Pedestrians form the second largest group of road casualties (after car occupants). They account for about 15% of the road fatalities in the European Union. The over-55 and under-12 age groups are those with the highest risk of becoming pedestrian casualties. In most countries, accidents involving pedestrians (apart from those resulting in fatal injuries) tend to be underreported [72].


Design principles and measures for improving pedestrian safety include [72]:

  • Adequate capacity of pedestrian walking facilities in relation to pedestrian flows
  • Smooth and non-slippery surfacing for comfortable walking
  • Avoidance of steep gradients that may not be usable by elderly or disabled pedestrians
  • Elimination of all obstacles likely to obstruct pedestrian routes
  • Specific direction signing for pedestrians, particularly on the links of the network segregated from motor traffic
  • Reduction of vehicle speed on links of the network with mixed traffic (residential, commercial or historical streets)
  • Adequate lighting
  • Clearance of snow, ice or dead leaves from pedestrian walking facilities as soon as needed
  • Repair of holes and otherwise damaged surfacing as soon as needed
  • Reduced risk for pedestrians when crossing in the right place (design must ensure that vehicle users behave as expected)
  • Local continuity of walking route and reduced physical effort
  • Reduced waiting time and long enough gaps in traffic for safe crossing (traffic light management); conflict-free crossing at traffic lights
  • Adequate mutual visibility of pedestrians and drivers on the approaches to the crossing
  • Possibility of crossing safely all along links with particular specifications (commercial streets, leisure or residential areas): reduced width of carriageway to cross or reduced speed of vehicles
  • Keep the crossing facilities in good repair (especially markings)
  • Keep the approaches to the crossing clear of obstacles

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