|The United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances adopted in Vienna on 19 December 1988 is part of the worldwide effort to combat illegal drugs. Within its sphere of competence, the Community participated in the negotiation and concluded the Convention on behalf of the Community by means of Council Decision 90/611/EEC.
Article 12 of the Convention requires a system to be introduced to monitor international trade in drug precursors, taking account of the fact that, in principle, trade in these substances is lawful. Consequently, the Community adopted measures to strike an appropriate balance between the desire to exploit all possible means to prevent drug precursors reaching illicit drug manufacturers and the commercial needs of the chemical industry and other operators: Council Regulation (EEC) No 3677/90 of 13 December 1990 laying down measures to be taken to discourage the diversion of certain substances to the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.
See also Council Regulation (EC) No 111/2005 of 22 December 2004 laying down rules for the monitoring of trade between the Community and third countries in drug precursors.
The three major international drug control treaties are mutually supportive and complementary. An important purpose of the first two treaties is to codify internationally applicable control measures in order to ensure the availability of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances for medical and scientific purposes, and to prevent their diversion into illicit channels. They also include general provisions on illicit trafficking and drug abuse.
Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961: This Convention aims to combat drug abuse by coordinated international action. There are two forms of intervention and control that work together. First, it seeks to limit the possession, use, trade in, distribution, import, export, manufacture and production of drugs exclusively to medical and scientific purposes. Second, it combats drug trafficking through international cooperation to deter and discourage drug traffickers.
Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971: The Convention establishes an international control system for psychotropic substances. It responded to the diversification and expansion of the spectrum of drugs of abuse and introduced controls over a number of synthetic drugs according to their abuse potential on the one hand and their therapeutic value on the other.
Convention against the Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988: This Convention provides comprehensive measures against drug trafficking, including provisions against money laundering and the diversion of precursor chemicals. It provides for international cooperation through, for example, extradition of drug traffickers, controlled deliveries and transfer of proceedings.