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Frequently asked questions

The issue of driving licences

  1. I do not have a driving licence and wish to obtain one. What are the formalities to be carried out ?

    You have to meet several conditions:
    • You are required to have your normal residence in the Member State in which you apply.
    • You must pass theory and practical tests.
    • You must satisfy the medical standards (physical and mental fitnesss).
    • You must meet the minimum age conditions according to the category of vehicle desired.
    • You cannot hold more than one driving licence issued by a Member State, even if it has been suspended or withdrawn.

  2. You are a student and you settle in another country of the European Union to continue your studies. You wish to obtain your driving licence. Where should you apply ?

    Directive 91/439/EEC lays down an optional arrangement for students who go to study in another state. They can apply either to their country of normal residence, or to their country of origin.

    Article 9 of Directive 91/439/EEC defines normal residence. It is noted that "normal residence", means the place where a person usually lives, that is for at least 185 days in each calendar year, because of personal and occupational ties, or, in the case of a person with no occupational ties, because of personal ties, which show close links between that person and the place where he is living.

    Attendance at a university or school shall not imply transfer of normal residence.

    However, Article 7(1)(b) of Directive 91/439/EEC stipulates that the issue of a driving licence is subject to applicants having their normal residence in the territory of the Member State issuing the licence or being in a position to produce evidence that they have been studying there for a period of at least six months.

    In this case, students who wish to obtain a driving licence can apply either to the authorities of the state of origin or to those of the host country.

  3. I wish to obtain a category B licence, what medical requirements do I have to satisfy ?

    Annex III of Directive 91/439/EEC on driving licences sets the minimum standards of physical and mental fitness for driving a power-driven vehicle.
    It is envisaged that applicants for a B licence have to undergo a medical examination if it becomes apparent, when the necessary formalities are being completed, or during the tests which they are required to undergo prior to obtaining a licence, that they have one or more of the medical disabilities mentioned in the annex (such as hearing, cardio-vascular disease, sugar diabetes, neurological disease, etc.).

    You may also refer to section PRINCIPLES - "Prerogatives of the Member state of residence" for further details, more particularly on the distinction made between Group I and Group II.

  4. I want to become a bus driver; what medical requirements do I have to satisfy ?

    In such a case applicants belong to Group 2 according to the classification established by directive 91/439/EEC. They must always undergo a medical examination before a driving licence is first issued and, thereafter, must undergo such periodic examinations as may be prescribed by national legislation.

    You may also consult section PRINCIPLES - "Prerogatives of the Member state of residence" for further details, more particular on the classification made between Group I and Group II.

  5. How is the driving test conducted?

    The way in which the driving test is conducted is described in Annex II of Directive 91/439/EEC. The test is conducted in two stages. The first consists in testing the theoretical knowledge of the candidate. The second consists of a practical test during which the candidate's fitness to drive and his behaviour in traffic will be evaluated.

    For more detailed information concerning your host Member State, please consult the national sites ( see section "LINKS").

  6. Is it possible to have two driving licences issued by different Member States?

    No, in its Article 7(5) Directive 91/439/EEC stipulates that no person may hold a driving licence from more than one Member State. This includes withdrawn licences.


last update: 03-02-2009