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Negotiations and agreements

The EU has in place, or is negotiating, trade agreements with countries and regions around the world.

Agreements in focus

EU-Vietnam

Factsheets, Vietnamese trade in your town, texts of the agreements, exporters' stories

EU-New Zealand Trade Agreement

Factsheets, impact assessment, exporters' stories

EU-Australia Trade Agreement

Factsheets, exporters' stories

EU-Singapore

Factsheets, Singapore trade in your town, texts of the agreements, exporters' stories

EU-Mexico trade agreement

Factsheets, questions and answers, exporters' stories

EU-Mercosur trade agreement

Factsheet, round reports, impact assessments, exporters' stories

EU-Japan

Negotiated agreement, meetings, factsheets, round reports

EU-Canada agreement (CETA)

Full agreement, exports by EU region, factsheets, help for exporters

Types of EU trade agreement

There are three main types of agreements:

  1. Customs Unions
    • eliminate customs duties in bilateral trade
    • establish a joint customs tariff for foreign importers.
  2. Association Agreements, Stabilisation Agreements, (Deep and Comprehensive) Free Trade Agreements and Economic Partnership Agreements
    • remove or reduce customs tariffs in bilateral trade.
  3. Partnership and Cooperation Agreements
    • provide a general framework for bilateral economic relations
    • leave customs tariffs as they are

Current state of play

Agreements in place
Country (Region) Agreement Status
Albania (Western Balkans) Stabilisation and Association Agreement In force since 2009
Algeria Association Agreement In force since 01/09/2005
Andorra Customs Union In force since 01/01/1991
Armenia Partnership and Cooperation Agreement In force since 09/09/1999
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Western Balkans) Stabilisation and Association Agreement In force since 01/06/2015
Botswana (SADC) Economic Partnership Agreement In force since 05/02/2018
Chile Association Agreement and Additional Protocol In force since 01/03/2005
Egypt Association Agreement In force since 01/06/2004
Eswatini (SADC) Economic Partnership Agreement In force since 05/02/2018
Faroe Islands Agreement In force since 01/01/1997
Georgia Association Agreement In force since 01/07/2016
Iceland Economic Area Agreement In force since 1994
Israel Association Agreement In force since 01/06/2000
Jordan Association Agreement In force since 01/05/2002
Kosovo (UNSCR 1244) Stabilisation and Association Agreement In force since 01/04/2016
Lebanon Association Agreement In force since 01/04/2006
Lesotho (SADC) Economic Partnership Agreement In force since 05/02/2018
Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of (Western Balkans) Stabilisation and Association Agreement In force since 01/04/2004
Mexico Global Agreement In force since 01/10/2000
Moldova Association Agreement In force since 01/07/2016
Montenegro (Western Balkans) Stabilisation and Association Agreement In force since 01/05/2010
Morocco Association Agreement In force since 01/03/2000
Mozambique (SADC) Economic Partnership Agreement In force since 05/02/2018
Namibia (SADC) Economic Partnership Agreement In force since 05/02/2018
Norway Economic Area Agreement In force since 1994
Palestinian Authority Interim Association Agreement In force since 01/07/1997
Russia Partnership and Cooperation Agreement In force since 01/12/1997
San Marino Customs Union In force since 01/04/2002
Serbia (Western Balkans) Stabilisation and Association Agreement In force since 01/09/2013
South Africa Economic Partnership Agreement In force since 05/02/2018
South Korea Free Trade Agreement In force since 01/07/2016
Switzerland Agreement In force since 01/01/1973
Syria Co-operation Agreement In force since 01/07/1977
Tunisia Association Agreement In force since 01/03/1998
Turkey Customs Union In force since 31/12/1995
Agreements partly in place

These are countries and regions that have part (but not all) of their agreements in place with the EU. The agreement is fully applied when all parties have ratified the agreement.

Country (Region) Agreement Status
Antigua and Barbuda (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Armenia Updated Partnership and Cooperation Agreement Provisionally applied since 06/2018
Bahamas (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Barbados (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Belize (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Botswana (SADC) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 10/10/2016
Cameroon (Central Africa) Interim Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2014
Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) Signed 30 October 2016, provisionally applied since 21/09/2017
Colombia (with Ecuador and Peru) Trade Agreement Signed 26/07/2012, provisionally applied since 2013
Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) Stepping stone Economic Partnership Agreement Signed EPA, stepping stone provisionally applied since 03/09/2016
Comoros (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed 08/2009, not yet provisionally applied
Costa Rica (Central America) Association Agreement with a strong trade component Signed 29/06/2012, provisionally applied since 2013
Cuba Political Dialogue and Cooperation Agreement Provisionally applied since 1/11/2017
Dominica (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Djibouti (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed 08/2009, not yet provisionally applied
Dominican Republic (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Ecuador (with Colombia and Peru) Trade Agreement Signed 26/07/2012, provisionally applied since 2013
El Salvador (Central America) Association Agreement with a strong trade component Signed 29/06/2012, provisionally applied since 2013
Eritrea (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed 08/2009, not yet provisionally applied
Ethiopia (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed 08/2009, not yet provisionally applied
Fiji (with Papua New Guinea) Interim Partnership Agreement Ratified by Papua New Guinea in May 2011
Ghana (West Africa) Stepping stone Economic Partnership Agreement provisionally applied Signed EPA, stepping stone provisionally applied since 15/12/2016
Grenada (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Guatemala (Central America) Association Agreement with a strong trade component Signed 29/06/2012, provisionally applied since 2013
Guyana (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Haiti (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Haitian ratification still pending
Honduras (Central America) Association Agreement with a strong trade component Signed 29/06/2012, provisionally applied since 2013
Iraq Partnership and Cooperation Agreement
Signed May 2012, provisionally applied since August 2012
Jamaica (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Kazakhstan Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement Provisionally applied since 01/05/2016
Madagascar, Mauritius, the Seychelles, and Zimbabwe (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed 08/2009, provisionally applied since 2012
Papua New Guinea and Fiji Interim Partnership Agreement Ratified by Papua New Guinea in May 2011
Namibia (SADC) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 10/10/2016
Nicaragua (Central America) Association Agreement with a strong trade component Signed 29/06/2012, provisionally applied since 2013
Panama (Central America) Association Agreement with a strong trade component Signed 29/06/2012, provisionally applied since 2013
Papua New Guinea (with Fiji) Interim Partnership Agreement Ratified by Papua New Guinea in May 2011
Madagascar (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed 08/2009, provisionally applied since May 2012
Peru (with Colombia and Ecuador) Trade Agreement Signed 26/07/2012, provisionally applied since 2013
South Africa Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 10/10/2016
St Kitts and Nevis (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
St Lucia (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
St Vincent and the Grenadines (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Sudan (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed 08/2009, not provisionally applied yet
Suriname (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Trinidad and Tobago (CARIFORUM) Economic Partnership Agreement Provisionally applied since 2008
Ukraine Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement
Association Agreement
Signed 29/05/2014, provisionally applied since 01/01/2016
Zambia (ESA) Economic Partnership Agreement Signed 08/2009, not provisionally applied yet
Agreements pending

In some circumstances trade negotiations with a trade partner have been concluded, but have not been either signed or ratified yet. This means that although the negotiations have finished, no part of the agreement is in place yet.

Country (Region) Agreement pending Status
Benin (West Africa) Economic partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Burkina Faso (West Africa) Economic partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Burundi (EAC) Economic partnership Agreement Has not signed or ratified agreement
Cabo Verde (West Africa) Economic partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Gambia (West Africa) Economic partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Guinea (West Africa) Economic partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Guinea-Bisseau (West Africa) Economic partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Japan Economic partnership Agreement UNegotiations started 01/03/2013, concluded December 2017, awaiting signature
Kenya (EAC) Economic partnership Agreement Signed and ratified, provisional application when all EAC countries sign and ratify
Liberia (West Africa) Economic partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Mali (West Africa) Economic partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Niger (West Africa) Economic partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Nigeria (West Africa) Economic partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Rwanda (EAC) Economic partnership Agreement Signed, provisional application when all EAC countries sign and ratify
Senegal (West Africa) Economic partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Sierra Leone (West Africa) Economic partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Singapore Free Trade Agreement Subject to CJEU opinion 2/15, awaiting signature
Tanzania (EAC) Economic partnership Agreement Has not signed or ratified agreement
Togo (West Africa) Economic partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Mauritania (West Africa) Economic partnership Agreement Signed, awaiting signature from all parties
Uganda (EAC) Economic partnership Agreement Has not signed or ratified agreement
Vietnam Free Trade Agreement Final text agreed July 2018, awaiting signature and conclusion
Agreements being updated

The EU has trade agreements in place with these countries/regions, but both sides are now negotiating an update.

Country (Region) New agreement being negotiated Status
Azerbaijan Update of Partnership and Cooperation Agreement Negotiations began February 2017
Chile Modernise trade part of Association Agreement Negotiations began 16/11/2017
Mexico Modernisation of Global Agreement ‘Agreement in principle’ on the trade part reached in April 2018
Morocco Update of Association Agreement to create a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area Negotiations began 01/03/2013, on hold since April 2014
Tunisia Update of Association Agreement to create a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area Negotiations began 12/10/2013
Agreements being negotiated
Country (Region) Agreement Status
Argentina (Mercosur) Mercosur Association Agreement Negotiations resumed May 2010 
Australia Australia Agreement Negotiations launched in June 2018
Bahrain (GCC) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started 1990, suspended since 2008
Brazil (Mercosur) Mercosur Association Agreement Negotiations resumed May 2010 
China

EU-China investment agreement

Negotiations started 21/11/2013
India Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started 2007, last round in 2013
Indonesia Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started 01/09/2016
Kuwait (GCC) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started 1990, suspended since 2008
Malaysia Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started October 2010, paused since April 2012
Myanmar Investment protection agreement Negotiations started 2015
New Zealand New Zealand Agreement Negotiations launched in June 2018
Oman (GCC) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started 1990, suspended since 2008
Paraguay (Mercosur) Mercosur Association Agreement Negotiations resumed May 2010 
Philippines Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started 01/12/2015
Qatar (GCC) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started 1990, suspended since 2008
Saudi Arabia (GCC) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started 1990, suspended since 2008
Thailand Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started 01/03/2013, no negotiations scheduled since 2014
United Arab Emirates (GCC) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations started 1990, suspended since 2008
United States Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership  Negotiations started 2013, paused until further notice 2016
Uruguay (Mercosur) Mercosur Association Agreement Negotiations resumed May 2010 
Venezuela Mercosur Free Trade Agreement Suspended as Mercosur Member