Summary of Treaty
|Official Title||Amendment to the Montreal protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer (London Amendment)|
|Type of Agreement||Multilateral|
|Place of Signature||London|
|Date of Signature||29/06/1990|
|Date of Entry Into Force||10/08/1992|
|Objective of Agreement||To reinforce the measures laid down in the 1987 Montreal Protocol by extending its scope to new substances and establishing financial mechanisms. The Montreal Protocol aims to protect the ozone layer through enhanced international cooperation by taking precautionary measures to control equitably total global emissions of substances that deplete it.|
|Remarks||Following the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in late 1985, governments recognised the need for stronger measures to reduce the production and consumption of a number of CFCs (CFC 11, 12, 113, 114 and 115) and several Halons (1211, 1301, 2402).
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was adopted on 16 September 1987 at the Headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organisation in Montreal. The Protocol came into force on 1 January 1989, when it was ratified by 29 countries and the EEC.
Since then several other countries have ratified it.
The Protocol was designed so that the phase-out schedules could be revised on the basis of periodic scientific and technological assessments. Following such assessments, the Protocol was adjusted to accelerate the phase-out schedules.
The first amendment, i.e. the one concerned here, was adopted by Decision II/2 of 29 June 1990 at the Second Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, which was held at the Headquarters of the International Maritime Organization, in London, from 27 to 29 June 1990.
Subsequent amendments were made in Copenhagen in 1992, Vienna in 1995 and Montreal in 1997. The Protocol has also been amended to introduce new controls and add new controlled substances to the list.
The 1990 London Amendment included additional CFCs (CFC 13, 111, 112, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217) and the two solvents (carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform), while the 1992 Copenhagen Amendment added methyl bromide, HBFCs, and HCFCs.
The Montreal Amendment of 1997 finalised the schedules for phasing out methyl bromide.
The Beijing Amendment of 1999 included bromochloromethane for immediate phase-out; it also introduced production controls on HCFCs as well as controls on trade with non-parties.
The London Amendment concerns the following parts of the Protocol in particular:
The Preamble; Article 1 (Definitions); Article 2, paragraphs 5, 6, 8(a), 9(a) and (i), 9(c), 10(b), 11, Article 2C: (Other fully halogenated CFCs) added to the Protocol as Article 2C and other measures added to the Protocol as Articles 2D and 2E; Article 3 (Calculation of control levels); Article 4 (Control of trade with non-parties); Article 5 (Special situation of developing countries); Article 6 (Assessment and review of control measures); Article 7 (Reporting of data); Article 9 (Research, development, public awareness and exchange of information); Article 10 (Financial mechanism); Article 10A (Transfer of technology); Article 11 (Meetings of the Parties); Article 17 (Parties joining after entry into force) and Article 19 (Withdrawal).
The London Amendment also concerns a series of annexes which it adds to the Protocol.
|OJ Reference||L377, 31/12/1991, p. 30|
|Nature of Agreement||Multilateral Environmental Agreement (MEA)|
|Contracting Parties||European Economic Community, Afghanistan, Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Christopher and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Surinam, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, São Tomé and Príncipe, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe|
|Authentic Texts||Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish|
pollution control measures
protocol to an agreement
quality of the environment
|Date of Signature||20/12/1991|
|Conclusion Decision||91/690/EEC: Council Decision of 12 December 1991 concerning the conclusion of the amendment to the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer as adopted in June 1990 in London by the Parties to the Protocol; OJ L 377 of 31/12/1991, p.28|
|Date of Entry Into Force||10/08/1992|
Treaty EEC: Article 130s
|Last Update : 20/07/2007|