Car industry policies
While the car industry tends to speak with one voice in responding to legislative proposals, individual manufacturers have introduced different vehicle safety measures without legislation, in advance of legislation or in response to consumer information programmes, especially in recent years. Examples include the WHIPS system introduced by a Swedish manufacturer to reduce the risk of neck injury or pedestrian protection introduced in advance of legislation by a Japanese manufacturer or in excess of legislation by a French manufacturer. European frontal airbags fitted to many cars are not regulated in Europe, though are mandatory in the United States.
The European industry associations include the European Car Manufacturers Association ACEA; ACEM (motorcycle industry) and the IRU (truck and bus industry). Like the IRU, ACEM is a signatory to the European Road Safety Charter pledging to supply progressively more powered two-wheelers equipped with advanced braking systems to the market. Car companies come together within the European Council for Automotive R&D - EUCAR to co-ordinate proposals for EU funded research.