The opinions expressed in the studies are those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent the position of the Commission.
Measures to prevent PTW accidents are based on knowledge of the accident characteristics and of factors contributing to accidents. Measures to prevent accidents are directly or indirectly aimed at the riders, the vehicles, other road users, the road environment or a combination of these.
Licensing, testing and training are related measures directed at the riders as well as defining access to categories of PTW. Little evidence exists of the effect of current licensing systems in improving safety. One future option is to introduce a more graduated system.
Breaking a PTW is difficult and loss of control in an emergency situation is often found in accident studies. Some of these can be prevented with ABS/CBS brake systems on motorcycles but they are still to expensive to be fitted to all PTW's and depend on their effective use by riders.
Conspicuity devices are worn by riders or are part of the vehicle. Most research has focused on the potential role of daylight running lights.
Enforcement and promotional campaigns may be directed at PTW riders as well as at other road users.
Measures aimed at the road environment may directly prevent accidents or act through their influence on the behaviour of road users. Variations in road surface can cause particular problems for PTW riders.
Work on E-safety systems has mainly been directed at cars and Lorries but the potential to improve motorcycle safety through ITS is now being explored.