The study on the potential for greener taxes, which pools data from 12 Member States, suggests that moving taxes away from labour and towards pollution (increasing taxes on the causes of air and water pollution, for example) would bring in revenues of EUR 35 billion in real terms in 2016, rising to EUR 101 billion in 2025, with far higher figures involved if steps were also taken to remove environmentally harmful subsidies. The potential revenues range from just over 1% of GDP per annum through to just over 2.5% of GDP per annum in 2025, depending on the Member State concerned.
The second study looks at various links between environment and economic policy, including the macro-economic impact of floods, best practices in supporting SMEs focusing on resource efficiency, and environmental expenditure in all Member States. The approximate total cost of damage from flooding in the EU over the 2002-2013 period was at least EUR 150 billion. Investing in measures to reduce flooding is highly effective, on average costing some 6-8 times less than the damage caused by flooding. Better still, the benefits of investing in green infrastructure – i.e. restoring natural features to help manage and store flood water include better outcomes for biodiversity and could help reduce construction costs.