceeds derived from the confiscation of assets following a judgment of conviction.  

The Department for Equal Opportunities of the Italian Presidency of the Council of Ministers is the authority responsible for guidance, coordination and monitoring of interventions related to trafficking in human beings. Besides these tasks, the Legislative Decree officially recognizes the role of the Department as the equivalent mechanism and national contact point for the EU Anti-Trafficking Coordinator. It also aims at making the prevention and fight against this phenomenon, as well as the assistance and social integration of victims, more effective and coordinated. To this end and with a view to avoiding duplication of effort and thus improving the protection of victims, it provides for the unification of short-term and long-term assistance programmes (the so-called “art.13” and “art. 18” projects), which have been in place until the entry into force of the Legislative Decree, into one single programme of emergence, assistance and social integration guaranteeing victims adequate board, lodging and health care on a transitional basis and, subsequently, the continuation of assistance and social integration.  

Before the entry into force of the abovementioned Legislative Decree No 24/2014 transposing Directive 2011/36/EU, the specific training on trafficking in human beings was neither regular nor compulsory for officials likely to come into contact with victims (police officers, financial police officers, immigration service officers, public prosecutors, lawyers, judges and the judiciary in general, labour inspectors, social workers and health professionals). However, training on this topic was ensured by public Administrations within the framework of the annual training pathways envisaged by the Public Administration system. From the entry into force of the legislative decree, specific training modules on issues concerning trafficking in human beings for the concerned public officials shall be included in the training pathways provided by the competent Administrations. Starting from this year, it will therefore be possible to monitor the provision of training and the number of trained officials in a more coordinated and systematic way. 

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

The Latvian State Police and the State Border Guard have developed cooperation with law enforcement institutions and special units from European Union Member States, especially with those which are destination countries of victims from Latvia. Cooperation has also been developed with other countries in the field of operational data exchange and support within the framework of investigation. Additionally, close cooperation is developed with relevant law enforcement agencies and specialised units in third countries such as Belarus, Russia, Moldova, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, which facilitates information and data exchange, the implementation of mutual operations, and exchange of best practice in the fields of legislation and personnel training.

The Latvian State Police also has extensive cooperation with Interpol and Europol.

The Ministry of the Interior, as the national co-ordinating body, organises the exchange of information and implements various activities in bilateral cooperation with the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Task Force against Trafficking in Human Beings in the framework of the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS).

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Lithuania is an active member of the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) Task Force against Trafficking in Human Beings (TF-THB). The group has been involved in different regional activities including training of diplomatic and consular staff in the region, information campaigns, analysis of data collection mechanisms, and etc.

Also Lithuania is involved in regional projects together with the Nordic Council of Ministers (see under Capacity bulding).

The Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania has made further steps towards the implementation of Priority 15.5 (later Crime Area) of the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region related to preventing trafficking in human beings and providing support and protection for victims and groups at risk by means of transnational actions. In 2012–2015, the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania together with the European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control (HEUNI), the Council of the Baltic Sea States Task Force on Trafficking in Human Beings and the University of Tartu (Estonia), under the financial support from the EU ISEC programme implemented a 24-months international project ADSTRINGO – addressing trafficking in human beings for labor exploitation through improved partnerships, enhanced diagnostics and intensified organizational approaches involving 9 countries of the Baltic Sea Region.

On 18 October 2013, during the Lithuania’s EU Presidency, the 7th EU Anti-Trafficking Day  was marked in Vilnius with the international conference “Exploring the Links between the Internet and Trafficking in Human Beings: Cyberspace for Prevention, not Recruitment”

Lithuania’s cooperation with its neighbouring countries, Latvia and Poland, is of key importance. Lithuania has signed the trilateral inter-governmental treaty Regarding consular assistance and cooperation, which entered into force in September 1999, which provides for diplomatic and consular assistance to persons. Pursuant to the provisions of article 3 of the treaty, assistance is provided to persons who have suffered as a result of crimes and to persons who are willing to return to their country of origin.

Lithuania also cooperates with the Benelux countries (Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg) since a number of Lithuanian women are transported to these countries. One example is the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Lithuania and the Government of the Kingdom of Belgium on Police Cooperation, which entered into force on 1 July 2005. It provides for police cooperation on trafficking in human beings, pimping, sexual exploitation of children, illegal migration, and a number of other criminal activities.

In pre-trial investigations, Lithuanian police authorities have cooperated with law enforcement authorities from the United Kingdom, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Latvia, Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands, Belgium and Byelorussia. Following this cooperation, investigations have been carried out and perpetrators have been prosecuted and convicted.

Since 2003, Lithuanian police officers have been involved in the Interpol working group on the fight against human trafficking and in its Steering Committee in 2003−2010.

Future plans in terms of implementation of the directive 2011/36/EU

The Ministry of the Interior, being the main actor in combating trafficking in human beings in Lithuania, has initiated discussions on the implementation of the directive. Based on the discussions, in 2010, the Ministry of the Interior established an interdepartmental working group consisting of representatives of four Ministries (the Interior, Social security and labour, Justice, and Foreign Affairs) to broaden the scope of trafficking n human beings crime in the Criminal Code. The amendments have been adopted (see under Legislation).

On 18/04/2012 the Minister of the Interior set up an interdepartmental Working Group from representatives of public agencies and NGOs to draft recommendations for further development of the counter-THB system in Lithuania. They were presented for the Minister of the Interior on 15/10/2012 and outlined activities for 2 years. 

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Given the geographical position of Luxembourg in the Central Europe, the national police forces closely cooperate with other border countries. The cooperation takes place in the framework of international police cooperation, such as the agreement between ‘EUROPOL member and third party countries’, tri-lateral agreements (e.g. the Benelux Treaty), multi-lateral treaties (e.g. the Prüm Treaty), and the convention on police cooperation (from 2000).

There also exists cooperation vis-à-vis third countries or organizations but which is mainly focused on funds allocation.

Future plans in terms of implementation of the directive 2011/36/EU
The directive has been fully implemented by the 2014 act.

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

International cooperation both at the global and at the European level is essential to combat human trafficking effectively.

The Netherlands has ratified UNTOC and its protocols (including the TIP protocol) and other relevant UN and ILO conventions. During its chairmanship of the OSCE in 2003, the Netherlands initiated the OSCE Action Plan against Trafficking in Human Beings, which remains a key document to this day. In 2005 the Council of Europe finalised the Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. In April 2010 the Netherlands ratified the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings.

In February 2010 the Dutch Social Security Intelligence and Investigation Service (SIOD) organised a conference on labour trafficking in which EU countries exchanged best practices with regard to investigating and prosecuting labour exploitation.

Dutch authorities seek to work closely on a bilateral basis with the source countries of human trafficking that have relevance for the Netherlands. In the context of these cooperative efforts, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands funds projects for technical assistance in a number of source countries, notably in Bulgaria, Romania and Nigeria. These projects aim to provide technical assistance and training to law enforcement authorities and to establish or improve referral mechanisms and shelter facilities for victims. With regard to Croatia, the Netherlands funds an ICMPD project for the training of labour inspectors and police officers in spotting and investigating labour exploitation. In Syria, the Dutch embassy gave financial support to the first women's shelter in the country. In Oman an ILO project is currently being funded that helps the authorities to set up structures to combat human trafficking and monitor employment agencies for foreign workers.

Conducting joint investigations with source countries is not only necessary to prosecute transnational trafficking networks, but can also be a very effective way to transfer investigative skills to source countries. Thus in 2007 the Netherlands police and prosecution services conducted an extensive investigation of human trafficking from Nigeria towards the Netherlands and other European destinations. This investigation, with the code name “Operation Koolvis”, was conducted in close cooperation with other European destination countries and with the National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons and Other Related Matters (NAPTIP) of Nigeria. The investigation led to simultaneous arrests in October 2007 of traffickers in the Netherlands, in other European countries (Belgium, United Kingdom, France, Spain, Germany and Italy), in the United States and in Nigeria itself (see also under section 5). A large number of victims were recovered. Building on this successful police operation, the Netherlands set up a programme for training and technical assistance to NAPTIP and other relevant Nigerian agencies. It included training for Nigerian detectives and prosecutors as well as training for Nigerian border police in detecting passport fraud at airports and spotting victims that were being sent abroad by traffickers.

In January 2009 a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Ministers of Justice of the Netherlands, the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba to strengthen cooperation in combating human trafficking and smuggling within these three countries.

The Government of the Netherlands is in close contact with Dutch companies that operate internationally to ensure that their global supply chains are free from exploitative practices. The Netherlands supports the Decent Work Agenda of the ILO for the period 2006 - 2010. The Dutch contribution is used to fund Decent Work Country Programmes in 10 developing countries. Some activities are specifically directed at combating forced labour and child labour, some at broader labour issues. Bilateral Dutch aid to Bangladesh and Indonesia included programmes to take children away from debilitating working conditions and back to school. Forced child labour is an especially reprehensible phenomenon. The fight against it is a focal point of the human rights strategy of the Netherlands.

The Netherlands funds projects to combat child sex tourism. In 2008 the Netherlands pledged support for an ongoing UNICEF programme for technical assistance to Cambodian law enforcement authorities (notably the Anti-Human Trafficking and Juvenile Protection Police) to fight abuse of children as a consequence of child sex tourism. Activities regarding prevention and victim care are also part of the project. Since 2008, the Netherlands has furthermore funded a three-year project of Terre des Hommes aimed at providing legal support to victims of child sex tourism, encouraging them to act as witnesses and developing the capacity of local NGOs to pressure law enforcement authorities to take action when needed. Moreover the Netherlands supports an 18 month ECPAT project aimed at getting tour operators to approve and implement a code of conduct to prevent and discourage child sex tourism. ECPAT helps local NGOs in Thailand, Cambodia, the Philippines, Gambia and the Dominican Republic to build capacity for awareness campaigns and lobbying tour operators, hotels etc.

Future plans in terms of implementation of the directive 2011/36/EU
The bill to implement the Directive was sent to the Council of State for advice just before Christmas. The bill includes some changes to the Criminal Code, such as on the definition of trafficking in human beings and on extraterritorial jurisdiction

A first, written response was received from Parliament (the Lower House) to the legislation implementing the Directive. The government is working on a reply to the questions asked by Parliament in this response.

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

In recent years Poland cooperated with a number of EU and non EU on projects connected to THB.  2009, the Polish government cooperated with Ukraine and Moldova, as countries of origin for victims identified in Poland, by implementing a training project aimed at exchanging best practice around prosecution of traffickers and supporting victims. In 2012 Ministry of the Interior (MoI) carried out a project concerning cooperation in the area of THB prevention and prevention with Ukraine, funded from Polish Aid. In 2013 Poland took part in a project carried out by Netherlands in partnership with Cyprus – “Putting Rantsev into Practice”. In 2014 MoI participated as a project partner in a project “Increasing the effectiveness of referral, support, protection and reintegration of victims of THB” conducted by Bulgarian State Agency for National Security. Additionally a THB component was introduced into a Polish-Tunisian project on governing the borders, funded from the Polish Aid. The component encompassed presentations on the Polish system of combating and prevention of trafficking in human beings, and a study visit of a representative of a Tunisian NGO providing support to victims of violent crimes.

Poland also took part in an international project – ADSTRINGO – Addressing trafficking in human beings for labour exploitation through improved partnerships, enhanced diagnostics and intensified organisational approaches led by the Council of the Baltic States (CBSS), European Institute for crime Prevention and Control ate the UN (HENUI), Lithuanian Ministry of the Interior and the University of Tartu in Estonia. The aim of the project was to prevent trafficking for purposes of forced labour through enhanced national and regional partnerships and through improved understanding of the mechanisms that facilitate exploitation of migrant labour within the Baltic Sea region.

The Polish police have signed special bilateral agreements in the field of operational information sharing with almost every European country as well as with many third countries. Cooperation between liaison officers (both Polish and accredited in Poland) has been crucial, especially with countries such as Belarus, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine and the United Kingdom. Platforms such as Interpol and Europol are also used.

In the years 2013-2014 two Joint Investigation Teams (JIT) concerning cases of THB were established. The first JIT has been established by the end of 2013 between Polish Prosecutor’s Office in Nowy Sącz and Romanian Prosecutors Office in Brasovie. The JIT concerned cases of forced begging. It involved the cooperation of Border Guard units conducting the investigation. The investigation concerned cases of forced begging. Second JIT was established in 2014 and concerned a joint investigation of Polish and British police units concerning a forced labour case.

Moreover, the Polish police take part in the COPSAT project (Joint Cooperation between Police and Social Service against Trafficking) implemented by the metropolitan Stockholm police for the cooperation of law enforcement, government authorities and non-governmental organizations from the following countries: Sweden, Estonia, Romania and Poland.

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

In Portugal, some of the main examples of international cooperation to combat human trafficking are with third countries. Portugal has developed special close ties with Brazil, which are preserved in a number of bilateral Declarations. With regard to cooperation with third countries, it is also important to mention the campaign on human trafficking You’re not for sale (Não estás à venda), which was implemented in Portugal, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Principe, Guinea-Bissau and Brazil.

During the Portuguese Presidency of the EU, the first EU-Africa Summit took place, resulting in the establishment of an EU-Africa “Partnership on Migration, Mobility and Employment”. One of the priorities of this partnership was to implement the EU-Africa Plan of Action on Trafficking of Human Beings. Also during this period an International Conference Trafficking in Human Beings and Gender was organised in Oporto, in October 2007. The Porto Declaration was presented in October 2007 in Brussels and was part of the Council Conclusions on Trafficking in Human Beings.

As far as projects:

  • The Directorate-General of Internal Affairs / Observatory on Trafficking in Human Beings concluded the coordination of the European Project “Towards a Pan-European Monitoring of Trafficking in Human Beings”. The main aim is the creation of a common European Monitoring Model (methodology and technology). Other participant countries are: Austria, Bulgaria and Cyprus (ministries of Interior). The project also has an Advisory Board with a group of experts from organizations such as: Europol, IOM/Lisbon, ICMPD, OSCE, Frontex, and the Austrian Institute for International Affairs. Handbook on the project available at: http://www.otsh.mai.gov.pt/Recursos/Pages/default.aspx
  • Portugal participated in the “Development of a transnational referral mechanism for victims of trafficking between countries of origin and destination (TRM-EU)" Program, co-funded by the European Commission. The project was coordinated by Italy and ICMPD. This project ended in February 2010, and its main purpose was the production of guidelines for a Transnational Referral Mechanism for trafficked persons. Other countries involved were Italy, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, the Czech Republic, Hungary and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
  • Between 2008 and 2009, the Directorate-General of Internal Affairs / Observatory on Trafficking in Human Beings coordinated the European Project “Trafficking in Human Beings: System of Collection of Data and Harmonised Information Management Project”. One of the main purposes was to define common criteria of data collection and information on victims, traffickers and judicial decisions. Other participants included Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, ICMPD, the National Rapporteur in the Netherlands, the Association “On the Road” and NEXUS.
  • Since 2012 the Observatory on Trafficking in Human Beings is coordinating a Training Course for Criminal Justice practitioners from all Portuguese Speaking countries (Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and East Timor). This project has been implemented with the support of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) and UNODC.

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

The transnational nature of human trafficking requires in the first place, an effective and continuous cooperation with the countries situated on the routes of transit, origin or destination.

Development of bilateral relations confirmed Romania authorities’ capacity to consistently be a constructive presence and develop balanced initiatives with a responsible response.

Also, was taken into consideration strengthening and development of partnerships with Member States, main destination countries, third and neighboring countries.

A characteristic of policies and international cooperation activities in the fight against trafficking of Romania was the orientation for transfer of expertise for development of third countries. Thus, in accordance with European development policy through strategic partnerships with third countries, Romania has provided expertise, training and guidance to countries such as Croatia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Turkey and Serbia, using instruments such as TAIEX and cooperation in the context of European or international projects grant provided by the European Commission, ICMPD and other international organizations.

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

The Slovak Republic uses the experience of international institutions in its efforts to combat human trafficking, particularly the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the Council of Europe and also last but not least the European Commission.

The Slovak Ministry of the Interior cooperates especially with the International Organization for Migration, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime and International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD).

The Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak Republic has participated in the implementation of several international projects with aim to provide training for law enforcement authorities, and support for returning victims in order to prevent them from re-trafficking. Moreover, the police force cooperates operationally with third countries via Interpol and through the liaison officers of the Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak Republic.

 

Future plans in terms of implementation of the directive 2011/36/EU

Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA was implemented.

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

National Coordinator is collaborating well with his EU colleagues as well as the colleagues from the WB region. He has also contributed to establishing a better cooperation between national coordinators from the WB Region with the EU national coordinators. He is a member of the Informal Network of National Reporters of EU or an Equivalent Mechanism to prevent trafficking in human beings and of  the informal network of NATC of SEE region.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has financed the project 'Introducing the mechanism for recognition, assistance and protection of victims of trafficking in human beings and/or sexual violence in asylum procedures in Slovenia' (PATS) for four years. The project originally only included Slovenia but has expanded to also include Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The project is carried out in the Asylum center of the Ministry of the Interior.

4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

 

    4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    There are direct contacts between An Garda Síochána and the UK Serious Crime Agency Ireland also actively engages in activities of international organisations responsible for border control and preventing trafficking in human beings including Frontex, Europol, Eurojust and Interpol, together with co-operation with the relevant countries.

    4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    L.I.M.E.S. project with the International Organization for Migration (IOM)
     
    Government has partnered with the Immigration Organization for Migration (IOM) with a view to providing expertise and assistance in the specific filed, such as training, capacity building and awareness raising. Moreover two NGOs namely Caritas (Malta) and the Jesuit Refugee Services, are being involved in Government’s efforts in the fight against human trafficking.
     
    Future plans in terms of implementation of the directive 2011/36/EU
     
    Harmonised data collection
    An exercise is underway to create a common tool for the harmonization of data collection amongst all relevant actors in this field. The Anti Trafficking Monitoring Committee shall be responsible to collect data from all relevant stakeholders and keep such data for reporting to the EU Commission as envisaged by the EU Directive. Therefore national cooperation in this sphere shall encourage better reporting, identification of new trends as well stimulating far reaching action under both the EU Directive as well as the COE Convention. When the data collection tool is developed all stakeholders shall be provided with training in order that they are sensitized towards collecting important information and according to National Indicators in this field.
     
    Government efforts will continue in terms of enhancing prevention efforts to curb human trafficking in Malta by continuing to invest in projects with international organizations to continue training professionals working in this field. In addition provide information and education to professionals as well as civil society to continue raising awareness about the phenomenon.

    4. EU AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    The Republic of Croatia pays special attention to the international and regional cooperation. It must also be emphasized that regional activities are very important for the Republic of Croatia, because it is only through the collaboration with the authorities from the neighboring countries, which usually comprise the same human trafficking chain, that this problem can be suppressed successfully and efficiently.

    International projects on suppression of trafficking in human beings carried out in the Republic of Croatia:

    • CARDS 2004 project “Combating trafficking in Human Beings”,2007;
    • ICMPD project “Enhancing Transnational Cooperation on Trafficking Cases in South-Eastern Europe (TRM), 2006-2009;
    • ICMPD project “Programme for the Enhancement of Anti-trafficking Responses in South-Eastern Europe – Data Collection and Information Management (DCIM)”, 2006-2008;
    • ICMPD project “Data Collection and Information Management – Phase II Data Processing, Maintenance and Analysis (DCIM Phase II)”, 2008-2010;
    • ICMPD project “Targeting niches in the anti-trafficking efforts: customized support for Croatia”, 2009-2010;
    • ICMPD project “Enhancing Transnational Cooperation on Trafficking Cases in South-Eastern Europe (TRM II)”, 2010-2012;
    • IPA 2010 project „Enhancing Identification of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings“, 2012-2013.

    5. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    • In July 2008, Belgian authorities opened an investigation into seven members of the royal family from the United Arab Emirates for trafficking 17 girls from Indonesia, Turkey, Egypt, Syria, India, Iraq, Morocco and the Philippines for domestic servitude while staying at a Brussels hotel. Subsequently, a majority of these victims were granted victim status by Belgian authorities. The royal family members have since left the country.

     

    • In 2007, two Dutch nationals, resident in China, were convicted by a Belgian Criminal Court of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of economic exploitation. The convicted persons had been employing numerous native Chinese in inhuman conditions for several years. Their employees were forced to work 10/12 hours per day in the restaurant of the convicted persons. Moreover, they were deprived of their identification documents and they could not leave the restaurant. In addition to imprisonment and fine, the Criminal Court ruled that a significant amount of 1 million Euros would be confiscated from the convicted persons. In appeal, the court decided that this important amount of money should primarily be used for the benefit of the victims and to finance the damages that had been pronounced by the judge. 

    5. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    Areas in which the Government of the Republic of Cyprus does not exercise effective control

    According to the US Trafficking in Persons Report for 2013, the occupied part of Cyprus, in which the Government of the Republic of Cyprus does not exercise effective control, is increasingly a destination for women from Central Asia, Eastern Europe, and Africa who are subjected to forced prostitution in night clubs. Men and women are subjected to forced labor in industrial, construction, agriculture, domestic work, restaurant, and retail sectors. Victims of labor trafficking are controlled through debt bondage, threats of deportation, restriction of movement, and inhumane living and working conditions.

    The report states that there is no “law” that prohibits human trafficking and no specialized training on how to identify or investigate human trafficking was provided. Sex trafficking offenders could be prosecuted under non-trafficking “statutes” for “living off the earnings of prostitution of women” or “encouraging prostitution of women.” A misdemeanour offense of “compelling a person to labor against their will” is punishable by one year of imprisonment. The lack of anti-trafficking “legislation” and lack of efforts to identify and protect victims indicated that human trafficking is tolerated.

    Moreover, it is stated that no effort was made to reduce demand for forced labor, that the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking are not fully comply with and that if they were assigned a formal ranking in this report, it would be Tier 3.

    5. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    5. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    The French government is planning to establish local mechanism of coordination on trafficking in human beings which work in link with the National coordination. Such mechanism would be responsible for:

    • Improving the coordination of all bodies involved in combating human trafficking and assisting victims at local level;

    • Strengthening the assistance and protection for the victims of THB;

    • Facilitating the exchange of information between stakeholders;

    • Facilitating the introduction and monitoring of various obligations and initiatives.

    5. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    Germany is also a party to the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking. The first monitoring round for Germany has started in February 2014.

    5. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    In order to improve the identification of human trafficking victims:

    ·         The State Polices uses in daily work “Methodological Guidelines to identify cases related to prostitution, soutenerism and human trafficking” and “Recommendations for police officials to investigate cases of human trafficking and soutenerism”. These materials contain a package of measures to be carried out with aim to address traffickers, as well as draw attention to the risk groups vulnerably to trafficking, basically subjects of operational interest, supporters, victims and objects. They also contain a positive model of behaviour in cases when the State Police receives information that a person has become or may become a victim trafficking in Latvia or abroad. Due to these guidelines, in year 2013, State Police has identified 6 victims of human trafficking As well as has identified 26 cases of human trafficking risks.

    ·         The State Border Guard uses in its daily work training handbook to combat human trafficking elaborated by FRONTEX. This handbook contains information how to identify victims of trafficking during border control, methodology to identify human trafficking victims, potential trafficking victims, traffickers and supporters, provisions of interviewing and information acquiring techniques. Particular attention is paid to identify trafficked minors and the handbook contains specific methods for work with under-age children.

    ·         In 2013 the Ministry of the Interior has disseminated among all stakeholders relevant in the field of prevention human trafficking “Guidelines on identification of victims” (the document provides for a list of indicative guidelines, refers to the existing handbooks and manuals and lists the projects on the identification of victims, in particular those targeting consular services and border guards and thus encourage their systematic use by the respective officials) and “The EU rights of victims of trafficking” to better assist practitioners and authorities to deliver the assistance and protection to victims. These documents were elaborated by the European Commission in cooperation with national anti-trafficking experts of the EU Member States.

    ·         The consular officials of the Embassies of Latvia abroad in their daily work use “The Handbook for Diplomatic and Consular Personnel on how to Assist and Protect Victims of Human Trafficking” elaborated by the Council of the Baltic Sea States Task Force against Trafficking in Human Beings. This handbook provides main tools how to identify victims of trafficking, how to provide support and assistance.

    • Guidelines for the Identification of Human Trafficking for the Purpose of Labour Exploitation are in place. Guidelines are intended for the law enforcement institutions – the State Police, the State Labour Inspectorate, the State Border Guard, the Municipal Police and non-governmental organisations, which have been granted the right to provide services for victims of human trafficking, to be able to determine, to full extent, the cases of human trafficking for the purpose of labour exploitation and the victims, as well as to perform accordingly the necessary measures for holding the persons at fault liable as provided for by regulatory enactments.

    5. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    Cases, various forms of trafficking etc.

    Human Trafficking for removal of organs

    According to the Dutch National Rapporteur, there is particular media interest in the subject of organ removal in the Netherlands. However, there is hardly any official information available about this phenomenon. The National Rapporteur highlighted in her Fifth Report that there is evidence that persons from the Netherlands travel to other countries for the purpose of obtaining organs. The Rapporteur stressed the possible abuses in relation to human trafficking and consequently the importance of executive agencies, such as medical personnel and health insurers, to remain alert to the origins of organs for organ donations, particularly in the case of medical tourism.

    

    5. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    5. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    5. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    5. RESOURCES

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    5. RESOURCES

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    5. RESOURCES

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    5. RESOURCES

    5. RESOURCES

    5. RESOURCES

    5.1 Legislation

    • Penal Code (Official Gazette
    • Criminal Procedure Act (Official Gazette „Official Gazette“, No. 152/08 and 76/09)
    • Amendments to the Criminal Procedure Act (Official Gazette N°56/13)
    • Act on the Pecuniary Compensation of Damage to Crime Victims (Official Gazette 80/08)
    • Aliens Act (Official Gazette No. 79/07, 36/09)
    • Social Welfare Act (Official Gazette No. 73/97, 27/01, 82/01, 103/03, 44/06, 79/07)
    • Witness Protection Act (OG 163/03)
    • Act on International Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters (OG 178/04)

     

    5.1. Legislation

    5.1. Legislation

    • Combating Trafficking in Human Beings Act, 2004 (Закон за борба с трафика на хора(in English and Bulgarian)
    • Criminal Code (CC), State Gazette (SG) 32/2009; SG 92/2002 (Наказателен кодекс)(in English)
      • Trafficking for sexual exploitation, article 159 a, b, d
      • Trafficking for  labour exploitation, article 159 a, b, d
      • Trafficking in children, article 159 a, b, d
      • Trafficking in organs, article 159 a, b, d
      • Trafficking in pregnant women for selling their children, article 159 a
      • Using the sexual services of victims of trafficking, article 159 c
    • Crime Victim Assistance and Financial Compensation Act (PDF in English) Закон за подпомаганеи финансова компенсация на пострадалите от престъпления (in Bulgarian)
    • Law for the Foreigners in the Republic of Bulgaria (Закон за чужденците в Република България)(in English and Bulgarian)

    5.1. Legislation

    5.1. Legislation

    5.1. Legislation

    5.1. Legislation

    ·         Presidential Decree No 233 (GG 204/Α/28-8-2003), Protection and support to victims of crimes pertaining to articles 323, 323Α, 349, 351 and 351 Α of the Penal Code , in accordance with Article 12 of Law 3064/2002 (in Greek)

    «Προστασία και αρωγή στα θύματα των εγκλημάτων των άρθρων 323, 323Α, 349, 351 και 351Α του Ποινικού Κώδικα κατά το άρθρο 12 του Ν. 3064/2002»

     

    • Law 2928/ 2001, Amendment of provisions of the Criminal Code and of the Code of Criminal Procedure and other provisions on citizensprotection from offences of criminal organizations (in Greek) «Τροποποίηση των διατάξεων του Ποινικού Κώδικα και του Κώδικα Ποινικής Δικονομίας και άλλες διατάξεις για την προστασία των πολιτών από αξιόποινες πράξεις των εγκληματικών οργανώσεων»

     

    • Law 3274/2004 (GG 195/Α/19-8-04) (Art. 34., par. 7) on residence permit for victims of trafficking (in Greek)

    «Οργάνωση και λειτουργία των Οργανισμών Τοπικής Αυτοδιοίκησης πρώτου και δεύτερου βαθμού»

     

    • Law 3386/2005 (GG 212/Α/23-8-2005) on Entry, stay and social integration of third country nationals on Greek territory(in Greek)

     «Είσοδος, διαμονή και κοινωνική ένταξη υπηκόων τρίτων χωρών στην ελληνική επικράτεια»

     

    • Law 3536/2007 (GG 42/Α/23-2-2007) (Art. 11) on residence permit for victims of trafficking (in greek)  

    «Ειδικές ρυθμίσεις θεμάτων μεταναστευτικής πολιτικής και λοιπών ζητημάτων αρμοδιότητας Υπουργείου Εσωτερικών, Δημόσιας Διοίκησης και Αποκέντρωσης»

     

    • Law 3625/2007 (GG 290/Α/24-12-2007), Ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child

     «Κύρωση, εφαρμογή του Προαιρετικού Πρωτοκόλλου στη Σύμβαση για τα Δικαιώματα του Παιδιού σχετικά με την εμπορία παιδιών, την παιδική πορνεία και παιδική πορνογραφία και άλλες διατάξεις»

     

    • Law 3692/2008 (GG 173/Α/25-8-2008) on the bilateral agreement between Greece and Albania for the protection of minor victims of trafficking

    «Κύρωση της Συμφωνίας μεταξύ της Κυβέρνησης της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατίας και του Συμβουλίου Υπουργών της Δημοκρατίας της Αλβανίας για την προστασία και αρωγή των θυμάτων εμπορίας ανηλίκων»

     

    • Law 4198/2013 (GG 215/Α/11-10-2013), Preventing and Combatting Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting its victims and other provisions-Transposition of the 2011/36/EU Directive

    «Πρόληψη και καταπολέμηση της εμπορίας ανθρώπων και προστασία των θυμάτων αυτής και άλλες διατάξεις»

     

    • Law 4216/2013 (GG 266/ Α/ 10-12-2013) Ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings

    «Κύρωση της Σύμβασης του Συμβουλίου της Ευρώπης για τη δράση κατά της Εμπορίας Ανθρώπων»

     

    • Law 4251/2014 (GG 80/Α/1-4-2014) Migration and Social Inclusion Code

    «Κώδικας Μετανάστευσης και Κοινωνικής Ένταξης και λοιπές διατάξεις»

     

    5.1. Legislation

    Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA

    http://thb.kormany.hu/download/5/a8/30000/2011_36_EU%20Irányelv.pdf

     

    Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings

    http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A1300018.TV

     

    Act C of 2012 on the Criminal Code

    http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A1200100.TV&celpara=#xcelparam

     

    Act CXXXV of 2005 on Crime Victim Support and State Compensation

    http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A0500135.TV&celpara=#xcelparam

     

    Government Regulation No 354/2012 of 13 December 2012 on the identification system of victims trafficking in human beings

    http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A1200354.KOR&celpara=#xcelparam

     

    Act II of 2007 on Entry and Stay of Third Country Nationals

    http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A0700002.TV&celpara=#xcelparam

     

    Order No. 13/2014. (V. 16.)  of the National Police Headquarters on the police duties concerning the treatment of offences related to prostitution and human trafficking primarily serves uniform police action against prostitution and victim protection tasks for police organs

    http://emberkereskedelem.kormany.hu/download/0/2c/a0000/13-2014.pdf

    5.1. Legislation

    • Penal Code law no. 228/2003 of 11 August 2003: “Measures against Trafficking in persons” ( Legge 11 agosto 2003 n.228 Misure contro la tratta di persone) (in Italian)
      • Art 600 Reduction and maintenance in slavery or servitude (in Italian)
      • Art 601 Trafficking in persons (in Italian)
      • Art 602 Purchase or sale of slaves (in Italian)
      • Art. 604 Acts committed abroad (in Italian)
    • Legislative Decree n. 286 25 July 1998: "Immigration Consolidation Act" Article 18 so-called law "Bossi-Fini" (Decreto legislative 286/1998 Test unico delle disposizioni concreti la disciplina dell’ immigrazione e norme sulla condizione dello straniero) (in Italian)
    • Law no. 75 of 20 February 1958: "Abolition of the regulation of prostitution and the fight against the exploitation of prostitution of others" (L.20 feb. 1958 n. 75 “Abolizione della regolamentazione della prostituzione e lotta contro lo sfruttamento della prostituzione altrui) (in Italian).

    5.1. Legislation

    • The law of 31st May 1999 reinforcing measures against trafficking in human beings and sexual exploitation of children modifying the Penal Code and Code of Criminal Procedure (in French) (Loi du 31 mai 1999 visant à renforcer les mesures contre la traite des êtres humains et l’exploitation sexuelle des enfants et portant modification du Code pénal et du Code d’instruction criminelle)
    • The law of 13th March 2009 concerning trafficking in human beings (in French)(Loi du 13 mars 2009 relative à la traite des êtres humains)
    • The law of 29th August 2008 concerning the free movement of persons and immigration (in French)(Loi du 29 août 2008 portant sur la libre circulation des personnes et l’immigration)
    • The law of 8th May 2009 concerning the assistance, protection and security of victims of trafficking in human beings (in French)(Loi du 8 mai 2009 sur l’assistance, la protection et la sécurité des victimes de la traite des êtres humains)
    • Law of 9th April 2014 strengthening the rights of the victims of human trafficking which transposes EU Directive 2011/36/EU into national legislation

    5.1. Legislation

     

    5.1. Legislation

    The Criminal Code – Act No. 300/2005 Coll (zákon č. 300/2005 Z. z. Trestný zákon) (in Slovak)

    • Trafficking in Human Beings for Sexual Exploitation, Article 179
    • Trafficking in Children, Article 180-181

    5.1. Legislation

    • Aliens Act 2006 - ZTuj-1-UPB2 2009 (English and Slovenian)
    • Criminal Code - Kazenskega zakonika   (KZ-1) - Paragraph 113 (Slovenian only).

    5.1. Legislation

    5.1. Legislation

    5.2 NATIONAL ACTION PLAN

    5.2 National Action Plans

    5.2 National Action Plans

    National Programmes before 2008 can be downloaded from the National Commission for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings website.

    5.2 National Action Plans

    5.2 National Action Plans

    5.2 National Action Plans

    5.2 National Action Plans

    5.2 National Action Plans

    5.2 National Action Plans

    Pursuant to art. 9 of Legislative Decree No 24 of 4 March 2014, (Implementation of Directive 2011/36/EU on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims), the Italian Government shall adopt a National Action Plan against Trafficking in and Serious Exploitation of Human Beings, with a view to defining multiannual intervention strategies for the prevention and fight against these phenomena, as well as measures aimed at increasing public awareness, social prevention, emergence and social integration of victims.

    The adoption of the first Italian Action Plan against human trafficking reflects the needs of reorganisation and rationalization of the Government action, mainly with a view to promoting the creation of synergies among the different central, regional and local Administrations involved in the fight against human trafficking and the related available resources, also considering the public expertise used to combat this phenomenon and corresponding to the four main pillars on which every coherent strategy on the subject is based at the international level (prevention, prosecution, protection, and partnership). Furthermore, it is essential to ensure the cooperation between the institutions and the third sector. The valorisation of such cooperation should be an indispensable element in the development of the Italian strategy, with a view to keeping and strengthening the integrated public and private networks operating at the local level and directed towards the so-called “multi-agency working”. Moreover, considering the transnational nature of human trafficking, the Italian Government is committed to establishing partnerships and taking collaboration measures with the other countries concerned by the phenomenon, with the aim of both preventing the perpetration of crimes and enhancing judicial cooperation and cooperation on investigating crime, as well as with a view to promoting the exchange of good practice and working tools, especially with regard to countries of origin.

    The development of the Italian strategy is also in line with the European and international framework, particularly with the EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012-2016.

    The National Action Plan will be drafted in accordance with the legal and administrative basis consolidated at the EU and international level, particularly with Directive 2011/36/EU and Legislative Decree No 24 of 4 March 2014 implementing the directive and establishing minimum standards for the definition of crimes and sanctions related to trafficking in human beings. It also aims at strengthening, on the one hand, the prevention and punishment of the crime and, on the other, the protection of victims.  

    As for the strategy for action of the National Action Plan, as previously mentioned, this will be defined in compliance with the EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012-2016 (COM(2012) 286 of 19 June 2012), while taking into account the peculiarities of the Italian context and the operational strategies developed at the national level.     

    A key role in the fight against trafficking in human beings is played by all the involved central Administrations (Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Labour and Social Policies, Ministry of Health), as well as by Regions and Municipalities, which coordinate, promote and plan the activities locally. Also third sector organisations play a crucial role as both organisations implementing some of the actions for the support of victims and points of reference at the local level. 

    5.2 National Action Plans

    5.2 National Action Plans

    5.2 National Action Plans

    5.2 National Action Plans

    • National Strategy against Trafficking in Persons 2012-2016
    • National Action Plan for 2012 - 2014 Implementing the National Strategy against Trafficking in persons 2012 – 2016. 

    5.2 National Action Plans

    5.2 National Action Plans

    All National Actions can be found at Governmental website at the following link: http://www.vlada.si/en/projects/fight_against_trafficking_in_persons/

    5.2 National Action Plans

    5.2 National Action Plans

    5.2 National Action Plans

    Second National Action Plan to Prevent and Combat Human Trafficking in Ireland

    Irish Anti Human Trafficking Unit Department of Justice and Equality, October 2016, 94 pages

    The Tánaiste and Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform, Frances Fitzgerald TD, launched Ireland’s Second National Action Plan to Prevent and Combat Human Trafficking on 17th October 2016.  The plan contains 65 actions designed to crackdown on individuals and gangs involved in the crime, to support victims, to raise public-awareness, and to enhance training for those likely to encounter victims.

     

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    The recent national reports are available at the website of the Ministry of the Interior: http://www.vrm.lt/go.php/lit/Prekybos-zmonemis-prevencijos-ir-kontroles-programa/246 (in Lithuanian).

     

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    5.3 Reports

    5.3.1 National reports on implementation

    5.3.1 National reports on implementation

    National Reports before 2007 can be downloaded from the National Commission for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings website.

    5.3.1 National reports on implementation

    5.3.1 National reports on implementation

    5.3.1 National reports on implementation

    5.3.1 National reports on implementation

    5.3.1 National reports on implementation

    5.3.1 National reports on implementation

    5.3.1 National reports on implementation

    5.3.1 National reports on implementation

    5.3.1 National reports on implementation

    The annually report is available on ANITP website.

    5.3.1 National reports on implementation

    All Annual national reports can be found at Governmental website at the following link: http://www.vlada.si/en/projects/fight_against_trafficking_in_persons/

    5.3.1 National reports on implementation

    5.3.1 National reports on implementation

    5.3.1 National reports on implementation

    5.3.2 General reports and publications

    5.3.2 General reports and publications

    5.3.2 Other reports and publications

    5.3.2 Other reports and publications

    5.3.2 Other reports and publications

    5.3.2 Other reports and publications

    5.3.2 Other reports and publications

    5.3.2 Other reports and publications

    5.3.2 Other reports and publications

    5.3.2 Other reports and publications

    5.3.2 Other reports and publications

    5.3.2 Other reports and publications

    During last years, ANITP has developed a series of publications or studies within the external funds.

    Attachments

    • Trafficking in persons for begging – Romania Study, co-finance by Switzerland through the Swiss-Romanian Cooperation Programme to Reduce Economic and Social Disparities within the Enlarged European Union;
    • Transnational study on the characteristics of policies in the field of trafficking in human beings for labour exploitation 2009-2011, with the financial support from the Prevention of and Fight against Crime Programme of the European Union European Commission-Directorate-General Home Affairs;
    • Practical guidelines on identification of victims of trafficking under the project Development of common guidelines and procedures on the identification of victims of trafficking EuroTrafGuiD - with the financial support from the Prevention of and Fight against Crime Programme of the European Union European Commission-Directorate-General Home Affairs.

    5.3.2 Other reports and publications

    5.3.2 Other reports and publications

    5.3.2 Other reports and publications

    5.3.2 Other reports and publications

    5.4 Links

    Police and Border Guard Board (in Estonian) (in English)

    The Crime Prevention website (in Estonian)

    Atoll rehabilitation Centre / Vega Centre for the victims of prostitution and trafficking of human beings (in Estonian)

    5.4 Links

     

    • ttp://stoptrafficking.gr

     

    5.4 Links

    5.4 Links

    5.4 Links

    5.4 Links

    5.4 Links

    5.4 Links

    5.4 Links

    5.4 Links

    5.4 Links

    Ministry of Interior

    www.mup.hr

     

    State’s Attorney’s Office

    www.dorh.hr

     

    Ministry of social policy and youth

    www.mspm.hr

     

    Ministry of Health

    www.zdravlje.hr

     

    Ministry of Foreign and European affairs

    www.mvpei.hr

     

    PETRA network (NGO network)

    https://www.facebook.com/SosZaZrtveTrgovanjaLjudima/info

    www.czzzr.hr

    www.cgiporec.hr

    www.azkz.net

    www.delfin-pakrac.com

    www.zenskasoba.hr

     

    Croatian Red Cross

    www.hck.hr

     

     

    5.5 Contacts

    Government agencies

    Ministry for European and International Affairs
    Ambassador Ms. Elisabeth Tichy-Fisslberger
    Director General, National Coordinator on Combating Human Trafficking
    Head of the Legal and Consular Section
    Minoritenplatz 8, 1014 Vienna
    Telephone: +43(0)501150-3887
    E-Mail: abtiv.4@bmeia.gv.at 
     

    Federal Ministry of the Interior/Criminal Intelligence Service Austria
    Central Service Combating Alien Smuggling and Trafficking in Human Beings
    Telephone: +43 (0)1 24836 85383, Fax: +43 (0)1 24836-85394
    E-mail: humantrafficking@bmi.gv.at
    Website: http://www.bmi.gv.at

    Crisis centre for victims of child trafficking run by the city of Vienna (Drehscheibe Wien)
    Telephone: +43 1 33134 20397
    E-mail: drehscheibe@ma11.wien.gv.at
    Website: http://www.wien.gv.at/menschen/magelf

    THB-Hotline: The Austrian Ministry of the Interior has introduced a THB-Hotline:

    Human Trafficking - Hotline in CIS
    Information about human trafficking by telephone
    +43 1 24836 85383 (24/7)
    or by E-Mail
    humantrafficking@bmi.gv.at

     

    Organisations and institutions
     
    ECPAT Austria
    Graumanngasse 7/C-2
    A - 1150 Wien/Vienna
    Tel & Fax: +43(0)1 293 16 66
    Email: winkler@ecpat.at & info@ecpat.at
    Web: www.ecpat.at
     
    Footprint für Betroffene des Frauenhandels
    Phone: 01 - 920 85 86
    Email: office@footprint.or.at
     
     
    Herzwerk Wien
    Email: herzwerk.office@gmail.com
    IOM Österreich (IOM - International Organization for Migration in
    Austria)
    Nibelungengasse 13/4, 1010 Vienna
    Telephone: +43 1 585 33 22
    Website: http://www.iomvienna.at
     
    LEFÖ-IBF
    Interventionsstelle für Betroffene des Frauenhandels
    Lederergasse 35/ 12-13
    1080 Wien
    Tel: +43 (0)1-79 69 298
    Fax: +43 (0)1-79 69 298 21
    Email: ibf@lefoe.at
    Web: www.lefoe.at
     
    Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights
    Freyung 6, 1. Hof, Stiege II (Schottenstift), 1010 Vienna
    Telephone: +43 1 4277 27420
    E-mail: bim.staatsrecht@univie.ac.at
    Website: http://bim.lbg.ac.at
    MEN Männergesundheitszentrum im SMZ Süd
    Kundratstraße 3 - 1100 Wien
    www.men-center.at
    Tel.: +43-1-60191-5454
    E-Mail: kfj.men@wienkav.at
     
    UNDOK – Verband zur gewerkschaftlichen Unterstützung
    undokumentiert Arbeitender
    ÖGB (Catamaran)
    Lift D, 1. Stock, Raum 1913
    Johann-Böhm-Platz 1
    1020 Wien
    Email: office@undok.at
    Telefon: +43-1-53444-
     
     

    5.5 Contacts

    International and non-governmental organisations

    On an annual basis, the National Commission for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings updates its register of international and non-governmental organizations that work in the field of THB (in prevention, protection, assistance, lobbying, service provision, etc.) in Bulgaria. The latest update of the register is from January 2018.


    Animus Association

    Address:
    85 Ekzarh Yossif st.
    1000 Sofia
    Bulgaria
    Telephone/Fax: +359 2 983 52 05; 983 53 05; 983 54 05
    e-mail:animus@animusassociation.org

     

    Bulgarian Gender Research Foundation
    5 Evlog iGeorgiev Blv. 1142 Sofia
    Telephone:+359 2 9635357
    Е-mail: office@bgrf.org
     

    Caritas Russe

    Oborishte 9, Sofia1504
    Telephone: +359 2 944 18 58
    E-mail: communications@caritas-bg.org
    Website: http://www.caritas-bg.org/ (in Bulgarian)

    Civil Foundation“Alternativa 55”
    Ul. Rusi Argov No. 2 Et.1, Stara Zagora
    Telephone:  +352 4 264 71 19
    E-mail: alternative55@abv.bg

    Diva Foundation
    Telephone: +359 32 641 946
    Hotline: +359 32 641 069
    E-mail: fgodiva_pl@yahoo.com, info@divafoundationbg.org
     

    FoundationCentre Nadja
    12А Benkovski Str, 1000 Sofia
    Telephone: +359 2 981 93 00
    E-mail: nadja@cablebg.net
     

    Foundation“Ekaterina Karavelova
    PK283, Silistra 7500
    Telephone: +359 8 682 14 95
    E-mail: ceta@mail.bg

     

    Foundation "SOS – Families at Risk
    Slavyanska 32, 9002 Varna
    Telephone: +359 52609677
    Е-mail: sos@ssi.bg, sfda@mail.orbitel.bg
    Website: http://sos-varna.org (in Bulgarian)

    International Organisation for Migration(IOM)
    145 Kniaz Boris Str. Sofia
    Telephone: +359 2 939 4774
    E-mail: iomsofia@iom.int
     

    PULSE Foundation
    Telephone: +359 76 601 010
    E-mail: pulse.women@gmail.com, pulse.aids@gmail.com
     

    Resource Centre “New Alternative”
    ul. Georgi S. Rakovski 11A, 2700 Blagoevgrad
    Telephone: +352 73 887004
    E-mail: nova_alternativa@hotmail.com

    SamarianiAssociation
    PatriarhEvtimiiStr. 57, StaraZagora6000
    Telephone: +359 42 621 083
    E-mail: office@samaritans.bg
    Website: http://www.samaritans.bg

    National Hotlines

    The National Hotline for Victims of Violence – operated by Foundation “Animus Association”
    Telephone: 0800 186 76

    National Hotline for Children– operated by the State Agency for Child Protection and Foundation “Animus Association”
    Telephone: 116 111

    5.5 Contacts

    Government agencies

    National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism

    Ministry of Interior

    Security Policy and Crime Prevention Department
    Analyses and Strategies Unit
    Nad Štolou 936/3, Prague 7, 170 34, P. O. Box 21/OBP
    E-mail: oas@mvcr.cz
    Website: http://www.mvcr.cz/
    Contact person: Jana Kotrbova
    E-mail: jana.kotrbova@mvcr.cz

     

    Ministry for Foreign Affairs

    Loretánské náměstí 5 , 118 00 Praha 1
    Telephone: +420 224 181 111
    E-mail: podatelna@mzv.cz
    Website: http://www.mzv.cz

    Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs

    Na Poříčním právu 1/376, 128 01 Praha 2
    Telephone: +420 221 921 111
    E-mail: posta@mpsv.cz
    Website: http://www.mpsv.cz/en/

    Office for International Legal Protection of Children
    Šilingrovo náměstí , 602 00 Brno
    Telephone:+420 542 215 522
    E-mail: podatelna@umpod.cz
     

     

    NGOs and organisations

    Archdiocesan Charity Prague
    Arcidiecézní charita Praha
    Project Magdala – coordination center
    ADCH Praha, Londýnská 44, 120 00, Praha 2
    Telephone: + 420 222 510 436, + 420 736 764 706, + 420 603 588 440

    Bliss without risk
    Bolzanova 1, 110 00 Praha 1
    Vlhká 10, 602 00 Brno
    Telephone: +420 224 234 453, +420 545 578 565

    Diaconia of the Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren
    Belgická 22, 120 00 Praha 2
    Telephone: +420 242 487 812, +420 723 458 306

    International Organisation for Migration (IOM)
    Dukelských hrdinů 692/35, 170 00 Praha 7
    Telephone: +420 233 37 01 60, +420 233 37 67 90
    E-mail: prague@iom.int
    Website: http://www.iom.cz

    La Strada Czech Republic (National coordination and hotline)
    P.O.Box305, 111 21 Praha 1
    Telephone: +420 222 721 810
    Hotline: +420 222 717 171
    E-mail: lastrada@strada.cz
    Website: http://www.strada.cz/en

    5.5 Contacts

    Government

    National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism

    Ministry of Justice
    Criminal Policy Department
    Criminal Statistics and Analysis Division
    Contact: Anu Leps
    Telephone: + 372 6 208 117 
    E-mail: anu.leps@just.ee
    info@just.ee
    Website: http://www.just.ee/et

    Ministry of Social Affairs
    Labour Market Department, Social Welfare Department, Gender Equality Department
    Gonsiori 29, 15027 Tallinn
    Telephone: +372 626 9301
    E-mail: info@sm.ee
    Website: http://www.sm.ee/et

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    Legal Department, Human Rights Division, Consular Department
    Islandi väljak 1, 15049 Tallinn
    Telephone: +372 6 377 000 (General Info)
    E-mail: vminfo@vm.ee
     

    Ministry of Interior
    Law Enforcement and Criminal Policy Department
    Pikk 61, 15065 Tallinn
    Telephone: +372 612 5008
    E-mail: info@siseministeerium.ee
     

    NGOs

    Estonian Women's Associations Roundtable Foundation
    Narva mnt 25-410 Tallinn 10120
    E-mail: enu@enu.ee
     

    Estonian Women’s Studies and Resource Centre (ENUT)
    Narva mnt. 25-410, 10120 Tallinn
    Telephone: +372 6409 173
    E-mail: enut@enut.ee
    Website: http://enut.ee/

    Eluliin
    Pärnu mnt 9a, Tallinn
    Telephone: +372 5219 762
    Website: www.eluliin.ee 

    Living for Tomorrow
    Kreutzwaldi tn.24, 10147 Tallinn
    Telephone: +327 6607 302
    Hotline: +372 6607 320
    Website: http://www.lft.ee/?keel=eng

    Tartu Child Support Centre
    Kaunase pst 11-2, Tartu
    Telephone: +372 7 484 666
    E-mail: ch.abuse@online.ee
    Website: http://www.tugikeskus.org.ee/english.html

    5.5 Contacts

    Government agencies

    National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings /Ombudsman for Minorities
    Eva Biaudet
    PL 26 / Mikonkatu 25 , 00023 Valtioneuvosto
    Telephone: + 358 - 9- 71 878 8666
    E-mail: eva.biaudet@ofm.fi


    Ministry of the Interior
    PO Box 26, FI-00023 Government
    Kirkkokatu 12, Helsinki
    Telephone : +358 71 878 0171
     

    National Assistance System for Victims of Trafficking 
    Joutseno Reception Centre 
    Läykäntie 53 
    54190, Konnunsuo, Finland 
    Telephone: +358 7187 63170 (National Help Line 24/7) 
    Fax: +358 7187 63190 
    E-mail: joutsenon.vastaanottokeskus(at)intermin.fi 
    Website: http://www.humantrafficking.fi


    NGOs

    MONIKA - Multicultural Women's Association
    Kinaporinkatu 2 E 40
    00500 HELSINKI
    Telephone +358 9 72 79 9999
    E-mail: info@monikanaiset.fi
    Website: http://www.monikanaiset.fi/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=102&Itemid=107

    Pro-tukipiste (Pro Centre)
    Vuorikatu 16 A 10, 00100 Helsinki
    Telephone: 09 2512 730
    Fax 09 2512 7388
    E-mail: toimisto@pro-tukipiste.fi
    Website: http://www.pro-tukipiste.fi

    Rikosuhripäivystys (RIKU)
    Läntinen Brahenkatu 2, 00510 HELSINKI
    E-mail: keskustoimisto@riku.fi
    Website: www.riku.fi
    Fax: +358 9 272 2012

    The Finnish Refugee Advice Centre (Pakolaisneuvonta ry)
    Helsinki office
    Kaisaniemenkatu 4 A, 6.krs
    00100 Helsinki
    tel +358 (0)75 7575 100
    fax +358 (0)75 7575 120
    email: pan(at)pakolaisneuvonta.fi

    Victim Support Finland (Rikosuhripäivystys)
    Läntinen Brahenkatu 2,
    00510 Helsinki
    tel.  040 510 6210
    fax. (09) 272 2012
    Website http://www.riku.fi/fi/etusivu/

    5.5 Contacts

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    Office of the National Rapporteur to Monitor and Combat Human Trafficking
    5 Vas. Sofias Avenue, GR-106 71, Athens, Greece
    Tel.: +30 210 368-1844/1544

    Email: moskoff@mfa.gr
    Website: www.mfa.gr/en/

     

    Ministry of Public Order and Citizen Protection

    4, P. Kanellopoulou St., GR-101 77, Athens, Greece

    Τel: (+30) 210-6977505

    Fax: (+30) 210-6929764

    Website: www.yptp.gr

     

    Hellenic Police

    4, P. Kanellopoulou St., GR-101 77, Athens, Greece

    Τel: (+30) 210-6977000

    Website: http://www.astynomia.gr

     

    Ministry of Interior

    Directorate of Migration Policy

    2, Evagelistrias Str., 105 63, Athens

    Tel.: +30 213 1361 000

     

    General Secretariat for Gender Equality

    8 Dragatsaniou str., 105 59 Athens, Greece 

    Tel.: (+30) 210 3315291/ - 5

    Fax: (+30) 210 3315276

    E-mail: info@isotita.gr    

     

    Organisations and NGOs

    The A21 Campaign

    P.O. Box 10218 GR- 54110  Thessaloniki,

    Greece

    Tel: 30.2310.537690

    Fax: 30.2310.534769

    Websites: www.thea21campaign.org

     

    ARSIS - Association for the Social Support of Youth

    Athens: 43 Mauromateon street
    Postal Code: 10434
    Phone/Fax: 210 8259880
    Email: arsisathina@gmail.com
     

    Thessaloniki: 35, Ptolemeon Str., 54630,   
    Tel: +30 2310 526150 
    Fax: +30 2310 526150 
    Email: infothes@arsis.gr

    Website: http://arsis.gr/en/

     

    Greek Council for Refugees (GCR)
     25, Solomou Str., GR-106 82
    Athens
    Tel.: 210-3800990
    Fax: 210 -38.03.774
    Email: gcr1@gcr.gr

    Website: www.gcr.gr

    Hellenic Center for Disease Control & Prevention

    3-5, Agrafon str., Maroussi, GR-15123

    Tel.: +30.210.5212.000

    e-mail:info@keelpno.gr

    Hellenic National Committee for UNICEF

    8, A. Dimitriou & 37, J. Kennedy Streets, 161 21 Kaisariani-Athens
    Telephone: +30 210 72 55 555
    Email: unicefgr@hol.gr
    Website: http://www.unicef.gr (in Greek)

    Institute for Child Health

    1, Papadiamantopoulou & Thivon, GR-115 27

    Tel.: +30 213 2037 305/ -306

    Email: inchildh@otenet.gr

    Website: http://www.ich.gr

     

    International Organization for Migration (IOM)
    P.O. Box 430, GR-174 02 Alimos
    Telephone: +30 210 991 90 40, +30 210 991 90 45
    Email: iomathens@iom.int

    KMOP - Family and Childcare Centre

    75, Skoufa Str., GR – 10 680

    Tel.: +30 210 36 37 547

    Fax: +30 210 36 39  758

    Email: kmop@kmop.gr

    Website: www.kmop.gr

     

    Medecins du Monde
    Athens, 12 Sapfous str.
    105 53
    info@mdmgreece.gr
    Tel.: 210.32.13.150
    Fax.: 210.32.13.850
    Website: www.mdmgreece.gr
     

    Medicins Sans Frontieres
    Xenias 15, 115 27 Athens,
    Tel.: +30 210 5200500,
    Fax.: +30 210 5200503

    National Centre for Social Solidarity – EKKA

    135, Vas. Sofias Str., GR-115 21

    Tel.: +30 213 2039 704/ -706

    Fax: +30 213 2039 763

    Email: dkp_ypodochi@ekka.org.gr

    Website: www.ekka.org.gr

     

    PRAKSIS
    57 Stournari Str., GR-104 32

    Tel: +30 210 5205200

    Fax: +30 210 520 5201

    Email: info@praksis.gr
    Website: www.praksis.gr

    Research Centre for Gender Equality

    51, Har. Trikoupi & Valtetsiou, GR-106 81

    Tel.: 210 38 98 000

    Fax: 210 38 98 079

    e-mail: kethi@kethi.gr

    Website: www.kethi.gr

     

    The Smile of the Child 
    Athens: Zinonos Eleatou 10, Marousi, 15124 
    Telephone: +302103306140 - +302103306150 
    Fax: +302103843038 
    Email: info@hamogelo.gr 
    Website: http://www.hamogelo.gr/1.2/home

    5.5 Contacts

     

    National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism

    Anti-trafficking Coordinator:

    Ms. Krisztina Berta,

    Ministry of Interior, Deputy State Secretary for EU and International Relations

    Telephone: +36 (1) 441 - 1959

    E-mail: euhat@bm.gov.hu

     

    Anti-trafficking Contact point:

    Ms. Eszter Gál,

    Ministry of Interior,

    Department of European Cooperation

    E-mail: thb@bm.gov.hu

    Telephone: +36 (1) 441 – 1469

    Website: http://thb.kormany.hu/

     

    5.5.1 Governmental authorities

     

    EURES

    1086 Budapest, Szeszgyár u. 4.

    Tel: +36 (1) 303-0810/2131

    E-mail: eures@lab.hu

    Website: https://ec.europa.eu/eures/public/en/homepage

     

    Metropolitan Court of Budapest

    1055 Budapest, Szalay u. 16.

    Telephone: +36 (1) 354 – 4100

    Telefax: +36 (1) 312 – 4453

    E-mail: obh@obh.birosag.hu

     

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade,

    Consular Department

    1027 Budapest, Nagy Imre tér 4.

    Telephone: +36 (1) 458 – 1000

    Fax: +36 (1) 201 – 7323

    E-mail: konz@mfa.gov.hu

    Website: http://konzuliszolgalat.kormany.hu/en

     

    Ministry of Human Resources,

    Department of Equal Opportunities

    http://www.kormany.hu/en/ministry-of-human-resources

     

    National Bureau of Investigation

    1062 Budapest, Aradi u. 21-23.

    Telephone: +36 0680/201-2013

    Website: http://www.police.hu/english/border-information/border-crossing

     

    National Bureau of the Courts

    1055 Budapest, Markó u. 27.

    Telephone: +36 (1) 354 – 6000

     

    National Crisis Management and Information Telephone Service

    Országos Kríziskezelő és Információs Telefonszolgálat (OKIT)

    Telephone: 06 80 20 55 20

    E-mail: okit@ncsszi.hu

    Website: http://www.bantalmazas.hu/

     

    National Institute of Criminology

    1122 Budapest XII. Maros u. 6/a.

    Telefon: (+36-1) 356-7566

    Fax: (+36) 356-7219

    Email: okri@okri.hu

    Website: http://en.okri.hu/

     

    Office of Immigration and Nationality

    1117 Budapest, Budafoki út 60.

    Telephone: +36 (1) 463 – 9100

    Fax: +36(1) 463 – 9169

    Website: http://www.bmbah.hu/a_bah_ismertetese.php

     

    Office of Public Administration and Justice

    1088 Budapest, Múzeum utca 17.

    Telephone: +36 1 301 – 3200

    E-mail: info@kih.gov.hu

     

    Office of the Public Prosecutor

    1055 Budapest, Markó utca 16.

    Telephone: +36 (1) 354-5500

    E-mail: info@mku.hu

    Website: http://ugyeszseg.hu/

     

    Public Employment Service

    1089 Budapest, Kálvária tér 7.

    Telephone: +36 (1) 303 9300

    Fax: +36 (1) 210 – 4255

    E-mail: munka@lab.hu

    Website: www.munka.hu

     

    5.5.2. Non-governmental agencies

     

    Chance for Families 2005 Foundation

    Website: http://csaomovar.hu/

     

    European Roma Rights Centre

    1074 Budapest, Madách tér 4

    Phone: +36 1 4132200

    Fax: +36 1 4132201

    Email: office@errc.org

    Website: http://www.errc.org/about-us-overview

     

    Félúton Alapítvány - Halfway Foundation

    1089 Budapest, Orczy út 27.

    Website: http://feluton.hu/

     

    Hungarian Baptist Aid

    Baptista Szeretetszolgálat Alapítvány

    P.O.Box 241, Budapest H-1391

    Tel:+36 1 354 0780, +36 1 354 0779

    Fax:+36 1 302 0982

    Website: http://english.baptistasegely.hu/

     

    International Organisation for Migration

    1054 Budapest, Tüköry u. 3.

    Telephone: +36 (1) 472-2500

    Fax: +36 (1) 374 - 0532

    E-mail: iombudapest@iom.int

    Website: http://www.iom.hu/

     

    Kék- Vonal Gyermekkrízis Alapítvány -

    Child Crisis Management Foundation

    1364 Budapest, Pf. 125

    Tel.: + 36-1-354 - 1029

    Email: info@kek.vonal.hu

    Webiste: http://www.kek-vonal.hu/index.php/en/

     

    MONA Foundation for the Women of Hungary

    E-mail: mona.alapitvany@gmail.com

     

    NANE Women's Rights Association

    E-mail: info@nane.nu

    Website: http://nane.hu/biztonsagi-tippek/

     

    Periféria Association

    4400 Nyíregyháza, Eötvös utca 1.

    Telephone: +36 42 504 – 617

    E-mail: perifer@t-online.hu

     

    Segítő Kéz 2003 Social Association

    4400 Nyíregyháza, Tűzoltó út 4.

    Telephone: +36 42 432 203

    Fax: +36 42 596 357

    Website: http://segitokez2003.hu/cimlap

     

    Sex Education Foundation

    1089 Budapest, Nagyvárad tér 4.

    Website: http://www.sexeducatio.hu/index.php?subpage=

     

    Terre des Homme

    1053 Budapest, Vámház körút 8., I/5

    Telephone: +36 (1) 266 59 22

    E-mail: contact@terredeshommes.hu

    Website: http://www.terredeshommes.huhttp://www.tdh.ch/en/

     

    White Ring Public Benefit Association

    1055 Budapest, Szt. István krt. 1.

    Telephone: +36 (1) 312 – 2287

    Fax: +36 (1) 472 – 1162

    E-mail: fehergyuru@t-online.hu

    Website: http://fehergyuru.eu/newsite/?lang=en

     

    5.5 Contacts

    Government agencies

    Department for Equal Opportunities – Dipartimento per le Pari Opportunità

    Office for General and International Affairs and Interventions in the Social Field - Ufficio per gli Affari Generali, Internazionali e gli interventi in campo sociale
    Largo Chigi, 19
    00187 Roma, Italy
    Telephone: +39 0667792430
    Fax: +39 0667792463
    E-mail: europa.po@governo.it

    NGOs

    Associazione Studi Giuridici sull'Immigrazione – ASGI
    via Gerdil, 7 - 10152 – Torino
    Telephone: +39 0114 369158
    E-mail contabilita@asgi.it
    Website: http://www.asgi.it (in Italian)

    Caritas Ambrosiana
    E-mail: caritas.ambrosiana@caritas.it
    Website: http://www.caritas.it (in Italian)

    Fondazione Basso Sezione Internazionale
    Via della Dogana Vecchia, 5
    00186 Roma
    E-mail: basso@fondazionebasso.it
    Websites: www.internazionaleleliobasso.it ; www.fondazionebasso.it
    Telephone: 06 6880 1468/+39 3666465147

    Federazione nazionale CNCA
    Via di Santa Maria Maggiore, 148 - 00184 Roma
    tel. 06-4423 0403 / 06-4429 2379

    Email: segreteria@cnca.it

    Website: http://www.cnca.it/

     

    Cooperativa Dedalus

    Via Vicinale Santa Maria del Pianto - Torre 1 (11 piano) 80143 Napoli

    Tel 081 7877333 – fax 081 19569518 – 392 9730570 – 392 9732693

    Email: tratta@coopdedalus.it

    Website: Dedalus

    Save the Children – Italia Onlus
    Via Volturno, 58 - 00185 Roma
    Telephone: 0648 07001
    E-mail: info@savethechildren.it
    Website:http://www.savethechildren.it (in Italian)

    5.5 Contacts

    Government agencies

    National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism

    Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania
    Dr. Reda Sirgedienė

    Senior Adviser and National Rapporteur for THB
    Public Security and Migration Policy Department
    Ministry of the Interior
    The Republic of Lithuania
    Tel. +370 5 2717239

     

    Lithuanian Criminal Police Bureau
    Telephone: +370 5 271 9901
    E-mail: prekybazmonemis@policija.lt
    Website: http://www.policija.lt (in Lithuanian)


    Office of the ombudsman for children
    Ombudsman: Mrs. ZIOBIENE Edita
    Barboros Radvilaites str. 1, LT-01104 Vilnius
    Telephone: +370 5 210 70 77
    E-mail:  edziob@lrs.lt


    NGOs

    Lithuanian Caritas

    Papilio 5, LT-44275 Kaunas
    Phone: +370 37 323300
    Email: caritas@anti-trafficking.lt

    Lithuanian Missing Persons’ Families Support Center
    Zalgirio 133, LT-08217 Vilnius
    Phone: +370 5 248 3373
    Hotline: 8 800 261 61 (inside Lithuania only)
    Email: centras@missing.lt

    Klaipeda Social and Psychological Services Center
    Smilciu 6, LT-92277 Klaipeda
    Phone: +370 46 350099
    Mob.: +370 612 74 930 -mail: kmn@moteriai.lt

    Association Men’s Crisis Center of Kaunas County
    Mapu 20-32, LT-44284 Kaunas
    Mob. +370 662 26 770
    Email: vkcentras@gmail.com


    Association of Women Affected by HIV/AIDS and their Relatives
    Kauno 6-1, LT-01310 Vilnius
    Phone: +370 5 233 2533
    Mob. +370 687 10 655
    Email: demetra@demetra.lt
    Website: http://demetra.lt

    Vilnius Municipality Pension for Mother and Child
    Vytenio 45, LT-03208 Vilnius
    Phone: +370 5 233 2508
    Email: krizes@mvpensionas.lt
     

    5.5 Contacts

    Government agencies

    Ministry of Justice
    contact: Sophie Hoffmann
    13 rue Erasme, L-1348 Luxembourg
    Telephone: +352 24784042
    E-mail: Sophie.Hoffmann@mj.etat.lu
    Website: http://www.mj.public.lu (in French)

    Luxembourg national contact for expertise in the field combating and preventing of trafficking in Human Beings
    Police Grand-Ducale / Service de Police Judiciaire (SPJ)
    Tel: +352 4997 6210
    Fax: +352 4997 6229
    Email: spj.co@police.etat.lu

    NGOs

    ASTI a.s.b.l. ASTI Luxembourg asbl
    10-12, rue Auguste Laval
    L-1922 Luxembourg Email: ensemble@asti.lu
    Tél. : (+352) 43 83 33 1 Website : http://www.asti.lu/ 

    Amnesty International a.s.b.l. 
    Tel: + 352 48 16 87 
    Fax: + 352 48 36 80 Rue des Etats-Unis, 23 1019 Luxembourg 
    Website : https://www.amnesty.lu/home/ 
    Email : info@amnesty.lu

    ECPAT Luxembourg a.s.b.l. 
    3, rue des Bains, L-1212 Luxembourg
    Tel: +352 26 27 08 09
    Fax: +352 26 20 06 22
    E-mail: ecpat-luxembourg@ecpat.lu
    Website: www.ecpat.lu

    Femmes en Détresse a.s.b.l
    Administration Centrale
    1, rue de Bonnevoie, L-1260 Luxembourg 
    Telephone: +352 40 73 35
    E-mail: organisation@fed.lu
    Website: http://www.fed.lu (in French)

    Fondation Maison de la Porte Ouverte, Fondation.
    Siège social: L-1463 Luxembourg, 2, rue du Fort Elisabeth.
    R.C.S. Luxembourg G 29.

    5.5 Contacts

    Governments

    National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings
    Manuel Albano
    Commission for Citizenship and Gender Equality
    Rua Ferreira Borges, 69 – 2ºC, 4050- 253 Porto
    Telephone: +351 222074370
    E-mail: ccig@cig.gov.pt
    mjalbano@cig.gov.pt
    Website:  http://www.cig.gov.pt (in Portuguese)

    Observatory on Trafficking in Human Beings
    Director of the Observatory on Trafficking in Human Beings
    Rita Penedo
    Ministério da Administração Interna
    Praça do Comércio, Ala Oriental
    Tel: + 351 21 394 71 61;
    1149-018 Lisbon
    E-mail: otsh@otsh.mai.gov.pt; rpenedo@otsh.mai.gov.pt
     


    NGOs

    Associação "O Ninho"
    Rua Luciano Cordeiro nº 59 4º, 1150-212 Lisboa
    Telephone: +351 213 530 273
    E-mail: geral@oninho.pt
    Website: http://www.oninho.pt (in Portuguese)

    APAV - Serviços centrais de Sede
    Rua José Estêvão, 135 A, Pisos 1/2
    1150-201 Lisboa, Portugal
    Tel. 21 358 79 00
    Fax 21 887 63 51
    Email: apav.sede@apav.pt
     

    AMCV

    Rua João Villaret nº 9 – 1000-182 Lisboa – Portugal
    Tel: (+351) 21 3802160 |
    Fax: (+351) 21 3802168 |
    Website: www.amcv.org.pt
    Centro Anti-Violência Tel: (+351) 21 3802165; Fax: (+351) 21 3802169:  ca@amcv.org.pt

    OIKOS - Cooperação e Desenvolvimento
    Portugal, Lisboa
    Rua Visconde Moreira de Rey, nº 37
    Linda-a-Pastora 2790-447 Queijas
    Telefone: (+351) 218 823 630
    Fax: (+351) 218 823 635
    Website: http://www.oikos.pt

    Serviço Jesuíta aos Refugiados
    Rua 8 ao Alto do Lumiar, Lote 59 - 1750-342 Lisboa
    tel.217 552 790 – mobile: 937 541 620
    Website: www.jrsportugal.pt

    Saúde em Português
    Av. Elísio de Moura nº 417, 1º. E
    3030-183 Coimbra, Portugal.
    Tel: +351 239 702 723
    Telm: +351 960092989
    Fax: +351 239 705 186
    Facebook: www.facebook.com/saude.em.portugues
    Website: http://www.saudeportugues.org/

    Sede Central MDM
    Av. Almirante Reis, 90, 7º A
    1150-022 Lisboa
    Tel.: 218 153398
    Fax.: 218 138137
    Email: geral@mdm.org.pt
    Website:  http://www.mdm.org.pt

    Associação ComuniDária
    Association ComuniDária NIPC 508438330
    City of Horta 14B Street, Room 8 - 1000-102 Lisbon - Portugal
    Website: http://www.comunidaria.org/index.php

    Comissão Nacional de Justiça e Paz - CAVITP – Comissão de Apoio à Vítima de Tráfico de Pessoas
    Quinta do Cabeço, Porta D, 1885-076 Moscavide
    Secretário: Fernando Santos José
    Tel:  218 855 480
    Fax: 218 855 475
    Email: comissaonjp@gmail.com
    Website:  http://www.ecclesia.pt/cnjp/

    Conferência dos Institutos Religiosos de Portugal
    Avenida 5 de Qoutubro, 156
    1050-062 Lisboa
    Email: secgeral.cirp@gmail.com
    Website: http://www.cirp.pt/





     

    5.5 Contacts

    National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism 

    Ministry of Internal Affairs

    National Agency against Trafficking in Persons

    Mr. Romulus Nicolae Ungureanu, Director

    Bucharest, Ion Campineanu, Nr. 20, etaj 5, Sector 1, Romania

    Telephone: +40 21 311 89 84

    E-mails: anitp@mai.gov.ro

    Website: http://www.anitp.mai.gov.ro/

     
    NGOs

    ADPARE
    Str. Pop de Băseşti nr. 49-51,  Sc. 2 Ap. 11, Sector 2, Bucharest
    Tel/fax: 021 253 29 04
    Email: adpare@adpare.eu


    AIDROM
    Str. Halmeu, nr. 12-14 ,Sector 2,
    CP021118 , Bucharest
    Tel: +4021 212 48 68
    0751 179 274
    Fax: +4021 210 72 55
    Email: aidrom@gmail.com


    Betania Bacău
    Str. Nordului, Nr. 19 Bis, Bacău.
    Tel : 0234 206 016
    Fax : 0234 206 017, Mobil: 0745 389 909
    Email: office@asociatiabetania.ro , george@asociatiabetania.ro

    Caritas Bucureşti

    Str. Gh. Pripu nr.  22-36, Sector 1, Bucharest
    Tel: 021/233 21 35
    Fax :021/233 21 36
    Email: office@caritasbucuresti.org.com

    Centrul „Raţiu” Pentru Democraţie

    Pţa 1 Dec. 1918, nr. 1, Turda, Cluj
    Tel: 0264/ 317 555
    Fax: 0264/306 350

    Email: office@ratiudemocratycenter.org

     

    Institutul Est European pentru Sanatatea Reproducerii

    Str. Moldovei 1,
    540493, Târgu-Mureş, Jud. Mures
    Telefon 0265 255532, 0265 255931
    Fax 0265 255370
    E-mail office@eeirh.org

    EuroDEMOS 

    Str.Pacurari, nr.20, bl. 4, parter, cod 700511, Iasi, Romania 
    Telephone: +40 332 803 634 
    Website: www.eurodemos.org 
    E-mail: eurodemos@yahoo.com 

    Generaţie Tânără

    Str. Molidului, nr. 8,Timişoara
    Tel: 0256/282 320
    Fax: 0256/215 659
    Email:  office@generatietanara.ro

    People to People Foundation 

    str. Republicii nr. 36
    Oradea, 410159, Romania
    Tel: (+40) 359411700
    Fax: (+40) 359411700 
    Website:http://www.people2people.ro/index.php 
    E-mail: nicugal@people2people.ro 

    Pro Refugiu Association 

    Calea Crangasi, nr.56, sector 6, Bucharest, Romania 
    Telephone: +40732623218 
    E-mail: office@prorefugiu.org 

    Save The Children România 

    Intrarea Ştefan Furtună nr. 3,
    Sector 1, Bucharest.
    Tel: (+4)021 316 61 76
    Fax: (+4) 021 312 44 86

    Website: www.salvaticopiii.ro

    Email: rosc@salvaticopiii.ro
     

    Zambetul Ingerilor Association

    Str. Radu Beller nr. 31
    Bucuresti, Sector 2

    Website: www.azi-ong.ro

    Email: contact@azi-ong.ro

     

    Solidaritate si Speranta Foundation

    Str. Costache Negri, nr. 48, 700071

    Iasi

    Tel: (+4) 0232220548

    Fax: (+4) 0232271228

    Website: www.fundatia.mmb.ro

    Email: contact@fundatia.mmb.ro


    Terre des Hommes

    Str. Franzelarilor nr.6, Sector 2

    020786, Bucureşti, Romania

    Tel: (004) 031 4378698

    website: www.tdh.ch

     

    Telefonul Copilului Association

    Website: www.telefonulcopilului.ro

    Email: telefonulcopilului@telefonulcopilului.ro

     

    World Vision România 

    Str. Rotasului, nr. 7,
    Sctor 1, Bucharest.
    Tel: 021/222 91 01
    Fax: 021/224 29 72
    Email: rom_office@wvi.org

     

     

    5.5 Contacts

    Government

    the Ministry of Interior
    Pribinova 2, 812 72 Bratislava
    Phone: + 421 2 5094 1111
    Website: http://www.minv.sk/?ministry-of-interior
     

    Information Centre to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings and Crime Prevention

    Drieňová 22, 826 86 Bratislava

    Phone : + 421 2 5094 1111

    Email: icosl@minv.sk

    Website: http://www.minv.sk/?informacne-centrum-na-boj-proti-obchodovaniu-s-ludmi-a-prevenciu-kriminality

     

    NGOs and other organisations

    IOM Bratislava
    Grosslingova 4, 811 09 Bratislava
    Telephone: +421 2 5263 15 97
    E-mail: iom@iom.sk
    Website: http://www.iom.sk/en

    Slovak Crisis Center DOTYK
    Telephone: +421 4 2442 12 43
    Hotline: 903 704 784 (for calls from Slovakia)
    E-mail: dotyk@dotyk.sk
    Website: http://www.dotyk.sk/01-profil/index.php?lang=en

    Slovenská katolícka charita,  (Slovak Catholic Charity)
    Kapitulská 18
    SK-814 15 Bratislava
    Tel.: +421-2-5443 1506, -5443 2503
    Fax: +421-2-5443 3097
    Email: stoptrafficking@charita.sk


     

    5.5 Contacts

    National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms

    National Coordinator
    Mr. Sandi Čurin MSc, Undersecretary
    Ministry of the Interior
    European Affairs and International Cooperation Office
    Telephone: +386 1 428 58 49 

    E-mail: Sandi.Curin@gov.si
    Website: http://www.vlada.si/en/projects/fight_against_trafficking_in_persons/

     

     NGOs

     

    Caritas Slovenia
    Kristanova ulica 1, 1000 Ljubljana
    Phone: +386 1 300 59 60
    E-mail: info@karitas.si
     

    Society Ključ
    Society, Centre for the fight against trafficking in persons
    PP 1646, 1000 Ljubljana
    Telephone: +386 080 1722
    Hotline: 080 17 22
    E-mail: info@drustvo-kljuc.si
     

    5.5 Contacts

    Government

    Blanca Hernández Oliver - Delegada del Gobierno para la Violencia de Género
    Secretaría de Estado de Servicios Sociales e Igualdad
    Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad (in Spanish)
    C/ Alcalá, 37
    28071 – Madrid

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Ayda Reyes Catolicos 4, 28040 Madrid
    Telephone: Tel. +34 91 583 81 00 01 02
    E-mail: centro.informacion@aecid.es
    Website: http://www.aecid.es (in Spanish)

    Ministry of Interior
    E-mail:estafeta@mir.es
    Website: http://www.mir.es (in Spanish)

    NGOs

    ACCEM
    Plaza Santa Maria Soledad Torres Acosta 2, 28004 Madrid
    Telephone: +34 91 532 74 78, +34 91 532 74 79
    E-mail: accem@accem.es
    Website: http://www.accem.es/refugiados/inmigrantes (in Spanish)

    International Organization for Migration (IOM)
    Fernando el Católico, 10 - 1º A, 28015 Madrid
    Telephone: +34.9 144 57 11 6
    E-mail: iommadrid@iom.int
    Website: http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/spain

    La Red Española contra la Trata de Personas
    Contact to national organisations
    Website: http://www.redcontralatrata.org (in Spanish)

    5.5 Contacts

    National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms

    Home Office
    OFCU, OIC Team
    2 Marsham Street, London SW1P 4DF
    Telephone:+ 44 20 7035 4848 (09:00-17:00 Mon-Fri)
    Email: public.enquiries@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk
    Website:http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk

    UK Human Trafficking Centre
    Telephone: +44 (0)114 252 3891
    E-mail: UKHTC_Admin@southyorks.pnn.police.uk


    The Gangmasters Licensing Authority
    PO Box 8538, Nottingham, NG8 9AF
    Telephone: +44 845 602 5020
    Email: enquiries@gla.gsi.gov.uk
    Website: http://www.gla.gov.uk/


    NCA - National Crime Agency
    1-7 Old Queen Street
    London
    SW1H 9HP
    Website: http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/

    NGOs

    Anti-slavery International
    Thomas Clarkson House
    The Stableyard, Broomgrove Road, London SW9 9TL
    Telephone: +44 (0)20 7501 8920
    E-mail:info@antislavery.org
    Website:www.antislavery.org

    Amnesty International - International Secretarial
    1 Easton street, London WC1X 0DW
    Telephone:+44 20 74135500
    Website: http://www.amnesty.org/en

    AFRUCA - Africans Unite Against Child Abuse
    Unit 3D/F Leroy House, 436 Essex Road, London N1 3QP
    Telephone: +44 844 660 8607
    Website: http://www.afruca.org

    BAWSO Cardiff - Head Office
    9, Cathedral Road
    CARDIFF
    CF11 9HA
    Tel: 029 20644 633
    Fax: 029 20644 588
    Website: http://www.bawso.org.uk

    Barnardo's
    Tanners Lane, Barkingside, Ilford, Essex
    Telephone: 0208 550 8822
    Fax: 0208 551 6870
    Website: http://www.barnardos.org.uk/
    Tel:+44 (0) 207 233 9887
    Fax: +44 (0) 207 233 9869

    Bristol Counter-Trafficking Coalition
    Easton Community Centre
    Kilburn Street
    Bristol, Avon BS5 6AW
    0117 954 1409

    Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre
    33 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London SW1V 2WG
    Website: http://www.ceop.police.uk

    Dalit Freedom Network
    DFN UK, PO Box 24, Oswestry
    Tel: (+44) 01691 776709
    Website: http://www.dfn.org.uk
    Email: info@dfn.org.uk
    Tel:+44 (0) 207 233 9887
    Fax: +44 (0) 207 233 9869
     

    ECPAT UK
    4A Chillingworth Road
    London
    N7 8QJ
    Tel: 020 7607 2136
    Email: info@ecpat.org.uk
    Website: http://www.ecpat.org.uk

    Helen Bamber Foundation
    5, Museum House
    25 Museum Street
    London WC1A 1JT
    Phone: 020 7631 4492
    Fax: 020 7631 4493
    Website: http://www.helenbamber.org

    International Organisation for Migration
    11 Belgrave Road, London SW1V 1RB
    Tel: +44 20 7811 6011
    Fax +44 20 7811 6043
    Email: help@nspcc.org.uk

    Kalayaan
    St Francis of Assisi Community Centre
    13 Hippodrome Place
    London W11 4SF
    Telephone: 0207 243 2942
    Fax: 0207 792 3060
    Website:http://www.kalayaan.org.uk/

    National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
    Weston House, 42 Curtain Road,
    London EC2A 3NH
    Telephone: 020 7825 2500
    Fax: 020 7825 2525
    Email: help@nspcc.org.uk

    Eaves for Women – Poppy Project
    Unit 2.03 Canterbury Court 
    Kennington Business Park
    1-3 Brixton Road
    London SW9 6DE
    Email: post@eavesforwomen.org.uk
    Website: http://www.eavesforwomen.org.uk/  

    Stop The Traffik
    75 Westminster Bridge Road
    London, SE1 7HS, U.K.
    E-mail: info@stopthetraffik.org
    Website: http://www.stopthetraffik.org/

    Unseen
    1 Georges Square 
    Bath Street
    Bristol
    BS1 6BA
    Tel: +44 303 040 2888
    E-mail: info@unseenuk.org
    Web: www.unseenuk.org
    Twitter: @unseenorg
    Facebook: www.facebook.com/unseenuk

     

    5.5 Contacts


    Government agencies

    Department of Justice and Equality
    The Anti-Human Trafficking Unit
    51 Stephen's Green East, Dublin 2
    Telephone: +353.1 6028879
    E-mail: ahtu@justice.ie
    Website: www.blueblindfold.gov.ie

    The Garda National Immigration Bureau (GNIB)
    of An Garda Síochána (Irish Police) 
    13/14 Burgh Quay, Dublin 2
    Telephone: +353 1 666 9130/01
    Website: www.garda.ie
     

    Legal Aid Board
    Human Trafficking/ Administrative Support Unit
    48 - 49 North Brunswick Street
    Georges Lane, Dublin 7
    Telephone: 01 646 9600
    Website: www.legalaidboard.ie

    Health Service Executive,
    (Anti Human Trafficking Team), 
    Baggot St Hospital, Dublin  4.
    Telephone: 01 6606982
    Email: admin.whp@hse.ie

    (Separated Children Seeking Asylum Team)
    Separated Children Seeking Asylum

    Child and Family Agency

    Sir Patrick Dun’s Hospital

    Lower Grand Canal Street

    Dublin 2

    +353 1 647 7006



    NGOs

    APT (Act to Prevent Trafficking)
    Email: info@aptireland.org
    Website: http://aptireland.org/

    Migrant Rights Centre Ireland
    55 Parnell Square West, Dublin 1
    Telephone: +353 1 889 7570
    E-mail: info@mrci.ie
    Website: http://www.mrci.ie

    Ruhama - Supporting women affected by prostitution and human trafficking
    Senior House, All Hallows College, Drumcondra, Dublin 9
    Telephone: +353 1 836 0292
    E-mail: admin@ruhama.ie
    Website: http://www.ruhama.ie

    Immigrant Council of Ireland
    2 St Andrew Street, Dublin 2
    Telephone (admin): +353 1 674 0202
    Email: admin@immigrantcouncil.ie
    Website: www.immigrantcouncil.ie

    Stop Sex Trafficking
    Website: http://www.stopsextrafficking.ie/
    Barnardos, Christchurch Square, Dublin 8.
    Tel: (01) 453 0355 Callsave: 1850 222 300
    Fax: (01) 453 0300
    Email: info@barnardos.ie
    Website: http://www.barnardos.ie/index.html


    The Irish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (ISPCC)
    29 Lwr Baggot Street
    Dublin 2
    Tel: 01 6767960
    Fax 01 6789012
    Email: ispcc@ispcc.ie

    5.5 Contacts

    Government Office for Human Rights and Rights of National Minorities

    National coordinator and Director Branko Sočanac, M.A.

    Republic of Croatia

    Mesnička 23, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

    Phone: +385 1 4569 358; Fax: +385 1 4569 324

    E-mail: branko.socanac@uljppnm.vlada.hr

     

    Ministry of Interior

    Police Directorate

    Department for organized crime

    Ilica 335, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

    Phone: +385 1 3788002; Fax: +385 1 3788264

    mail: policija@mup.hr

     

    State’s Attorney’s Office

    Gajeva 30a, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Phone: +385 1 4591 888 ; Fax: +385 1 4591 854
    tajnistvo.dorh@dorh.hr

     

    Ministry of social policy and youth

    Savska cesta 66, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

    Phone: +385 1 555 7111; Fax. +385 1 555 7222

    e-mail: ministarstvo@mspm.hr

     

    Ministry of Health

    Ksaver 200a, 10000Zagreb

    Phone: + 385 1 4607-555, Fax: + 385 1 4677-076

    e-mail: diana.glavina@miz.hr

     

    Ministry of Foreign and European affairs

    Trg N. Š. Zrinskog 7-8, 10000 Zagreb  

    Phone: + 385 1 4569 964; Fax: + 385 1 4551 795

    e-mail: kabinet.ministrice@mvep.hr

     

    PETRA network

    Ulica kralja Držislava 2, 10000 Zagreb  

    Phone: + 385 1 4551128; Fax: + 385 1 4551 142

    e-mail: cenzena@zamir.net

     

    Croatian Red Cross

    Ulica Crvenog križa 14, P.P.93, 10 001 Zagreb
    Phone:+ 385 1 4655 814; Fax: + 385 1 4655 365
    e-mail: redcross@hck.hr

    5.6 Acronyms

    FEIMA  Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs 
    LEFÖ-IBF Intervention Centre for Trafficked Women
    OEZA/ADA  Austrian Development Cooperation and Cooperation with Eastern Europe/Austrian Development Agency

     

    5.6 Acronyms

    CDCOC Chief Directorate Combating Organized Crime
    FYROM Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
    ICMPD International Centre for Migration Policy Development
    KLPD Netherlands Police Agency
    NCCTHB National Commission for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings
    NRM   National Referral Mechanism for victims of trafficking
    TRM Transnational Referral Mechanism
    TRM-SEE

    Programme to Support the Development of Transnational Referral Mechanisms for Trafficked Persons in South-Eastern Europe

    5.6 Acronyms

    MoI Ministry of Interior
    ICMPD International Centre for Migration Policy Development
    IOM International Organisation for Migration
    MFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    RFA Refugee Facility Administration

    5.6 Acronyms

    5.6 Acronyms

    CBSS Council of the Baltic Sea States
    OSCE Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe 

    5.6 Acronyms

    1. GG – GOVERNEMENT GAZETTE
    2. IOM – International Organization for Migration  
    3. KETHI- Research Center for Gender Equality
    4. EKKA- National Centre for Social Solidarity
    5. ISF – Internal Security Fund

    5.6 Acronyms

    BÁH                      Office of Immigration and Nationality

    ICMPD                  International Centre for Migration Policy Development

    IOM                      International Organisation for Migration

    OKIT                     National Crisis Management and Information Telephone Service

    ORFK                    Hungarian Police Headquarters

    5.6 Acronyms

    5.6 Acronyms

    CBSS Council of the Baltic Sea States
    CC Criminal Code
    CEPOL European Police College
    IOM International Organisation for Migration
    NIIS National Integrated Information System
    TFTHB Task Force against Trafficking in Human Beings
    UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

    5.6 Acronyms

    EUROPOL European Law Enforcement Agency
    INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization
    ITM Inspection du travail et des mines/ Factory and Mines Inspectorship

    5.6 Acronyms

    CAIM Cooperation, Action, Research and World Vision
    CIG Commission for Citizenship and Gender Equality
    CPLP Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries
    IOM Organisation for Migration
    MAI Ministry of Internal Affairs
    MJ Ministry of Justice
    MTSS Ministry of Labour and Social Solidarity
    MNE Ministry for Foreign Affairs
    PCM Presidency of the Council of Ministers
    OTSH Observatory on Trafficking in Human Beings
    SACTAP Southern African Counter Trafficking Assistance Programme
    UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

    5.6 Acronyms

    ANITP 

      National Agency against Trafficking in Persons

     IGPF

      Inspectorate General of Border Police

     IGPR

     Inspectorate General of Romanian Police

     ANPDCA

      National Authority for the Protection of the Children's Rights and Adoption

     SIMEV

      National Integrated System to Monitor and Assess Victims of Trafficking

     

     

     

     

     

     

    5.6 Acronyms

    This item has not been translated in this language please try in EN

    5.6 Acronyms

     

     IWG  Interdepartmental Working Group
     PATS  Mechanism for recognition, assistance and protection of victims of trafficking in human beings and/or sexual violence in asylum procedures in Slovenia

    5.6 Acronyms

    AECID Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional
    CICO The Centro de Inteligencia contra el Crimen Organizado
    COMMCA Council of Ministers for Women in Central America
    IOM International Organisation for Migration
    MDGs Millennium Development Goals
    SISCA Social Integration System in Central America
    UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

    5.6 Acronyms

    CEOP Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre
    DCSF Department of Children, Schools and Families
    DfID Department for International Development
     FCO  Foreign and Commonwealth Office
     IDMG  Departmental Ministerial Group on Human Trafficking
     GLA  Gangmasters Licensing Authority
     TARA  Trafficking Awareness Raising Alliance
     UKHTC  United Kingdom Human Trafficking Centre

    5.6 Acronyms

    AHTU  Anti-Human Trafficking Unit
    ASNCU Asylum Seekers and New Communities Unit
    CSPE Programme of the Civil, Social and Political Education
    DPP Director of Public Prosecutions
    FÁS  National Employment Training Agency
    GNIB Garda National Immigration Bureau
    HSE Health Service Executive  
    IOM International Organisation for Migration
    NERA National Employment Rights Authority  
    RIA  Reception Integration Agency

    6. RESOURCES

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    6. RESOURCES

    6. RESOURCES

    6. RESOURCES

    6. RESOURCES

    6. RESOURCES

    6. RESOURCES

    6. RESOURCES

    6. RESOURCES

    6. RESOURCES

    6. RESOURCES

    6.1 Legislation

    Legislation

    1. Criminal Code - Trafficking in Human Beings (Modified by the Law of 10 August 2005 amending various provisions to strengthen the fight against trafficking and trafficking in human beings and modified in 2013 by the law of 29 April 2013 amending article 433quinquies of the Criminal Code with a view to clarifying and expanding the criminal offence of human trafficking (in French and Dutch).

    Original title:

    1. Code pénal
    2. Strafwetboek – mensenhandel

     

    1. Law of 10 August 2005 amending various provisions to strengthen the fight against trafficking and trafficking in human beings, 2 September 2005 (in French and Dutch)

    Original title:

    1. Loi du 10 août 2005 modifiant diverses dispositions en vue de renforcer la lutte contre la traite et le trafic des êtres humains et contre les pratiques des marchands de sommeil (MB, 2 septembre 2005)
    2. Wet van 10 augustus 2005 tot wijziging van diverse bepalingen met het oog op de versterking van de strijd tegen mensenhandel en mensensmokkel en tegen praktijken van huisjesmelkers(BS, 2 september 2005)

     

    1. Law of 29 April 2013 amending article 433quinquies of the Criminal Code with a view to clarifying and expanding the criminal offence of human trafficking (in French and Dutch).

    Original Title:

    1. Wet van 29 april 2013 tot wijziging van artikel 433quinquies van het Strafwetboek met het oog op het verduidelijken en het uitbreiden van de definitie van mensenhandel ;
    2. Loi du 29 avril 2013 visant à modifier l'article 433quinquies du Code pénal en vue de clarifier et d'étendre la définition de la traite des êtres humains.

     

    1. Royal Decree of 16 May 2004 on the fight against trafficking and trafficking in human beings (M.B. May 28, 2004)(Modified by the  Royal Decree of 21th of July 2014 amending the Royal Decree of 16th of  May on the fight against trafficking and trafficking in human beings) (in French and Dutch)


    Original title:

    1. Arrêté royal du 16 mai 2004 relatif à la lutte contre le trafic et la traite des êtres humain (MB, 28 mai 2004)
    2. Koninklijk besluit van 16 mei 2004 betreffende de bestrijding van de mensensmokkel en mensenhandel (BS, 28 mei 2004)

     

    1.  Royal Decree of 21th of July 2014 amending the Royal Decree of 16th of  May on the fight against trafficking and trafficking in human beings (M.B. 1st of September 2014)

    Original Title:

    1. Koninklijk besluit van 21 juli 2014 tot wijziging van het koninklijk besluit van 16 mei 2004 betreffende de bestrijding van de mensensmokkel en mensenhandel (B.S. 1 september 2014) ;
    2. Arrêté royal van 21 juli 2014 modifiant l’arrêté royal du 16 mai 2004 relatif à la lutte contre le trafic et la traite des êtres humains.

     

    1. Royal Decree of 27 April 2007, trafficking in human beings, modifies the status of victims of trafficking in human beings (in French and Dutch)

    Original title:

    1. Arrêté royal du 27 avril 2007 - traite des êtres humains modalités statut victime traite des êtres humains
    2. Koninklijk Besluit 27 april 2007 – mensenhandel modaliteiten slachtofferstatuut mensenhandel

     

    1. Act of 15 September 2006 amending the Law on the entry, residence, establishment and expulsion of aliens from December 15, 1980 (in French)

    Original title:

    1. Loi du 15 septembre 2006 modifiant la loi du 15 décembre 1980 sur l'accès au territoire, le séjour, l'établissement et l'éloignement des étrangers
    2. Wet van 15 september 2006 tot wijziging van de wet van 15 december 1980 betreffende de toegang tot het grondgebied, het verblijf, de vestiging en de verwijdering van vreemdelingen

     

    1. Royal Decree of 18 April  2013 concerning the recognition of the centra specialised in the reception and assistance of victims of traffickering in human beings and certain aggravated forms of smuggling in human beings and concerning the consent to go to court

     

    1. Koninklijk besluit van 18 april 2013 inzake de erkenning van de centra gespecialiseerd in de opvang en begeleiding van slachtoffers van mensenhandel en van bepaalde zwaardere vormen van mensensmokkel en inzake de erkenning om in rechte op te treden (B.S. 22 mei 2013)
    2. Arrêté royal du 18 avril 2013 relatif à la reconnaissance des centres spécialisés dans l'accueil et l'accompagnement des victimes de traite et de certaines formes aggravées de trafic des êtres humains et à l'agrément pour ester en justice (M.B. 22 mai 2013)

    Case Law can be found on the website of the Federal Migration Centrum (ex Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism)(in French and Dutch)

    6.1 Legislation

    Law for Combating Trafficking, Exploitation of Human Beings and for the Protection of Victims of 2007 [N.87 (I) / 2007] (in Greek)

     

    6.1 Legislation

    • The Criminal Code, Order No. 1034 of 29 October 2009(in Danish) (Straffeloven, jf. lovbekendtgørelse nr. 1034 af 29. oktober 2009)
    • The Danish Aliens Act, Order No. 785 of 10 August 2009 (PDF in English) Udlændingeloven, jf. lovbekendtgørelse nr. 785 af 10. august 2009 (in Danish)

    6.1 Legislation

     

    Criminal Code

    Act No. 2003/239 on Internal Security of March 18, 2003(in French) (Code pénal, loi n° 2003-239 du 18 mars 2003 pour la sécurité intérieure.)

    Act No. 2013/711 on Several provisions for adaptation in the field of justice under the law of the European Union and the international commitments of France. Chapter I.(in French) (Chapitre Ier : Dispositions portant transposition de la directive 2011/36/UE du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 5 avril 2011 concernant la prévention de la traite des êtres humains et la lutte contre ce phénomène ainsi que la protection des victimes et remplaçant la décision-cadre 2002/629/JAI du Conseil)

     

    Case Law

    Siliadin V. France, Application no. 73316/01, Council of Europe: European Court of Human Rights, 26 July 2005 (in English)

    C.N v c/France , Application 67724/09, Council of Europe : European Court of Human Rights, 11 October 2012 (in French) 

    6.1 Legislation

    • Criminal Code as amended February 2005 (Strafgesetzbuch in der geänderten Fassung vom Februar 2005)
      • Trafficking in human beings, art 232, 233 a, 236, 180 b, 181 (in English and German)
      • Trafficking in organs, art 17, art 18 (in German)
    • Transplantation Act 1997as amended 2002 (Transplantationsgesetz von 1997 in der geänderten Fassung von 2002) (in German)
    • Residence Act 2004 (art. 25, par.4) (Aufenthaltsgesetz § 25, Abs. 4) (in English and German)

    6.1 Legislation

    Regulations

    Regulation 889, Regulations Regarding the Procedures, by Which Victims of the Traffic in Human Beings Receive Social Rehabilitation Services, and the Criteria for the Recognition of a Person as a Victim of the Traffic in Human Beings, adopted by the Cabinet of the Ministers of the Republic of Latvia on 31 October 2006 (Noteikumi par kārtību, kādā cilvēku tirdzniecības upuri saņem sociālās rehabilitācijas pakalpojumus, un kritērijiem personas atzīšanai par cilvēku tirdzniecības upuri) (in English and Latvian)

    • Regulation No 310, Procedures by which Persons Cross the State Border of the Republic of Latvia, adopted by the Cabinet of the Ministers of the Republic of Latvia on 10 July 2001,  (Kārtība, kādā personas šķērso Latvijas Republikas valsts robežu)
    • Regulation No 707, Procedures by which Alien Minors Enter and Reside in the Republic of Latvia Unaccompanied by Parents or Guardians, adopted by the Cabinet of the Ministers of the Republic of Latvia on 16 April 2003, (Kārtība, kādā Latvijas Republikā ieceļo un uzturas nepilngadīgi ārzemnieki bez vecāku vai aizbildņu pavadības

    (Kārtība, kādā Latvijas Republikā ieceļo un uzturas nepilngadīgi ārzemnieki bez vecāku vai aizbildņu pavadības

    6.1 Legislation

    • Penal Code, Article 273f valid from 1 July 2009 (Artikel 273f Wetboek van Strafrecht geldend vanaf 1 juli 2009) (in English and Dutch)
      • Trafficking in Human Beings for Sexual Exploitation, Article 273f
      • Trafficking in Human Beings for Labour Exploitation, Article 273f
      • Trafficking in Children, Article 273f
      • Trafficking in Organs, Article 273f
    • Aliens Circular 2000 (Vreemdelingencirculaire 2000) (in Dutch)
    • B-9 Regulation(Hoofdstuk B 9 - de B 9-regeling) (in Dutch)

    6.1 Legislation

    The Code of Criminal Procedures adopted on 6 june 1997(PDF in English) – Kodeks karny (in Polish)

    • Trafficking in Human Beings for Sexual Exploitation Art. 253(1)
    • Trafficking in Human Beings for Labour Exploitation Art. 253(1)
    • Trafficking in Children Art. 253(1-2)
    • Trafficking in Organs Art. 253

    Act on Aliens, adopted on 13 June 2003 (amended 2005 and 2009) (Ustawa o cudzoziemcach) (in English and Polish)

    • Permission for residence for a specific period Art. 53(1)(15)
    • Permission for residence for a specific period – reflection period Art. 53(a) (2) and Art. 56(2)

    Law of 16 February 2007 amending the Law on social assistance (Ustawa z dnia 16 lutego 2007 r. o zmianie ustawy o pomocy społecznej) (in Polish)

    6.1 Legislation

    • The Criminal Code (2004:406) Chapter 6 (PDF in English) - Brottsbalken (2004:406) (in Swedish)
      • Chap. 4, section 1 a Trafficking in Human Beings
      • Chap. 6, section 11, The Purchase of a sexual service
      • Chap. 6, section 9, The Purchase of a sexual act from a child
    • The Act Prohibiting the Purchase of Sexual Services (SFS 1998:408) The Act entered into force on 1 January 1999, but was revoked in April 2005, when the provision was made a part of the Penal Code (Lag om förbud mot köp av sexuella tjänster SFS 1998:408) (Swedish only)
    • Aliens Act (2005:716) (PDF in English). The Act entered into force on 31 March 2006 Chap. 5, para. 15 - Utlänningslagen(in Swedish)
    • Social Services Act (PDF in English) - Socialtjänstlagen (2001:453) (in Swedish)

    6.1 Legislation

    •  Criminal Code (Cap. 9) Sub-title VIII bis entitled ‘Of the traffic of Persons’ (Kodici Kriminal, Kapitulu 9) (in English and Maltese)
    •  Immigration Act (Cap. 217)The Permission to Reside for Victims of trafficking or Illegal Immigration who Cooperate with the Maltese Authorities Regulations(Kapitulu 217 ATT DWAR L- Immigrazzjoni)(in English and Maltese)
    • White Slave Traffic (Suppression) Ordinance (Cap. 63) (Kaptulu 63 Ordinanza Dwar Il-Qira Tal-Kummerc Fil-Prostituzzjoni) (in English and Maltese)

    6.1.2 Case Law

    6.2 National Action Plans

    6.2 National Action Plans

    6.2 National Action Plans

    6.2 National Action Plans

    6.2 National Action Plans

    6.2 National Action Plans

    6.2 National Action Plans

    6.2 National Action Plans

    6.2 National Action Plans

    6.2 National Action Plans

    -

    6.3 Reports

    6.3 Reports

    6.3 Reports

    6.3 Reports

    6.3 Reports

    6.3 Reports

    6.3 Reports

    6.3 Reports

    6.3 Reports

    6.3 Reports

    6.3.1 National Reports from the Dutch National Rapporteur

    6.3.1 National reports on implementation

     

    6.3.1 National reports on implementation

    6.3.1 National reports on implementation

    6.3.1 National reports on implementation

    6.3.1 National reports on implementation

    6.3.1 National reports on implementation

    Annual reports on implementation can be found on the website on the Ministry of Interior and Administration in English and Polish

    6.3.1 National situation reports from the Swedish National Rapporteur

    6.3.2 Other reports and publications

    6.3.2 Other reports and publications

    6.3.2 Other reports and publications

    Links to reports can be found on the Danish Centre against Human Trafficking website.

    6.3.2 Other reports and publications

    6.3.2 Other reports and publications

    6.3.2 Other reports and publications

    6.3.2 Other reports and publications

    6.3.2 Other reports and publications

    6.3.2 Other reports and publications

    6.4 Links

    6.4 Links

    6.4 Links

    The Ministry of the Interior has developed an anti-trafficking website which works as public tool for communication between government institutions and society. (In Latvian)

    6.5 Contacts

    Independent National Rapporteur

    Federal Migration Centre


    Contact: Patricia Le Cocq


    Rue Royale/Koningstraat 138

    1000 Brussels

    Telephone: + 32 (0)2 212 31 19
    Email: patricia.lecocq@cntr.be
    Website: http://www.diversite.be

    National Coordination/Governmental reporting

    Federal Public Service of Justice

    National Coordination - Chairmanship of the Bureau of the Interdepartmental Coordination Platform for the Fight against Trafficking and Smuggling in human beings  (ICP)

    Criminal Policy Service - Directorate-General for Legislation and Fundamental Rights and Freedoms

    Contact: Jean-François Minet


    Boulevard de Waterloo/Waterloolaan, 115

    1000 Brussels

    + 32 (0)2 542 79 29

    Email: jean-francois.minet@just.fgov.be

    Website: http://www.dsb-spc.be (in Dutch and French)

     

     

    Government agencies or institutional stakeholders

    Federal Judicial Policy, Personal Crime Directorate, Central Unit Human Trafficking, FPS Interior

    8dgj.djp.mh.dir@police.be

    Website: www.fedpol.be

    Immigration Office - FPS Home Affairs

    World Trade Center, Tour II
    Chaussée d’Anvers/Antwerpsesteenweg, 59 B, 1000 Brussels
    Telephone: +32 2 793 9500
    HELPDESK
    ( +32 (0)2 793 80 00
    Email:helpdesk.dvzoe@dofi.fgov.be
    Website: http://www.dofi.fgov.be (in Dutch and French)

    FPS Social Security

    Administratief  Centrum  Kruidtuin

    Finance Tower

    Boulevard du Jardin Botanique/Kruidtuinlaan 50, bus 100

    1000 Brussels

     

     

    FPS Employment, Labour and Social Dialogue

    Rue Ernest Blerot/Ernest Blerotstraat,1

    1070 Brussels

    Website: http://www.werk.belgie.be/home.aspx

              

     

    FPS Foreign Affairs

    Karmelietenstraat – Rue des Carmélites, 15

    1000 Brussels

    Website: http://diplomatie.belgium.be/nl/

    The Board of Prosecutors General, Federal Public Service Justice
    Email: secr.colpg@just.fgov.be

    Specialised reception centres for victims of trafficking in human beings and aggravated forms of smuggling in human beings

    PAG-ASA
    Cellebroersstraat / Rue des Alexiens 16

    1000 Brussels
    (+32 (0)2 511 64 64
    Email: info@pag-asa.be
    Website: http://www.pag-asa.be

     

    Payoke
    Leguit 4

    2000 Antwerpen
    ( +32 (0)3 201 16 90
    Email:admin@payoke.be
    Website: http://www.payoke.be (in Dutch)

     

    Sürya
    Rue Rouveroy 2

    4000 Liège
    ( +32 (0)4 232 40 30
    Email: info@asblsurya.be
     

    Other NGOs

    ECPAT Belgium
    Rue du Marché aux poulets / Kiekenmarktstraat, 30

    1000 Brussel
    ( + 32 (0)2 522 63 23
    Website: www.ecpat.be (in Dutch)
    Website: www.ecpat.net
    Email: info@ecpat.be

     

    Child Focus – Foundation for missing and exploited children
    Avenue Houba - de Strooper/Houba de Stroperlaan, 292

    1020 Brussels
    ( + 32 (0)2 475 44 11
    Email: site@childfocus.org
    Website: http://www.childfocus.be

    Samilia Foundation
    Boulevard Brand Withlock / Brand Whitlocklaan, 66
    1200 Bruxelles
    ( + 32 (0)2 733 00 94
    Email: info@samiliafoundation.org
     

    International NGOs based in Brussels

    Caritas International
    Rue de Pascale / Pascalestraat, 4-6

    1040 Brussels
    ( + 32 (0)2 28 00 280
    Email: info@caritas-europa.org
    Website: http://www.caritas.eu/

     

    Churches' Commission for Migrants in Europe (CCME)
    Ecumenical Centre, 174, Rue Joseph II/Joseph II straat

     B-1000 Brussels
    ( + 32 (0)2 234 68 00
    Email: info@ccme.be
    Website: http://www.ccme.be

     

    European Women's Lobby
    18, rue Hydraulique /Waterkrachtstraat

     B-1210 Brussels
    ( +32 (0)2 217 90 20
    Email: ewl@womenlobby.org
    Website: http://www.womenlobby.org

     

    Missing Children Europe
    Rue de l'Industrie / Nijverheidstraat, 10

    1000 Brussels

    ( +32 (0)2 894 74 84
    Fax: +32 2 894 74 89
    Website: www.missingchildreneurope.eu, www.hotline116000.eu
    Follow us on Facebook or Twitter

     

    Save the Children Alliance – Brussels Office
    Rue Montoyer / Montoyerstraat, 39

    1000 Brussels
    ( +32 (0)2 512 78 51
    Email: info@savethechildren.be
    Website: https://www.savethechildren.net/

    Terre des Homme Liaison Office with the European Union
    26 rue d'Edimbourg / EdinburgstraatB-1050 Brussels
    ( +32 (0)2 893 09 51
    Email: info@terredeshommes.org
    Website: http://www.terredeshommes.org

     

    6.5 Contacts

    Government agencies

    National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanism

    Ministry of Interior
    CY – 1453, Nicosia
    Telephone: + 357 22 867 800
    E-mail: info@moi.gov.cy
    Website: www.moi.gov.cy

    Cyprus Police Headquarters – Office of Combating Trafficking in Human Beings
    CY – 1478 Nicosia
    Telephone: + 357 22 808 919
    E-mail: deptc.oocthb@police.gov.cy

    NGOs

    Caritas Cyprus
    P.O. Box 56312
    CY3306, Limassol, Cyprus
    Mobile: +357-9967 2602
    Email: caritascyprus.migrants@gmail.com 

    KISA - Action for Equality, Support, Antiracism
    Telephone: +357-22-878181
    Fax: +357-22-773039
    Email: info@kisa.org.cy

    MIGS – Mediterranean Institute for Gender Studies
    46 Makedonitissas Avenue,
    Box 24005, Nicosia 1703,
    Cyprus

    Telephone:+ 357 22 842034/35/36/37
    Fax:+ 357 22 842050
    Email info@medinstgenderstudies.org

    Website: http://www.medinstgenderstudies.org/

    CYPRUS STOP TRAFFICKING

    Telephone: + 357 99 42 89 52
    E-mail: cyprus.stop.trafficking@gmail.com

    STIGMA
    Organisation for the Protection of Victims of Sexual Violence and Exploitation
    P.O.Box 53687, Limassol 3317, Cyprus
    Tel: +35799867171
    Fax:+35725822181
    Email: opvsaestigma@gmail.com

    6.5 Contacts

    The Department for Gender Equality
    Holmens Kanal 20, P.O. Box 2150, 1016 Copenhagen
    Telephone: +45 72 26 97 80
    E-mail: lige@ams.dk


    The Danish Anti-Trafficking Centre
    Aabenraa 5, 1, 1124 Copenhagen K
    Telephone: +45 72 42 38 23 or +45 33 17 09 00
    E-mail: cmm@servicestyrelsen.dk or udsatte@servicestyrelsen.dk
    Website:http://www.centermodmenneskehandel.dk/in-english/in-english

    Danish National Police
    Stoltenbergsgade 9, Polititorvet 14,  1780 Copenhagen V
    Telephone: 33 14 88 88
    E-mail: politi@politi.dk


    Danish Immigration Service
    Ryesgade 53, 2100 Copenhagen Ø
    Telephone: +45 35 36 66 00
    E-mail: us@us.dk
    Website:http://www.nyidanmark.dk/en-us/frontpage.htm

    NGOs

    Danish Red Cross
    Blegdamsvej 27, 2100 København Ø
    Telephone: +45 35 25 92 00
    E-mail: info@drk.dk

    HopeNow
    Drejervej 17
    2400 København NV
    Denmark
    Telephone: +45 24 94 76 22
    Email:  info@hopenow.dk
    Website: http://hopenow.dk/


    Save the Children Denmark
    Rosenørns Allé 12, 1634 Copenhagen V
    Telephone: +45 3536 5555
    E-mail:redbarnet@redbarnet.dk


    Salvation Army
    Frederiksberg Alle 9, 1621 Copenhagen V
    Tel: 3331 4192 |
    Email:  information@den.salvationarmy.org
    Website: https://www.frelsenshaer.dk/

    The Nest International
    Colbjørnsensgade 12, st. tv. 1652 Copenhagen V
    Telephone: +45 33 91 48 10
    E-mail: info@kvindehandel.dk
    Website: http://redeninternational.dk

    6.5 Contacts

    Government

    MIPROF

    General Secretary: Elisabeth Moiron-braud

    E-mail : Elisabeth.moiron-braud@miprof.gouv.fr

    Telephone: +33 140568881


    National Coordinator : Eric Panloup

    E-mail: eric.panloup@miprof.gouv.fr
    Telephone: +33 140568880
     

    National Rapporteur

    CNCDH (Commission nationale consultative des droits de l’homme)

    Président: Christine Lazerges

    E-mail : vanessa.malatesta@pm.gouv.fr

    Telephone: +33 142757705

     

    Adviser on Human Trafficking: Cécile Riou-Batista

    E-mail: cecile.riou@cncdh.pm.gouv.fr 
    Telephone: +33 142757706

     

    NGOs

    Association Accompagnement, Lieux d'Accueil, Carrefour Educatif et Social (ALC) in charge of securing Network for victims
    10 rue des chevaliers de Malte
    06100 Nice
    Tél.: 04 93 52 42 52
    Website : http://www.association-alc.org/

    Comité Contre l’Esclavage Moderne (CCEM)
    107 avenue Parmentier
    75011 Paris
    Tél.: 01 44 52 88 90
    Website : http://www.esclavagemoderne.org/

    Association Amicale du Nid
    (Paris, Colombes, Seine Saint Denis, Lyon, Marseille, Grenoble, Montpellier and Toulouse.)
    Head office : 21 rue du château d’eau
    75010 Paris
    Tél.: 00 33 1 44 52 56 40
    e-mail : contact@adn-asso.org
    website : http://www.amicaledunid.org

    Mouvement du Nid
    8 bis rue Dagobert
    BP63 - 92114 Clichy Cedex
    Tél.: 01 42 70 92 40
    Website : http://www.mouvementdunid.org/

    End Child Prostitution And Trafficking in children for sexual purposes (ECPAT France)
    c/o Groupe Développement Bât 106
    1050 avenue de l'Europe
    BP 07 - 93352 Le Bourget Cedex
    Tél.: 01.49.34.83.13
    Esclavage Tolérance Zéro
    Website : http://www.ecpat-france.fr/

    Secours Catholique - Caritas France Coordinator of the NGOs’National Network for combating THB
    Address 106, rue du Bac 75007 Paris
    Email: genevieve.colas@secours-catholique.org ; contre.la.traite@secours-catholique.org
    Website: www.secours-catholique.org
    Phone number: + 33 6 71 00 69 9

    Association “Hors-la-rue”
    70 rue Douy Delcupe
    93100 Montreuil-sous-Bois
    Tél.: 01 41 58 14 65
    Website : http://www.horslarue.org/

    6.5 Contacts

    Government agencies

    Federal Ministry of the Interior
    Alt-Moabit 101D, 10559 Berlin
    Telephone: +49 3018 681 0
     

    Federal Ministry of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth
    E-mail: referat403@bmfsfj.bund.de
    Website: http://www.bmfsfj.bund.de (in German)

    Federal Ministry of Justice
    Mohrenstrasse 37, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Telephone: +49 3018 580 0
    Website: http://www.bmj.de/EN/Home/home_node.html

    Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
    E-mail: csr@bmas.bund.de
    Website: http://www.bmas.de/EN/Home/home.html

    NGOs

    Ban Ying Counseling and coordination Center against trafficking in Persons
    Anklamer Strasse 38, 10115 Berlin
    Telephone: +49 30 440 63 73
    E-mail: info@ban-ying.de
     

    Gemeinsam gegen Menschenhandel e.V. 
    MdB Frank Heinrich, Platz der Republik 1, 11011 Berlin, Germany
    Phone: + 49 30 227 71983
    Fax: + 49 30 227 76729
    E-Mail: info@gemeinsam-gegen-menschenhandel.de
    Website: http://www.gemeinsam-gegen-menschenhandel.de/

    KOK - German nationwide activist coordination group combating trafficking in women and violence against women in the process of migration
    Kurfürstenstr. 33, 10785 Berlin
    Telephone: +49 30 263 911 76
    E-mail: info@kok-buero.de
    Website: http://www.kok-buero.de

    KOK provides a comprehensive list of the NGOs in Germany: http://www.kok-buero.de/en/member-organisations-counselling-centres.html 

    SOLWODI e.V. 
    Propsteistr. 2  
    56154 Boppard Germany 
    Tel: 00 49 6741 - 22 32 
    Fax: 00 49 6741 - 23 10 
    Email: info@solwodi.de 
    Website: http://www.solwodi.de
     

    6.5 Contacts

    National Rapporteur or equivalent mechanisms

    Ministry of the Interior
    Contact person: Ms. Lāsma  Stabiņa
    Senior Desk Officer, Sectoral Policy Department
    Čiekurkalna 1.līnija 1, K-2, LV-1026, Riga
    Telephone: +371 67829674,

    Mobile phone: +371 29382033
    E-mail: lasma.stabina@iem.gov.lv
    Website: iem.gov.lv (in Latvian), www.trafficking.lv

    Government agencies

    Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs
    Čiekurkalna 1st line, 1, Riga
    Telephone : + 371  67588675
    E-mail: pmlp@pmlp.gov.lv
    Website: http://www.pmlp.gov.lv/en/

    State Police
    Čiekurkalna 1.līnija 1, k- 4, LV - 1026
    Telephone: +371 67075212; 110
    E-mail: kanc@vp.gov.lv

    Anti-Trafficking Unit of the State Police

    Telephones: +37167075332, +37167075344

    E-mail: onap@vp.gov.lv
    Website: http://www.vp.gov.lv/

    Emergency hotline 112

    NGOs

    ResourceCenter for Women "Marta"
    Matīsa street 49-3, Riga, LV-1009
    Telephone: +371 67378539
    E-mail: centrs@marta.lv
    Website:http://www.marta.lv/new.php?lang=en

    Society Shelter "Safe House" - NVO biedrība “Patvērums “Drošā māja”
    Lāčplēša street 75-1, Rīga, LV-1011

    Telephone: (+371) 67898343, 

    Trust Phone (+371) 28612120 (24/7)
    E-mail: drosa.maja@apollo.lv
    Website: http://www.patverums-dm.lv/index.php?lang=en

     

    6.5 Contacts

    Dutch National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings and Sexual Violence against Children
    PO Box 20301
    2500 EH The Hague
    The Netherlands
    Visiting address
    Turfmarkt 147
    2511 EM The Hague
    The Netherlands
    Telephone: +31 (0) 70 370 45 14
    Email: secretariaat@nationaalrapporteur.nl
    Website: dutchrapporteur

    Government

    Ministry of Security and Justice
    Postal address: Postbus 20301, 2500 EH Den Haag
    Telephone: +31 (0)70 3 70 79 11


    NGOs and Foundations

    Comensha (Coordinating Centre for Human Trafficking)
    Johan van Oldenbarneveltlaan 34-36, 3818 HB Amersfoort
    Telephone: + 31 33 4481186
    Website: http://www.comensha.nl (in Dutch)

    Defence for Children-ECPAT Netherlands
    Hooglandse Kerkgracht 17 G, 2312 HS Leiden
    Telephone: +31 71 516 09 80
    E-mail: info@defenceforchildren.nl
    Website: http://www.ecpat.nl

    Dutch Foundation of Religious against Trafficking in Women
    Sint Janssingel 92, 5211 DA 's-Hertogenbosch
    Telephone: +31 73 615 44 44
    E-mail: srtv@srtv.inf