SECTION 1: THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION'S ROLE IN
FACILITATING A PROGRESSIVE RE-OPENING OF EUROPEAN AIRSPACE
This is an unprecedented crisis facing Europe. A unique combination
of 3 factors coming together have resulted in an almost complete lock-down of
We have seen:
1. Severe and prolonged volcanic disruption;
2. Weather conditions that mean the ash cloud has remained over
3. A risk management model based on a strict precautionary
Treated separately, or even with two of these factors coinciding the crisis
would have been much less severe.
Faced with this crisis, who is responsible for managing Europe's
1. The decision to open or shut airspace is entirely
national. Only a Member State Authority can decide to open or
close its national airspace.
2. Those national decisions on airspace are implemented by EuroControl
(an independent agency in Brussels with 38 Member countries). EuroControl
co-ordinates all the information and then approves flight plans for air
companies across the different Member States, depending on the available
3. There is NO EU competence for air traffic management or in
relation to decisions taken to open and close airspace i.e. the European
Commission and European Parliament have NO role – it is for individual Member
State Governments to decide.
So what happened when the volcano erupted? What procedures were
Safety is the first priority of aviation policy. When the volcano erupted
last Thursday, Member States (Civil Aviation Authorities with National Air
Traffic Controllers) started to close airspace – based on the scientific advice
from the Volcanic Ash Centre in London (linked to the London Met office) and
applying the risk assessment models agreed by Member States under ICAO
Guidelines for Europe (International Civil Aviation Organisation).
Member states were absolutely right to react as they did in applying the
model and procedures agreed for the European area in line with International
Civil Aviation organisation guidelines. Safety is the first priority of
aviation policy and must remain so.
What was the Commission's intervention as the situation evolved?
From Thursday onwards large parts of the European Airspace were shut down by
national authorities. From an average of 28,000 flights a day in Europe,
by Friday less than half of Europe's airspace was in use. Thousands of air
passengers were stranded, air companies and other economic sectors were very
The cloud was not moving. And Europe was facing into another week of major
traffic disruption. As the situation evolved, the model and risk
management procedures were tested. It became clear to Member States, national
safety authorities, national air traffic controllers, the industry and
EuroControl that a more differentiated approach was needed. But no member state
acting independently could take the first step to introduce change.
At the end of last week, the European Commission, working with the Spanish
Presidency and Eurocontrol proposed a European Framework which could move the
What did the European Commission do?
The Commission worked intensively with Eurocontrol, with the Volcanic Ash
Centre, with Scientists, with the National Authorities across the Member States
as well as with the airlines and airport sectors.
The result was the following:
- 11.00 Monday 19 April: Extraordinary Meeting co-chaired by Euro-Control
and the European Commission in Brussels (Euro-control building) to look at
possible ways to increase European co-operation on air traffic management. The
meeting brought together national civil aviation authorities, air navigation
providers, representatives of the airline and airport industry as well as the
The participants had been asked by European Commission Vice President Siim
Kallas, responsible for Transport, to provide a technical recommendation or a
series of recommendations to Ministers later that that day on how to move
The meeting agreed unanimously on one recommendation to put to
That option allowed for a more differentiated assessment of risk from
the ash cloud, while still respecting safety concerns. As well as more
harmonised /uniform implementation of the risk assessment. The new
procedures are fully in line with the ICAO Guidelines for the European
At 16.00 Monday 19th, Vice President Kallas, presented the
technical recommendation to an Extra-ordinary meeting of Transport
Ministers, chaired by Spanish Minister José Blanco, and the recommendations
The new measures came into force at 8.00 CET time Tuesday 20 April. The more
differentiated risk assessment and more harmonized implantation of decisions
across the Member States, has allowed for a progressive, opening of more
If it were NOT for European Commission intervention since the end of last
week, large parts of Europe's skies would still be unnecessarily closed.
What has been the result?
We pleased to see that today (Tuesday, 20 April) there are more flights
taking place today
Overall the forecasts for flights for today are 14,500 as compared with
9,000 yesterday, for example, limited operations out of Paris, Amsterdam,
as well as in Frankfurt Airport and for Italian domestic travel.
This is substantially due to the new more pragmatic approach agreed
by Transport ministers on the initiative taken by the Commission.
The Commission will continue to monitor the situation closely.
What happens next?
National Safety Authorities, national air traffic authorities, and
Euro-Control will now continue to operate the revised procedures. The
scientific assessments will be updated every six hours – with no-fly zones, a
large buffer area, and an intermediary zone where Member States can allow
flights but with additional restrictions and safety controls, and an area where
there is no contamination.
Can you ensure the same safety levels are guaranteed as with today’s
Yes, because before any piece of airspace is opened up, a thorough safety
assessment is carried out. We are not taking any additional risks, merely
determining more precisely where the risk that we want to avoid is located.
Why do we not go directly to the US model (Option 2) as they seem to have no
problems even though airspace is kept open?
Firstly we want our model to be safer, by ensuring that the assessment is
done by those with best information and least vested interest. Otherwise the
aircraft operators might be putting intolerable pressure on pilots to fly even
when it is not safe.
Secondly the European Union law requires that the decision to open airspace
is done by the air navigation service providers through a pre-determined
methodology approved by the National Supervisory Authorities.
Where is the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre in all this? They are the real
professionals of assessing volcanic ash risk.
The VAAC is indeed the body responsible for assessing where ash might be
encountered. However the decision to open or close airspace is not theirs
alone. That is why we called upon all the central players to develop this
methodology and that involves obviously also the VAAC itself.
What about thirds countries? Opening European airspace alone is not
They are brought on board by the Eurocontrol machinery as the ones closest
to EU are also Eurocontrol members. That is why Eurocontrols role in this is so
SECTION 2: WHAT ABOUT PASSENGER
The best way to bring immediate relief to passengers is to free up more
airspace. The Commission has played a critical role in allowing more
flights to get moving, and making most efficient use of airspace even in these
very difficult circumstances.
Under EU law, European Citizens also have some of the toughest passenger
rights in the world.
And in the light of the unprecedented shut down of large sections of
European Airspace, millions of European air travellers have been asking what
their rights are in these circumstances
The answer is straight-forward:
1. You have the right to either reimbursement or re-routing
2. You have the right to information - there is an obligation for airlines
to inform you about rights and flight schedules
3. You have the right to care- that means food, drinks, accommodation as
In other words, despite these exceptional circumstances air passengers are
entitled to all their usual rights .except the additional financial
compensation that would apply in more normal circumstances. (The Regulation on
Air Passenger Rights (EC Regulation 261/2004)
If my flight is cancelled, does the airport have to offer me a CHOICE
between reimbursement and re-routing ?
YES. You as the consumer decide.
It is important to bear in mind that IF you chose reimbursement (i.e. to get
the money for your ticket back) then your rights cease at that point.
The air company is no longer required to provide you with refreshment,
accommodation from that point on.
If I chose reimbursement does that mean I get the full price of my ticket
back – including taxes and any charges?
YES, you should get back the money you paid for the ticket.
IF you chose re-routing
The airline can re-route you through other modes of transport – train, rail
While you wait for re-routing, the airport has a duty of care – to provide
refreshment as appropriate, depending on the length of the delay. And to
provide accommodation of one or more nights if necessary.
Where to I apply for re-imbursement?
You apply to the airline company that you booked a ticket with.
What if they tell me I have no rights in these "exceptional
Under EU law your EU passenger rights do apply even in these exceptional
circumstances. The only part that does NOT apply is the additional financial
compensation (extra money to compensate you for your inconvenience.
What if airlines do not accept this, or if they will not apply the rights I
Complain. If you have problems claiming your passenger rights you need to
complain – firstly to your national authority. They are best placed to help you
and they are legally responsible under EU law to enforce the law.
It is a matter of subsidiarity – i.e. applying decisions at the local
Passengers are advised to contact their airlines, and in case of problems
the national enforcement bodies (see list below)
What can the EU do if airlines don't comply with the law?
The European Commission is in daily contact with the network or national
authorities in Member States who enforce these rights. We know there are
problems with the application of rights, and in getting clear information to
consumers – although in many cases airlines are applying the rights.
Our first feedback from authorities across Europe is that, faced with
cancellation, many passengers across Europe are choosing NOT to wait for
re-routing – they just want to get home and are trying to make their own way to
their final destination. In these circumstances the obligations on the
airlines for refreshment, accommodation obviously do not apply – but the
consumers will normally claim the ticket price back from the airline.
How can the EU Package Travel Directive protect consumers who are stranded
because of the cancelled flights?
If the cancelled flight has been purchased as part of a package holiday,
consumers have more extended rights, including the right to obtain a refund for
the entire package (including e.g. the flight and the hotel) and assistance on
the spot if they are stranded.
If you need more information on your EU rights and how to access
Travellers affected by the situation are advised to contact their airlines
or travel agents first.
If you have problems or need more information or support to claim your
rights can contact a European Consumer Centre in any country, a national
consumer organisation or a national enforcement body. A European Consumer
Centre (ECC) supported by the European Commission exists in every EU
country as well as in Iceland and Norway.
The centres are there to help travellers who have been affected by the
crisis and who are having difficulties in having their rights respected, such
as the right to be reimbursed or re-routed to the final destination and right
to obtain meals and accommodation. The network of ECCs is working together to
ensure a co-ordinated response to the crisis. Full contact details for ECCs for
all countries and links to national websites can be found at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/ecc/index_en.htm
There is also a Europe Direct phone line – advertised on posters in many
airports throughout Europe where you can also get more information on 00800 6 7
8 9 10 11
For more information on your rights see: apr.europa.eu
The EU Top12 Recommendations for Passengers
SECTION 3: WHAT ABOUT THE ECONOMIC IMPACT ON THE
The aviation sector as well as other economic sectors have been hit very
hard by this crisis.
European Commission President Barroso decided to set up an ad-hoc group to
assess the impact of the situation created by the volcanic ash cloud on the air
travel industry and the economy in general.
The aim is to ensure that the EU has the right analysis to be able to
respond appropriately, if needed, and that any measures taken across the EU to
respond to economic consequences of this situation are properly
President Barroso asked Vice-President Kallas, responsible for Transport, to
lead this work, assisted by Vice President Almunia (Competition and State Aids)
and Commissioner Rehn (Economic and Monetary Affairs).
That work is moving ahead quickly.
- The process of gathering the economic data on the effects of the crisis
has begun this weekend.
- Vice President Kallas met with representatives of European airlines and
airports on Monday this week to discuss the economic impact.
- Working and expert meetings within the European Commission have taken
place to define how the process will move forwards.
Assessing the economic impact of this crisis will take time.
Representatives of the airline industry, when they spoke with Vice President
Kallas on Monday said they simple cannot at this stage accurately estimate the
impact on their sector. It will take time for the full impact to be come
Equally, the ad hoc group will look carefully at the broader economic impact
on other sectors of industry which have also been hard hit.
Is it possible for Member States to grant state aid to compensate airlines
for the consequences of the ash cloud according to EU rules?
The Treaty allows Member States to grant State aid to "make good the
damage caused by "natural disasters and exceptional occurrences" (Art
No Member State has notified any state aid plans as of yet.
The Commission clarified in the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist
attacks, how those rules applied to the airline sector with regard to that
particular event. Similar compatibility criteria, as the ones fixed in 2001,
- compensation in a non-discriminatory
way to all airline companies of a Member State;
- amount of the compensation limited to
the real costs of the traffic interruption;
- no hidden aid for restructuration of
VP Almunia, who is part of the ad-hoc group examining the economic impact of
the problem, has said his services could rapidly update the guidance for Member
In the event Member States were to notify any aid, the Commission could
rapidly assess such requests.
SECTION 4: OTHER ASPECTS OF THE CRISIS
WHAT ABOUT THE HEALTH RISKS?
Is there a health risk in the current situation?
According to the preliminary assessments made by the Member States, risks in
relation to public health are generally limited. The cloud of ash moves at a
high altitude and is spread over large areas, resulting in a decrease in the
concentration of particles which could nevertheless lead to low exposure. The
public health impact of such low exposure is difficult to estimate at the
present, in the absence of its detailed composition but should present
similarities with peaks of air pollution experienced in the Member States.
Any such health effects are likely to be short term. Furthermore, as long as
the ash remains in the upper stratosphere, there will not be an increased risk
Nevertheless, there are some specific health issues which may demand
attention, e.g. air rescue, transport of organs in urgent cases of organ
transplantation and continuation of healthcare of people stranded abroad
because of the interruption of air traffic.
What's the Commission doing to reassure citizens on the health aspects of
the ash cloud?
In order to discuss the public health related impact of the interruption of
air traffic and the volcanic ash clouds drifting across Europe, the European
Commission's health services have been in contact with various key actors,
including the World Health Organization and the European Centre for Disease
Prevention and Control. On Tuesday 20 April, the European Commission will
organise an audio conference of the EU Health Security Committee - which
is composed of high representatives of the Members
WHAT ABOUT VISA PROBLEMS?
Is the European Commission aware of the situation of third country nationals
obliged to stay in the EU due to recent disruptions of the air travel and what
action does it consider necessary?
The closure of the European airspace since 15 April 2010 has meant
that travel of a number of third country nationals subject to the visa
requirement for staying in or transiting through the territory of the Schengen
States has been disrupted and urgent measures must be taken to overcome the
different situations of distress occurring. The European Commission is
recommending Member States to apply special derogations to certain categories
of travellers and in particular to people holding a short stay visa that has
expired on or after 15 April 2010 and to people who did not intend to enter
into the territory of the Member States but are forced to do so.
How will the European Union deal with people holding a short stay visa that
has expired on or after 15 April 2010?
Many people have not been able to leave the territory of the Member States
before the expiry of their short stay Schengen visa. Given the extraordinary
situation and the high numbers of persons concerned, the European Commission
recommends a derogation from the general rules for persons whose visas have
expired or will expire in the period from 15 April 2010 until the reopening of
the European airspace. These people will be allowed to remain within the
territory of the Schengen States until the normalisation of air traffic without
having to apply for the extension of their visas. The passport of these persons
should be stamped upon exit without considering these persons as having stayed
beyond the authorised period.
What about those who did not intend to enter into the area of the Member
States but are forced to do so?
Two categories of persons are considered: firstly, persons who cannot return
to their country of residence by air and who wish to transit by land (e.g. a
person holding a return ticket from London to Tirana, but who wishes to return
by ferry and train). Secondly, persons who intended to transit via the
international transit area of a Schengen airport but are forced to leave the
airport to find accommodation until the onward journey can take place. The
Commission recommends that these persons should be issued visas at the external
borders in accordance with Article 35 of the Visa Code and the Handbook for the
processing of visa applications and the modification of issued visas. Since the
third country nationals concerned had no intention of entering into the
territory of the Member States but are compelled to do so for reasons of
"force majeure", the Commission recommends derogating from certain
provisions and in particular to waive the visa fee and not to insist on
the applicant being in possession of travel medical insurance.
What is the role of the EU's Civil Protection Mechanism in this crisis?
The Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) is the central operational hub
of the EU Civil Protection Mechanism, through which the European Commission can
facilitate and support the deployment and coordination of civil protection
assistance in the event of major emergencies. The current transport situation
across Europe has not yet led to any calls for assistance but the MIC continues
to coordinate and monitor the situation closely. This is important as the EU
needs to be prepared for all possible scenarios, identify all possible effects
and anticipate possible needs for support or cooperation.
What has the MIC done so far?
The MIC has been in close contact with Iceland’s civil protection
authorities since Thursday and has regularly briefed Member States on the
situation both in Iceland and across Europe. It convened an urgent coordination
meeting with the civil protection representatives of Member States and Iceland
to take stock of the effects of the volcanic ash cloud to be in a position to
anticipate possible needs for support and coordination at EU level. The MIC has
created a platform to ensure exchange of information between Member States
which aims at enabling a coordinated EU action. In practical terms this means
that Member States will feed information into the system to create an overview
of the situation in their countries. The MIC is also in the process of
centralising key data from the Member States on the numbers of stranded
passengers, both inside the EU and in third countries, in order to assess the
scope of the problems. This means that the EU has the possibility -if the need
arises- to facilitate repatriation by coordinating the efforts of the 27 Member
The MIC also works closely with DG SANCO, which is monitoring the possible
health effects of the ash cloud moving over Europe.
For more information, please contact the London press office on 020 7973