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Type of Agreement
Euro-Mediterranean Agreement establishing an Association between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Arab Republic of Egypt, of the other part
Place of Signature
Date of Signature
Date of Entry Into Force
Objective of Agreement
- to provide an appropriate framework for political dialogue, allowing the development of close political relations between the Parties, - to establish conditions for the progressive liberalisation of trade in goods, services and capital, - to foster the development of balanced economic and social relations between the Parties through dialogue and cooperation, - to contribute to the economic and social development of Egypt, encourage regional cooperation with a view to the consolidation of peaceful co-existence and economic and political stability, - to promote cooperation in other areas which are of mutual interest.
This Agreement forms part of the Barcelona Process (Euro-Mediterranean partnership). Although all the Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements reflect the general principles governing the new Euro-Mediterranean relationship, they each contain characteristics specific to the relations between the parties. Like all the agreements of this type, it contains: a human rights clause, recognised as an essential element of the Agreement; provisions on political dialogue; provisions relating to the free movement of goods, services and capital; cooperation on economic, social, cultural and financial questions. This comprehensive cooperation agreement now covers all EC-Egypt relations. The previous agreements are null and void. It replaces the 1977 Cooperation Agreement.
Parties to the Agreement
Entry into force conditions
Fight against drugs
Human rights - Suspension
Most Favoured Nation (MFN)
This Agreement shall be drawn up in duplicate in the Arabic, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Swedish languages, each of these texts being equally authentic.
Article 59 Fight against terrorism In accordance with international conventions and with their respective national legislations, the Parties shall cooperate in this field and focus in particular on: — exchange of information on means and methods used to counter terrorism, — exchange of experiences in respect of terrorism prevention, — joint research and studies in the area of terrorism prevention.
Article 92 1. This Agreement will be approved by the Parties in accordance with their own procedures. This Agreement shall enter into force on the first day of the second month following the date on which the Parties notify each other that the procedures referred to in the first subparagraph have been completed. 2. Upon its entry into force, this Agreement shall replace the Agreement between the European Economic Community and Egypt, and the Agreement between the European Coal and Steel Community and Egypt, signed in Brussels on 18 January 1977.
Article 58 Fight against drugs 1 The Parties shall cooperate with a view in particular to: — improving the effectiveness of policies and measures to counter the supply of, and illicit trafficking in, narcotic drugs and psycho-tropic substances and the reduction of the abuse of these products, — encouraging a joint approach to reducing demand. 2. The Parties shall determine together, in accordance with their respective legislation, the strategies and cooperation methods appropriate for attaining these objectives. Their operations, other than joint operations, shall form the subject of consultations and close coordination. The relevant governmental and non-governmental sector bodies, in accordance with their own powers, working with the competent bodies of Egypt, the Community and its Member States, may take part in these operations. 3. Cooperation shall take the form of exchanges of information and, where appropriate, joint activities on: — establishment or extension of social and health institutions and information centres for the treatment and rehabilitation of drug addicts, — implementation of projects in the areas of prevention, training and epidemiological research, — establishment of effective standards relating to the prevention of the diversion of precursors and other essential substances used for the illicit production of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, in line with international standards.
�Relations between the Parties, as well as all the provisions of the Agreement itself, shall be based on respect of democratic principles and fundamental human rights as set out in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, which guides their internal and international policy and constitutes an essential element of this Agreement�
1. The Parties shall take any general or specific measures required to fulfil their obligations under this Agreement. They shall see to it that the objectives set out in this Agreement are attained. 2. If either Party considers that the other Party has failed to fulfil an obligation under this Agreement, it may take appropriate measures. Before so doing, except in cases of a material breach of this Agreement by the other Party, it shall supply the Association Council with all relevant information required for a thorough examination of the situation with a view to seeking a solution acceptable to the Parties. A material breach of this Agreement shall consist of the repudiation of this Agreement not sanctioned by the general rules of international law or a grave violation of an essential element of this Agreement, creating an environment not conducive for consultations or where a delay would be detrimental to the objectives of this Agreement. 3. In the selection of the appropriate measures referred to in paragraph 2, priority must be given to those which least disturb the functioning of this Agreement. The Parties also agree that these measures shall be taken in accordance with international law and shall be proportional to the violation. The measures shall be notified immediately to the Association Council and shall be the subject of consultations within the Association Council if the other Party so requests. If one Party takes a measure as a result of a material breach of this Agreement referred to in paragraph 2, the other Party may invoke the dispute settlement procedure.
1. The Parties reaffirm their respective commitments under the terms of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) annexed to the Agreement establishing the WTO, and in particular the commitment to accord each other mostfavoured-nation treatment in trade in service sectors covered by these commitments. 2. In accordance with the GATS, this treatment shall not apply to: (a) advantages accorded by either Party under the provisions of an agreement as defined in Article V of the GATS or under measures adopted on the basis of such an agreement; (b) other advantages accorded pursuant to the list of mostfavoured-nation exemptions annexed by either Party to the GATS.
After the entry into force of the Agreement, the Parties, at the request of any of them, shall negotiate and conclude bilateral agreements with each other, regulating specific obligations for the readmission of their nationals. These agreements shall also cover, if deemed necessary by any of the Parties, arrangements for the readmission of third country nationals. Such agreements will lay down the details about the categories of persons covered by these arrangements as well as the modalities of their readmission. Adequate financial and technical assistance to implement these agreements will be provided to Egypt.
This Agreement shall apply, on the one hand, to the territories in which the Treaties establishing the European Community, and the European Coal and Steel Community are applied and under the conditions laid down in those Treaties and, on the other hand, to the territory of Egypt.