Countries and regions
Trade and economic relations between the EU and Kazakhstan are governed by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement signed in 1995 and entered into force in 1999.
The EU Strategy for Central Asia is also an important framework for relations between the EU and Kazakhstan.
In November 2011, the EU and Kazakhstan opened the negotiations for a new enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement.
- The EU-Kazakhstan bilateral trade and economic relations have been growing steadily since 2002.
- The EU has progressively become Kazakhstan's first trade partner, with almost 40% share in its total external trade. Kazakhstan's exports to the EU are heavily dominated by oil and gas which account for more than 80% of the country's total exports. Exports from the EU are dominated by machinery and transport equipment, as well as products within the manufacturing and chemicals sectors. Imports from Kazakhstan substantially exceed EU exports to Kazakhstan.
- Kazakhstan's importance as an oil and gas supplier to the EU is growing. Kazakhstan has benefited from very strong Foreign Direct Investment flows in recent years, largely to its booming oil and gas sector. Almost half of the Foreign Direct Investment inflow originates from the EU.
EU-Kazakhstan "trade in goods" statistics
|Year||EU imports||EU exports||Balance|
Foreign direct investment
|Year||Inward stocks||Outward stocks||Balance|
EU and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan & the WTO
- As Kazakhstan is not yet a member of the WTO, trade in a certain number of key products between the EU and Kazakhstan is governed by bilateral or autonomous agreements.
- Kazakhstan is in the process of working towards accession to the WTO, with the strong support of the EU.
In November 2011, the EU and Kazakhstan opened the negotiations of a new, enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement replacing the 1999 Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, with the aim to further strengthen the bilateral relations. The enhanced agreement, once concluded, will bring about better conditions for the trade and investment relations between the two parties.
Since the expiry of the EC-Kazakhstan steel agreement at the end of 2006, the bilateral trade in steel has been based on autonomous measures. Once signed, a new agreement will replace these measures.
Following the expiry of the EC-Kazakhstan textiles agreement at the end of 2004, the two sides concluded an additional Protocol to the existing Partnership Co-operation Agreement, thus extending its provisions on trade in textiles established in 2006.
Trading with Kazakhstan
- Rules and requirements for trading with Kazakhstan
- The EU is present on the ground in Kazakhstan
- Trade relations are part of the EU's overall political and economic relations with Kazakhstan
- Kazakhstan has observer status in the World Trade Organisation