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Western Balkans

Summary:

Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo (*) benefit from preferential treatment as participants in the Stabilisation and Association process (SAP).

(*) Every time the name 'Kosovo' is mentioned on this page, the following note applies:
"This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo Declaration of Independence".

  • General introduction
  • Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo (*)

General introduction. 

Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo (*) participate in the Stabilisation and Association process (SAP) and are altogether referred to as 'western Balkans'. Participation in SAP grants western Balkans free access to the European Union market for almost all products. This treatment results from the implementation of the Stabilisation and Association agreements (in case of Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Montenegro) or Interim agreements on trade and trade-related matters (in case of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia). In case of Kosovo (*), preferences are granted on the basis of autonomous trade measures (ATMs).

Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo (*) 

Legal framework

The applicable rules of origin are contained in the relevant protocols to the Stabilisation and Association agreements or Interim agreements on trade and trade-related matters.

Specific provisions

NOTICE: These specific provisions only contain information on cases where the rules of the particular arrangement differ from the common provisions, or where these common provisions need to be complemented. Therefore, always check the common provisions too.

Cumulation

Cumulation applies to materials originating in the European Union, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey (Articles 3 and 4). See the latest Commission notice concerning the date of application of the protocols on rules of origin providing for diagonal cumulation of origin between the European Union, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkeypdf 

General tolerance rule

The level of the general tolerance for non-textile products is set at 10% (Article 6).

Minimal operations

The list of minimal operations is provided for in Article 7.

No drawback rule

A general prohibition of drawback applies (Article 15).

Proof of origin

Originating products can benefit from preferential treatment at import into the European Union or to the relevant western Balkan countries upon submission of either a movement certificate EUR.1 or an invoice declaration (Article 16).

The most commonly used proof of origin is the movement certificate EUR.1 (Articles 17 to 20).  The invoice declaration can be made out by any exporter for goods whose total value does not exceed € 6 000 or by an approved exporter if that value is exceeded (Articles 22 and 23).

The period of validity of any proof of origin is 4 months (Article 24).

 

Kosovo (*)

Legal framework

Since 30 September 2000 Kosovo benefits from the autonomous trade measures (ATMs) as a participant to the European Union's Stabilisation and Association Process. The autonomous trade measures (ATMs) apply to Kosovo as provided for in Council Regulation (EC) No 1215/2009 of 30 November 2009, OJ L 328, 15.12.2009, p.1 as amended by Council Regulation (UE) N° 1336/2011 of 13 December 2011, OJ L 347, 30.12.2011, p.1. Under this regime, Kosovo enjoys unlimited and duty free access to the EU market for its products.

The applicable rules of origin are contained in Articles 97x to 123, and in Annexes 14, 15, 21 and 22 of Commission Regulation (EEC) No 2454/93pdf of 2 July 1993.

Specific provisions

NOTICE: These specific provisions only contain information on cases where the rules applicable to the autonomous trade measures differ from the common provisions, or where these common provisions need to be complemented. Therefore, always check the common provisions too.

Cumulation

Bilateral cumulation is applied in one direction only, i.e. Kosovo can further process products originating in the Union just as if they were originating in Kosovo (Article 98). The same is not possible for the operators in the Union.

Minimal operations

The list of minimal operations is contained in Article 101.

General tolerance rule

The level of the general tolerance for non-textile products is set at 10% (Article 102).

No drawback rule

There is no prohibition of drawback.

Proof of origin

Originating products can benefit from preferential treatment at import into the Union upon submission of either a movement certificate EUR.1 or an invoice declaration (Article 109).

The most commonly used proof of origin is a movement certificate EUR.1 (Articles 110 to 115). The invoice declaration can be made out by any exporter for goods whose total value does not exceed € 6 000, but only by an approved Union exporter if that value is exceeded (Articles 116 and 117).

The period of validity of any proof of origin is 4 months.

Approved exporter

Customs authorities of the European Union can grant "approved exporter" status to Union economic operators (Article 117). Kosovo exporters cannot benefit from this status.