Countries and regions
On 27 June 2014, the EU and Georgia signed an Association Agreement, setting up a bilateral Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area between them. It is expected to enter into force in autumn 2014. The text of the agreement will be published in the EU Official Journal in the summer.
Text of the Agreement as initialled on 29 November 2013 at the Eastern Partnership summit in Vilnius.
The EU is the main trade partner of each country (in 2012 trade with the EU represented 27,% of overall trade for Armenia, 45.6% for Azerbaijan and 27.2% for Georgia). Armenia's and Georgia's share of total EU trade with the world remains very low, at around 0.1%. Azerbaijan's share in total EU trade, at 0.8%,is higher due to imports of energy products. In 2013, EU trade with Georgia amounted to EUR 2.7 billion (EUR 670 million of imports and EUR 2.03 billion of exports to Georgia).
The South Caucasus region plays an important role both in supplying energy to the EU and as a transit route for it.
Azerbaijan is a major supplier of oil and gas to the EU, as recognised in the EU-Azerbaijan memorandum of understanding on energy concluded in 2006.
Oil and gas from the Caspian Sea is shipped to the EU through pipelines crossing Georgia and Turkey (Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan, Baku-Supsa and Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum).
Caspian oil is also transported from Azerbaijan to the Georgian ports of Poti and Batumi by rail.
In the future, energy supplies should be shipped via the 'southern corridor' that should include, inter alia, the Nabucco gas pipeline.
All three countries participate in the Baku Energy Initiative.
EU-South Caucasus "trade in goods" statistics
|Year||EU imports||EU exports||Balance|
EU and South Caucasus
Deep and comprehensive free trade area with Georgia:
The deep and comprehensive free trade area (DCFTA), provided for in the EU-Georgia Association Agreement, is about closer economic integration of Georgia with the EU, on the basis of a reform process in trade and trade-related areas. The DCFTA includes the following elements:
- Complete elimination of customs duties - so that products can enter duty free and so be available at lower prices to the benefit of consumers
- Improvement of customs procedures - bringing the partners' legislation closer to the EU one to unify procedures at customs
- Increased protection of intellectual property - to improve in particular enforcement of legislation and bring the level of IP protection on a par with that in the EU
- Application of EU sanitary and phytosanitary rules – to increase the level of food safety protection within the countries and so allow exports of products of animal origin to the EU
- Upgrade of rules on public procurement and competition - thereby creating a transparent and predictable regime for economic operators both in private and public commercial transactions
- Removal of technical obstacles to trade - to facilitate trade in industrial products but also, by upgrading infrastructure and conformity assessment procedures, to gradually increase competitiveness of their industries and product safety for domestic consumers
Currently, the relationship between the EU and South Caucasus countries is governed by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreements which entered into force with each of the three partners in 1999 and do not provide any trade preference for goods and a limited preference for trade in services.
Closer economic ties are dependent on the partner countries' membership in the World Trade Organisation. Georgia and Armenia have been WTO members since 2000 and 2003 respectively. Azerbaijan applied for membership to the World Trade Organisation in 1997 and the preparatory process is ongoing. Azerbaijan first needs to accomplish its accession to the WTO before any free trade area with the EU could be considered.
Azerbaijan applied for membership to the World Trade Organisation in 1997 and the process is ongoing. Azerbaijan first needs to accomplish its accession before a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement can be considered.
With a view to supporting Azerbaijan's future WTO membership and subsequent eventual bilateral FTA, negotiations on upgrading the existing trade related provisions of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (non-preferential trade and investment agreement) were launched on 16 July 2010.
Azerbaijan is receiving technical assistance from the EU to help it to prepare for WTO membership.
Armenia and Georgia benefit from the EU's Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP). Under the current GSP Regulation, applicable since 1 January 2014, both qualify for the special incentive arrangement for sustainable development and good governance (GSP+), offering advantageous access to the EU market.
Under the reformed GSP scheme, as of 22 February 2014, the preferences for Azerbaijan will be deferred and Azerbaijan will revert to the standard "non-preferential" treatment.
The new GSP regime focuses preferences on poorer countries. Countries which are classified as “upper-middle income” economies by the World Bank for at least three consecutive years, like Azerbaijan, have their preferences deferred.
The EU supports closer trade and economic integration with the EU through the European Neighbourhood Policy and its Eastern Partnership dimension. Armenia and Azerbaijan have an Action Plan. In the preparation for entry into force of the Association Agreement, EU and Georgia prepared an Association Agenda, which replaces the Action Plan.
- The Action Plans are a long-term reform agenda in various policy areas, including trade and trade-related matters. Both countries were required to speed up their efforts and demonstrate tangible results before negotiations on a trade area could be launched.
- The reform process, in line with the Action Plans, continues for Armenia and Georgia.
- The Commission / EEAS prepare annual reports where the progress made is assessed. For more information, see ENP progress reports.
Trading with South Caucasus
- Market Access Database
- The EU is present on the ground in South Caucasus (EU Delegations in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia)
- Trade relations are part of the EU's overall political and economic relations with South Caucasus through the European Neighbourhood policy and Eastern Partnership.
- Sustainability impact assessment in support of a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA) between the EU and respectively Georgia and Moldova