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Studies & Reports

Detection of the Euromarker

A studypdf(502 kB) to determine a harmonised Community reference method of analysis for laboratory tests for the detection of the Euromarker (Solvent Yellow 124), and to determine certified reference materials to use in order to ensure precision performance in line with the principles of ISO 4259, was developed by Joint Research Centre in 2004.


Energy Taxation

The European Commission on 25 July 2005 published an external studypdf(257 kB) on "The impacts of energy taxation in the enlarged European Union".

The objective of the study is twofold: first to analyse how the implementation of the EU energy tax policies will affect the EU and its Member States and secondly to analyse how energy tax policies can contribute to climate policy objectives in the enlarged EU. The study evaluates the economic and environmental impact of alternative energy tax policies in the EU in the context of an applied general equilibrium model (GEM-E3).

The results are given for the EU as a whole (see final report) and separately for each EU-22 Member State (the economic model used does not cover three smaller Member States). 

The results indicate that Member States would benefit from common energy/ carbon tax policies in the form of higher employment and welfare if they used tax revenues to reduce employers' social security contributions. A common EU carbon tax would be the most cost-efficient way of reaching the EU climate policy objectives. However, it would have a somewhat negative impact on competitiveness in some energy-intensive sectors. These effects would be alleviated only slightly by exempting energy-intensive sectors form energy taxation.