Together Against Trafficking in Human Beings

Labour exploitation

Labour exploitation

Profits and Poverty: The Economics of Forced Labour

ILO, 20 May 2014, 66 pages

Forced labour in the private economy generates $ 150 billion in illegal profits per year, about three times more than previously estimated, according to a new report from the International Labour Organization (ILO).

The ILO report, Profits and Poverty: The Economics of Forced Labour, said two thirds of the estimated total of $150 billion, or $99 billion, came from commercial sexual exploitation, while another $51 billion resulted from forced economic exploitation, including domestic work, agriculture and other economic activities.



ILO 2012 Global estimate of forced labour

On the 1st of June 2012 the new ILO Global estimate of forced labour has been launched.

According to the report 20.9 million women, men and children are suffering in forced labour.

The head of the ILO’s Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, Beate Andrees, says that ILO has made good progress ensuring most countries now have legislation which criminalises forced labour, human trafficking and slavery-like practices. Attention should now turn to better identification and prosecution of forced labour and related offences such as human trafficking.


Fundamental principles and rights at work: From commitment to action

International Labour Conference, 2012, 119 pages

This Global Report analyses the use of fundamental principles and rights (including elimination of forced labour) in trade agreements, the impact of ILO's standard-related work as well as promotional activities, the challenge of enforcement and gaps in the realization of fundamental rights at work.


Tackling child labour: From commitment to action

ILO, June 2012, 32 pages

This Policy Note considers the progress that ILO member States are making in the application of ILO Conventions and Recommendations. It draws on two reports considered by the 2012 International Labour Conference: 'Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work: From commitment to action' and 'Giving globalization a human face'.

It points out that while some progress is being made in reducing child labour in too many cases the rights contained in these international standards are still not fully applied in practice and enforced.


Slavery on the high street

Anti-Slavery International June 2012, 60 pages

This report identifies two forms of modern day slavery in fabric and garment supply chains: the forced labour of girls and young women in the spinning mills of southern India – the Sumangali and Camp Coolie systems – and the use of child labour in the finishing workshops of Delhi.


Effective Protection for Domestic Workers

International Labour Organization  2012, 134 pages

Domestic workers are often excluded from the protection of labour laws or are treated less favourably than other wage workers. National labour laws should be better assessed and strengthened implementing the basic principles embodied in Convention No. 189.

Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189) is the first labour standard formulated by ILO dedicated to this particular group of workers.


Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the application of Directive 2009/52/EC

The Directive 2009/52/EC, adopted on 18 June 2009, seeks to counter the pull factor of finding work. It toughens sanctions for illegal employment and improves detection mechanisms, while providing for protective measures designed to redress injustices suffered by irregular migrants.


Improving the investigation and prosecution of THB for labour exploitation




Tilburg University, Netherlands


€ 207 000 (€144 000 of EU support)


From April 2010 to April 2011


University of Deusto (Spain); Victimology Society of Serbia; Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights, Austria; University of Craiova, Romania, Social Security Intelligence and Investigation Service (SIOD), The Netherlands.


ADSTRINGO - Addressing trafficking for labour exploitation through improved partnerships, enhanced diagnostics and intensified organisational approaches




European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, Finland

Approximate Budget

309.000 €


2012 – 2014 (24 months)

Partners and Co-beneficiaries

Ministry of the Interior, Lithuania; University of Tartu, Estonia; Council of the Baltic Sea States/SE

Objectives and results